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A HANDBOOK 

OF THE DRAGONFLIES 

OF NORTH AMERICA 



BY JAMES G. NEEDHAM 

ELEMENTARY LESSONS ON INSECTS 

A HANDBOOK OF THE DRAGONFLIES 
OF NORTH AMERICA 

LEAF-MINING INSECTS 

(NEEDHAM, FROST AND TOTHILL) 

NATURAL HISTORY OF THE FARM 

LIFE OF INLAND WATERWAYS 

(NEEDHAM AND LLOYD) 

ELEMENTARY LESSONS IN ZOOLOGY 

GENERAL BIOLOGY 

OUT-DOOR STUDIES 

GUIDE TO THE STUDY OF FRESH 
WATER BIOLOGY 



JLd' 



A HANDBOOK OF f * 

THE DRAGONFLIES OF m. 
NORTH AMERICA 



BY 

James G. Needham 

PROFESSOR OF ENTOMOLOGY AND LIMNOLOGY 
CORNELL UNIVERSITY, ITHACA 

AND 

HoRTENSE Butler Heywood 

ASSISTED BY SPECIALISTS IN CERTAIN GROUPS 




19 2 9 
CHARLES C THOMAS • PUBLISHER 

SPRINGFIELD, ILLINOIS 
BALTIMORE, MARYLAND 



CoPYBiGHT, 1929, BY Charles C Thomas 

MADE IN THE UNITED STATES 



The final preparation of the manuscript of this book was supported 
by a grant from the Heckscher Foundation for the Advancement of 
Research, established by August Heckscher at CorneU University. 



PREFACE 

This is a book for collectors of dragonflies and for students 
of their natural history. It aims to furnish a ready means of 
finding the names of our North American species, and to report 
some observations on their habits. It contains keys, and de- 
scriptions and figures. The keys are guides: the descriptions 
and figures are together diagnostic. Both adult and immature 
stages, so far as known, are included. 

Dragonflies are unique insects. They are very beautiful. 
They are wonderfully made. Their amazing shift from aquatic 
to aerial life at transformation is of absorbing interest. The 
completeness of their mastery of aerial navigation is a perpetual 
marvel. Surely these things are worthy of becoming a part of 
the common intelligence. We have sought to make them better 
known by providing the means for cultivating personal ac- 
quaintance with them. 

This is a book for collectors: and we have tried to tell what 
the collector will want most to know, and there to stop. Data 
that belong to a treatise rather than to a guide we have omitted. 
There is elsewhere available {Tilly ard's ^^ Biology of Dragon- 
flies^^) a treatise that deals with morphology, development and 
world fauna. Bibliography that is elsewhere available (Mutt- 
kowski's "Catalog of the Odonata of North America'') we have 
for the most part omitted to save space. After a brief intro- 
duction the two things included are: (1) enough description 
to serve for the recognition of the species, and (2) the best 
knowledge that is available concerning the habits of the species. 

Hence, conciseness and not completeness of description has 
been our object. Only the more salient diagnostic characters 
(usually color characters and venation) are stated. Our dragon- 
flies all have a prothorax, though it is rarely mentioned in the 
description of this book. The ultimate criteria for species are 
oftenest found in the accessory genitalia, and these we hope we 

V 



VI PREFACE — Continued 

have adequately illustrated. The information that the collector 
needs first — size and distributional range — is made prominent 
in our account of each species. 

Owing to the insistence of other duties the completion of this 
book has been long delayed. Many of the pupils of the senior 
author have contributed materials for it. It is no longer possible 
to name them all, but the help of all is gratefully acknowledged. 
In the final putting together of these materials there are those 
who have aided so well and so generously as to deserve special 
mention. Mrs. H. E. Seemann assisted in the preparation 
of materials and drawings. Miss Elsie Broughton helped 
with the completion of both drawings and manuscript; and most 
of the drawings of genitalia were made by Mr. C. Francis 
Byers. Whole sections of the text have been written by the two 
last named. Dr. P. P. Calvert has very kindly read the galley 
proofs, and has helped with useful alterations and amend- 
ments. He has enabled us to eliminate some errors, but for 
such as may remain he is in no way responsible. 

It is pleasant to be able to say at the end of this long-lagging 
task that we have met with only courtesy and help from all our 
scientific colleagues. During all these years peace and progress 
and good will have characterized the Odonatological Fraternity. 

James G. Needham 
HoRTENSE Butler Heywood 



CONTENTS 
PART I— GENERAL 

PAQB 

Introduction 3 

1. The Life of a Dragonfly 7 

2. The Adult Dragonfly 

Structures 11 

Body plan 11 

Venation 14 

GenitaUa 18 

Habits 21 

Egg Laying 25 

Collecting and Preserving 29 

3. The Immature Stages 31 

Structures 32 

Ontogeny 35 

Collecting and Rearing 40 

4. The Eggs 43 

5. Dragonflies and Fish Culture 45 

Notes introductory to Part II 46 

PART II— SYSTEMATIC 

Suborder ANISOPTERA 51 

Family Aeschnidae 53 

Petalurinae 53 

Tanypteryx 54 Tachopteryx 54 

Gomphinae 58 

Progomphus 62 Erpetogomphus 78 

Gomphoides 63 Gomphus 81 

Aphylla 64 Dromogomphus 117 

CyclophyUa 65 Lanthus 119 

Hagenius 65 Octogomphus 121 

Ophiogomphus 67 

Aeschninae 123 

Gomphaeschna 125 Coryphaeschna 131 

Basiaeschna 126 Nasiaeschna 132 

Boyeria 126 Epiaeschna 133 

Anax 128 Aeschna 134 

Oplonaeschna 130 Gynacantha 149 

Cordulegasterinae 152 

Cordulegaster 152 

VII 



3 2. 5 4 i 



VIII CONTENTS— Continued 

Family Libellulidae p. 161 

Macromiinae 163 

Macromia p. 164 Didymops 169 

Cordulinae 171 

Platycordulia 172 Somatochlora 183 

Neurocordulia 173 Cordulia 197 

Epicordulia 175 Dorocordulia 198 

Tetragoneuria 178 Williamsonia 199 

Helocordiilia 181 

Libellulinae 201 

Nannothemis 204 Sympetrum 231 

Perithemis 205 Leucorrhinia 240 

Celithemis 207 Pachydiplax 244 

Pseudoleon 213 Mesothemis 246 

Erythrodiplax 214 Lepthemis 248 

Orthemis 216 Dythemis 248 

Ladona 217 Brechmorhoga 250 

Libellula 219 Paltothemis 250 

Plathemis 228 Pantala 251 

Cannacria 230 Macrodiplax 252 

Tramea 253 

Suborder ZYGOPTERA 257 

Family Agrionidae 258 

Agrion 259 Hetaerina 262 

Family Coenagrionidae 267 

Lestinae 268 

Archilestes 268 Lestes 270 

Coenagrioninae 280 

Neonura 283 Nehalennia 306 

Hyponeura 284 Chromagrion 309 

Argia 286 Teleallagma 309 

Argiallagma 302 Coenagrion 310 

Hesperagrion 303 Enallagma 311 

Amphiagrion 304 Zoniagrion 342 

Telebasis 305 Ischnura 342 

Anomalagrion 357 

Bibliography 359 

Checking List 367 

Index 369 



Part I 
GENERAL 




THE COMMON GREEN DARNER 

(Anax Junius), 

Standing on the cast-off skin from which it has just emerged. 
(Photo by H. H. Knight) 




PART I. GENERAL 
INTRODUCTION 

RAGONFLIES are rapacious insects of large 
size, brilliant colors, and very striking form. 
They fly by day throughout the summer 
season about the borders of all ponds and 
streams and are well known to everyone; 
especially familiar are those forms that skim 
over the mirroring surface of still water in 
tireless flight. Their immature stages dwell 
in the water, where they are less easily 
observed. In all stages they are among the more important of nature's 
lesser carnivores. 

The beauty of the dragonfly is that of the sleek, ferocious beast; 
its agility signifies prowess. There are other insects hardly more 
beautiful but of gentler habits, that have met with more popular 
interest and favor; but all naturalists speak with enthusiasm of the 
sure and graceful flight of dragonflies, and of their glittering metallic 
adornment. Dr. L. 0. Howard in his Insect Book rates them next to 
butterflies as the most beautiful of insects. 

Of course the poets have sensed both their beauty and their prowess. 
It was their color that appealed to Thomas Moore who spoke of them 
as "beautiful blue damselflies." Rossetti completed a picture of a warm 
sleepy summer noon with the lines : 

Deep in the sun searched depths the dragonfly 
Hangs like a blue thread loosened from the sky. 

Their motions caught Riley's interest: 

And the dragonfly in light 
Burnished armor shining bright, 
Came tilting down the river 
In a wild bewildered flight. 

Longfellow had a similar fancy of an armored knight, for he sings 
in "Fleur-deLis": 



The burnished dragonfly is thine attendant. 
And tilts against the field, 
And down the listed sunbeam rides resplendent 
In steel blue mail and shield. 



4 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

Their picturesque fitness in natural scenery has been appreciated by 
certain Japanese poets, as witness these lines gathered and translated 
by the late Laf cadio Hearn : 

Lonesomely clings the dragonfly 
To the underside of the leaf — 
Ah, the autumn rains. 



O the thin shadow of the dragonfly's wings 
In the light of sunset. 

Like a fleeting of crimson gossamer threads, 
The flashing of the dragonflies. 

Amy Lowell celebrates their swiftness with the lines : 

Across the newly plastered wall 
The darting of red dragonflies 
Is like the shooting 
Of blood-tipped arrows.* 

There are few more simple or satisfying word pictures than are con- 
tained in this couplet by Paul Heyse : 

Ich sitz am Bach, und sehe die Libellen 
Sich fliehen und jagen in der Sommerluft. 

The poets of many nations have found inspiration in the life history 
of the dragonfly, which, grovelling for months in the mud and silt of 
some stagnant stream, finally, with mighty effort, casts off the 
nymphal skin to live thereafter as a lord of the upper air, ever on the 
wing in the golden sunlight. 

To the dragonfly are attributed all sorts of malevolent powers. 
Some of the names in common use testify to this: as "devil's darning 
needles" they sew up the ears of the truant school boy; as "snake- 
feeders" and "snake-doctors" they minister to dreaded serpents; 
while the belief in their possession of a poisonous sting is so widespread 
that many ignorant persons avoid them as they would wasps or bees. 

But there are other pleasanter popular names, such as "mosquito 
hawks," suggesting a service that they render us, and "damselflies" 
implying an attractive appearance and personality. 

We find an interesting reflection of the popular attitude toward 
the dragonflies, and a recognition of their "murderous instincts" in 
the specific names which the older entomologists bestowed upon them. 
There is a whole series of names connecting the dragonfly with snakes, 

* In Time of War, p. 17. 



INTRODUCTION 5 

somewhat as does the popular nomenclature : ela'ps, boa and viperinus, 
etc. (signifying serpent). One of our common skimmers is Libellula 
luctuosa, the mournful one; another is L. funerea, of evil omen, and 
another is L. saturata, gorged (let us hope with mosquitoes). One 
Sympetrum is S. ruhicundulum, blood red; one is S. imhuta, imbued 
with blood; one dainty little tropical ruby-spot has an apellation 
longer than its whole dehcate self, of Hetaerina cruentata, dyed with 
blood ; while another bears a name that in all ages and countries has 
been both feared and hated, H. carnifex, a hangman or executioner. 
But there are others with happier names: Libellula pulchella, the little 
beauty, and L. auripennis, with wings of gold. 

Our knowledge of North American dragonflies has been long ac- 
cumulating. Many species were described by the early European 
systematists, Linnaeus, Fabricius, Rambur, Burmeister, McLachlan 
and others. Earliest in this country was the "Father of American 
Entomology" Thomas Say, who described many species. Then came 
Baron Edmond de Selys Longschamps, who spent nearly all the spare 
moments of the long and busy life of a Belgian senator studying the 
dragonflies of the world. He laid the basis of our present system. 
Co-laborer with de Selys was Dr. Hermann Hagen of Konigsberg, 
Prussia. He wrote the first general review of American dragonflies. 
It was included in his Synopsis of the Neuroptera of North America 
published by the Smithsonian Institution of Washington in 1861. 
This Synopsis came into the hands of Benjamin D. Walsh, an English- 
man then residing at Rock Island, Illinois, inciting him to study and 
make known during the next two years a goodly number of local 
species. 

When Dr. Hagen came to Harvard University he began to assemble 
in the Museum of Comparative Zoology what he called a "biological 
collection." This included immature stages, as well as adult dragon- 
flies, and provided materials for studies in ecology and development. 
It meant that the study of dragonflies should be something more than 
merely learning the names of species. This gave a great impetus to 
the study of life histories in America. 

After the publication of Dr. Hagen's Synopsis no other general 
work appeared until 1893. Then came P. P. Calvert's Catalogue of the 
Odonata of the Vicinity of Philadelphia, with an Introduction to the 
Study of this Group of Insects. To this excellent Introduction all 
students of American Odonata in the present generation acknowledge 
their great indebtedness. 

That was followed by other local lists among which were five that 



6 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

were far more than mere catalogs of species with records of distribution : 
that of KelHcott for Ohio, that of WiUiamson for Indiana, that of 
Kennedy for the Pacific States, that of Garman for Connecticut, 
that of Mrs. Seemann for Southern California, and that of Howe 
for New England. There have been excellent monographs, also, of 
lesser groups, among which three are especially noteworthy: Carman's 
review of the Zygoptera of Illinois, and Walker's monographs of the 
two great northern genera Aeschna and Somatochlora. For mono- 
graphic treatment of genera the two last named are models. Our 
bibUography will give testimony to the contributions of other recent 
workers. 

There is much pioneer work still remaining to be done on the dragon- 
flies of North America. Only one sex is known for a good many species, 
and there are doubtless new species yet to be described. Partial life 
histories have been traced for only about half the species, and full life 
histories for fewer than can be counted on the fingers of one hand. 
There is boundless opportunity for further study of habits and ecology 
and distribution. There is a good service to be rendered to education 
by developing methods for using dragonflies, and especially dragonfly 
nymphs, as nature study material. 



1. THE LIFE OF A DRAGONFLY 

The big green darner, Anax Junius (see frontispiece), is one of our 
commonest and most widely distributed dragonflies. It is one of the 
earliest to appear in the spring and one of the last to disappear before 
the oncoming of the rigors of winter. It sweeps around the lake or 
pond of its nativity in great circles high above the water, spending 
in good weather practically all its daylight hours in tireless flight. 
Often it wanders far, over some country road or upland meadow, when 
the air of a summer afternoon is filled with flying insects. Its strongly 
braced and well balanced body, equipped with powerful muscles for 
operating its great wings is a perfect aeronautic machine, capable of 
swift, sustained and certain flight. 

The warmer the day, the more untiring is its activity. When rain 
comes, it takes to shelter, usually suspending itself by its feet from 
the underside of a twig or leaf. After a storm it may sometimes be 
found clinging to a tree or house, buffeted by the elements, drenched 
and bedraggled, and for the time being, quite helpless. 

It gets out early in the morning. It flies late at night and may be 
seen industriously gathering the early mosquito long after most other 
day-loving insects have gone to rest. 

It is a handsomely colored insect. Its robust olive-green body has 
neat trimmings of blue and brown. Its gauzy wings gleam and scin- 
tillate in the sunlight. When it does stop to rest, it perches lightly on 
the top of a bush or twig on its six long, spiny, reddish legs, in an 
attitude of great alertness. It is easy to find, but not easy to capture, 
either perching or flying. The collector always knows when his stroke 
has been successful by the loud protesting rustle of its wings within 
the net. 

The adult life of a dragonfly is short, perhaps a few weeks in dura- 
tion. Growth having been completed it is mainly concerned with 
reproduction. Mating begins while the insects are on the wing. It is 
preceded by a wild nuptial flight, and is followed by the laying of eggs. 
The female Anax possesses an ovipositor. This instrument is adapted 
for cutting holes in the stems of aquatic plants. During the height of 
the season the eggs are usually laid in the stems of growing plants. 
Early in the spring they are deposited in masses of floating trash and 
in pieces of dead cat-tail leaves. Sometimes the male accompanies 
the female when she flies to the pond to deposit her eggs; sometimes 



8 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

she is unaccompanied. Sometimes she inserts merely the tip of her 
abdomen beneath the surface of the water and sometimes she backs 
down the stalk which she has chosen, until she is completely sub- 
merged. 

The eggs are about one twenty-fifth of an inch in length. A close 
examination of the stems of aquatic plants at the margin of a pond 
where Anax is abundant will often discover one that shows a double 
row of punctures, as even and regular as the stitching of a sewing 
machine. Within are the tiny, yellowish eggs, tucked carefully into 
the plant tissues. 

This represents the only care which the mother gives her young. 
A very large number of eggs is laid by each female, so that a great 
many may be destroyed without reducing the standing of the species. 

The development of the egg and the hatching of the nymph require 
about three weeks. When the nymph emerges from the egg it is a 
tiny, long-legged, spider-like object, scarcely a tenth of an inch in 
length. It moults many times before reaching maturity. After the 
third or fourth moult the wing covers appear and increase in size with 
each successive moult. The nymph grows rapidly, becoming ever more 
and more powerful and ferocious. It does not hesitate to attack 
creatures nearly as large as itself, and is a dangerous enemy indeed 
to the other little inhabitants of the water. 

The body at first is pale green marked in a pattern of dark brown 
in longitudinal streaks. This is a scheme of protective coloration well 
adapted to conceal it among the stems of aquatic plants which form 
its chosen lurking place. The depth of coloring varies with environ- 
ment and age. Directly after a moult the coloring is much paler; 
at this time, too, the skin is soft and tender, and the njonph is more 
likely to fall a victim, then, to some one of his relentless enemies. The 
body of the nymph is smooth and slender; the legs, as befit the climb- 
ing habit, are long and fitted with strong tarsal claws. 

The lower lip or labium, by means of which the nymph secures its 
food, quickly, quietly, and cleverly, is a wonderfully fine grasping 
mechanism. It may be extended with wonderful quickness to a length 
that is nearly a fourth of that of the entire body. At the tip it bears 
two lobes that are armed with powerful hooks. When a victim is 
seized, the lobes shut down upon the body of the captive, and the 
labium is closed, thus bringing the prey into a position where it is 
easily torn by the powerful jaws. If the insect thus captured be a large 
one, the grip of the labium is usually shifted as much as is necessary 
to enable the nymph to begin his meal at the tail end; slender, soft 



LIFE OF A DRAGONFLY 9 

bodied creatures, such as damselfly or mayfly nymphs are stuffed in 
just as they happen to be seized — head first, tail first, or even some- 
times doubled in the middle. One may often see a damselfly nymph, 
the major portion of whose body has already been benevolently 
assimilated by an Anax, while his head and legs, protruding from the 
jaws of his captor, wave a sad farewell to the watery world of which 
he has so recently been a free inhabitant. 

The appetite of an Anax nymph is well nigh insatiable. It is not 
dainty in its choice of food; it requires only that the prey be living 
and moving, and apparently any living thing that it is capable of 
handling will be devoured. If a number of dragonfly nymphs of 
various sizes and species be placed in water in a jar or bottle, the 
smaller ones will gradually disappear, until but one Anax is left. 

The Anax nymph is an extremely clever hunter. Its sly, stealthy 
ways are much like those of a cat. It clings to the stems of aquatic 
plants, preferably hanging head downward, and conceals itself as 
much as possible. If some hapless damselfly or mayfly nymph comes 
near Anax regards it with that air of unconcern with which a cat 
watches a mouse hole. It does not stir, but watches immovably until 
the prey comes within reach, then a swift stroke of the labium like 
the stroke of the cat's paw captures it. Even the alert water boatman 
may not long escape this sly hunter. 

The duration of the nymphal life of Anax has been determined 
by Dr. Calvert as eleven months. During that time Anax lives con- 
tentedly in the pond, eating voraciously, when the food supply is 
abundant, and fasting expectantly when it is scanty. When the winter 
and spring have passed and the water is warm under the growing 
influence of the sun, the time comes at last when the span of the nym- 
phal life is ended and the marvelous change is at hand, which com- 
pletely alters every circumstance of the dragonfly's life. From an 
inhabitant of the water it becomes a denizen of the air; from a quiescent 
creature, clinging for hours quietly to the stem of a water plant, it 
becomes an aerial sprite, winging its way untiringly through space; 
from a lover of water and coolness, it becomes a veritable embodiment 
of light and sunshine. In one respect only, it remains unchanged; 
its voracity is unaltered, and, as in the water it was the scourge of all 
living things smaller than itself, so in the air it is no less the dread and 
terror of the flies and mosquitoes. 

The spectacle of the transformation of a dragonfly nymph is wonder- 
ful, but though common enough, it is seldom seen. This is because 
most species transform at night or very early in the morning; and for 



10 DRAGON FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

this somewhat disobhging habit there is a most excellent reason. Fleet 
and strong as the dragonfly is, just at the moment of emergence from 
the nymphal skin it is at the mercy of its enemies. Its body, just 
released, has not yet become hardened and toughened. Its wings, 
which have been closely folded in the wing cases of the nymph, are 
tender and easily torn; they are moreover too damp and crumpled 
to sustain the body of the dragonfly in flight. Consequently it is 
well that transformation occurs at that period of the day when there 
is least chance of discovery by enemies. 

For some days before the time of transformation the nymph takes 
no food, but remains quietly cHnging to its support, until some 
mysterious impulse causes it to leave the water and crawl up on a 
reed or the strong stem of some other plant. It grasps the reed firmly 
with its sharp tarsal claws; for a fall after the transformation had 
begun might mean death. When it has established itself firmly on the 
reed, it remains for some time motionless; after a time slight move- 
ments of the head and wings are noticed and then a split appears in 
the nymphal skin just behind the head. The back of the emerging 
adult is first drawn through the opening, then the head, the legs and 
wings and lastly the long abdomen. Even when it is thus quite free 
from the old skin the insect is extremely soft and helpless, so it remains 
for a long time cUnging to the cast skin, while its wings and body 
become drier and stiffer. After an hour or so the wings are quite dry 
and completely expanded and the dragonfly flies away. 

It is now a full grown insect and has completed the interesting cycle 
of its life, but it still has the pale coloring that characterizes the newly 
emerged insect. Not until somewhat later in adult life does the body 
assume its maturer tints. 

It is now an adult insect and has completed the cycle of its life, but 
it is still teneral, that is, it still has the pale coloring that characterizes 
the newly emerged insect. Not until somewhat later in adult life does 
the body assume its maturer tints, and the chitinous armor harden to 
its full strength. It must fly and forage and feed before its pigmenta- 
tion fully develops. Then if it escapes casualties and enemies and 
lives out the full measure of its days the surface of its armor will grow 
pruinose, developing a whitish bloom : it will become hoary with age. 



2. THE ADULT DRAGONFLY 

OR the beginner there is no difficulty about recognizing the 
two principal groups of dragonflies that make up the insect 
order Odonata. These are 

Dragonflies proper: Suborder Anisoptera 
Damselflies: Suborder Zygoptera 
These are easily distinguished. The Anisoptera are stout bodied and 
have the hind wings broader at the base than the fore wings. The 
Zygoptera are slender and have fore and hind wings similar in form. 
When at rest the dragonflies hold their wings extended horizontally; 
the damselflies hold them laid together above the back, or at least 
(in Lestes) lifted obliquely upward. In their immature stages, also, 
the two groups are equally easy to distinguish as will be seen in the 
next chapter. We will first discuss some of the characters they all 
have in common, and then proceed to the consideration of their 
differences. 

Structukes 
Body Plan. — The body of a dragonfly is built upon the common 
insect plan, and its external, armor-like skeleton is composed of the 
same plates as in other insects. These parts are named in the accom- 
panying diagrams. The most peculiar features of its organization are 

(1) The head, largely overspread by the enormous compound eyes, and 
freely movable upon a neck-like projection of the thorax as on a pivot. 

(2) The large syn-thorax (fused meso- and metathorax), with side 
plates greatly elongated, slanted forward below and backward above. 

(3) The wings, of aeroplane aspect, strongly and peculiarly veined and 
highly efficient. (4) The legs, set well forward and adapted for perch- 
ing, and not for walking. And (5) The long abdomen, with accessory 
genitalia in the male developed on the under side of its basal segments. 

The head has for its framework a strong chitinous capsule, which 
is hollowed in the rear for the insertion of the neck, bulged at the front 
for the bench-like protuberance of the face, and expanded at the sides 
where covered by the huge eyes. It bears three ocelli and a pair of 
slender bristle-like antennae in front and the usual mouth parts 
beneath. Of these the upper and lower lips (lahrum and labium 
respectively) are exposed to view, and only these will be further noticed 
in the descriptions of this book. The two pairs of included jaws 
{mandibles and maxillae) which show only their toothed tips between 

11 



12 DRAGON FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

the lips (Fig. 1) are of a strictly flesh-eating type. Above the upper 
lip (lahrum) the clypeus (in two pieces ante- and post clypeus) covers 
the flat central portion of the face. The front rises above it in a more 
or less shelf -like or angulate prominence. The vertex, bearing the 
ocelli, and elevated, often into a high prominence at the front, extends 
backward between the compound eyes ; and at the rear the angulate 
hind margin of the head is formed by the occiput. 

The prothorax is small, more or less deeply divided by transverse 
furrows on the dorsal side into a succession of lobes, the hindmost of 
which is often hair-fringed or sculptured. The synthorax is large and 
quite remarkable for the great development of its side plates. By 
their expansion the tergum and wings are pushed far upward and 




Fig. 1. Face view of the head of the club-tail Gomphus graslinellus. occ, 
occiput; V, vertex;/, frons; c, postclypeus; c', anteclypeus; I, labrum. 

backward, and the sternum and legs, far downward and forward; the 
episterna meet on the middle line at the front above ; and the epimera 
meet at the back below. By this arrangement the very large muscles 
of flight are accommodated within. Their pull is vertical, and to 
withstand it, strong braces are developed along the edges of these 
chitinous plates: at the lateral sutures infolded edges form internal 
ridges (not externally visible) ; and at the front the episterna meet on 
the median line in a strong and conspicuous ridge that is called the 
middorsal thoracic carina. It ends below in a transverse ridge called 
the collar, and above in a forking ridge, that runs out around the wing 
roots, called the crest (see fig. 27). These are landmarks much used 
in descriptions. 

The backward slant of the side pieces of the synthorax is one of the 
striking peculiarities of the structure of dragonflies. This slant has 
been measured in a series of forms (Needham and Anthony, '03) and 



THE ADULT DRAGONFLY 



13 



found to increase progressively throughout the order, as shown by 
the following figures: 



Families 


Angle 0/ humeral suture* 


Angle of tilt of wing 
bases** 




Min. 


Max. 


Ave. 


Min. 


Max. 


Ave. 


Aeschnidae 
Libellulidae 
Agrionidae 
Caenagrionidae 


21 
29 
43 
59 


50 

52 

64 
72 


38 
40 
56 
64 


22 
18 
35 
38 


35 
38 
61 
62 


26 
26 
39 
51 



* This is the angle that the humeral suture (the foremost of the three 
lateral sutures), viewed from the side, makes with the perpendicular. 

** This is the angle that a line drawn through the wing bases makes with 
the axis of the body. 



occiput ' J 


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r-r 


w 


antenna —4j7o»p^ 


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frons' ■CJ 'J* 1 

clyp9ufl.C^f>k JJ. 


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Fig. 2. Side view of the club tail Gomphus cavillaris; sp, sp, spiracles of 
thorax; cox 1, 2 and 3, basal segments of the three pairs of legs; eps and epm, 
epistemum and epimeron of mesothorax; eps' and epm', same of metatho- 
rax; g pi, genital plate; x, mesinfraepisternum. 

The primitive position of thoracic segments was doubtless at right 
angles to the axis of the body, and, indeed, this condition is still found 
in the early developmental stages of dragonflies. With the develop- 
ment of large wings and greatly increased wing muscles, these segments 
are slanted backwards in such a way as to throw the wings far back 
(in the Agrioninae, indeed, the front pair of wings is placed directly 
above the hind legs), while the legs are somewhat in front of their 
normal position. When we consider the resting habits of dragonflies, 
their momentary pauses and sudden flights, we appreciate the ad- 
vantage of this adaptation. The legs are thrown forward where they 
readily reach and grasp the vertical stem and the wings are shifted 
backward, and tilted, so that their cutting edges are directed obHquely 
upward, in which position a simple sculling action lifts the body 
instantly from its support. The dragonfly can thus launch itself all 
in an instant from a position of rest. 



14 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

The legs are composed, as in other insects, of two short basal joints 
(coxa and trochanter), that make the upward turn from beneath the 
body; two long joints (femur and tibia), that meet at the knees; and 
three short joints and a pair of claws that together form the foot 
(tarsus). In dragonfly legs there is great variation in size, length and 
development of the spines. Generally speaking, each femur and each 
tibia has a 'double row of spines, one on the anterior and one on the 
posterior aspect, beneath. The spines increase in size and number from 
the front to the hind legs, and are inclined toward the tarsi. These 
spines, which at first glance might appear to be intended as weapons, 
seem to have developed for employment of the legs as a food trap. 
It is perfectly easy to understand how the "leg basket" operates, but 
extremely difficult actually to observe the process, because of the 
lightning-like swiftness of the dragonfly's movements. Kellogg ('05) 
says of it: "When the prey is come up with, however, it is caught, not 
by the mouth but by the 'leg basket.' The thorax is so modified and 
the insertion of the legs is such, that all the legs are brought close 
together and far forward so that they can be clasped together like six 
slender, spiny, grasping arms just below the head. Although the 
catching and eating is all done in the air and very quickly, observers 
have been able to see that the prey is caught in this 'leg basket' and 
then held in the fore legs while being bitten and devoured." 

The spines on the anterior sides of the fore tibia show an interesting 
modification which is doubtless for holding the food. Instead of a 
regular series of long spines such as are found upon the tibiae of the 
second and third pair of legs, the inferior third of the first tibia bears a 
series of small spines very numerous and closely set, so as to form a sort 
of comb. This comb no doubt enables the dragonfly to hold very 
firmly the small insects which compose his bill-of-fare. 

Venation. — The wings are always well developed. Certain wing 
structures demand particular attention. 

Nothing will be more useful to one who is trying to learn the dragon- 
flies than a little knowledge of the venation. Vein characters are very 
definite. Theyare plain as the printed page. Nearlyall the genera may 
be recognized from the venation of their wings alone. If at the first 
glance their rich network appears complicated, half an hour's study 
of the following diagrams and comparison of them with real wings 
should enable one to master details sufficient for all purposes of this 
book. 

The principal veins are the same as in other insects. In our figures 
they bear the following names and designations: 



THE ADULT DRAGONFLY 



15 



C. Costa 
Sc. Subcosta 
R. Radius 



M. Media 
Cu. Cubitus 
A. Anal vein 



The costa (C) is marginal, and coincides with the front border of 
the wing. It is notched in the middle at the nodus (n). 

The subcosta (Sc) ends at the nodus, and is a concave vein. 

The Radius (R) is a strong vein that parallels the two preceding, 
and appears simple; but at its base it is fused with the media as far 
as the arculus (ar), and at the nodus it gives off a strong branch to 
rearward called the radial sector (Rs).* This branch descends by way 




K M. 



Fig. 3. Wings of Cordulegaster sayi. 

of subnodus (sn) and oblique vein (o) to its definitive position behind 
the first two branches of the median vein, and at the point where it 
bends outward it is connected proximally by a brace, called the bridge 
(6r), that appears like its true base, and that joins it again to the 
median vein. 

The media (M) is a four-branched vein. At its base it is fused with 
the Radius as just stated. The fusion is not quite complete. It has 
been compared to the union of the barrels of a double barreled gun. 
At the arculus (ar) the media descends to meet a crossvein, and then 
bends sharply outward again toward the wing margin. It gives off to 
rearward a strong branch (M4) at its departure from the arculus, and 
another (M3) just beyond, and these two branches run parallel to the 
wing margin. At the subnodus (sn) it forks, one branch (M2) running 

• Called median sector (Ms) by Tillyard: later, labelled 1R3. 



16 



DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



parallel to the radial sector, and the other (MO parallel to the main 
radial stem (Ri). 

The cubitus (Cu) is a two-branched vein. Like the median vein, 
it is strongly zig-zagged. Its base is free and straight to the arculus 
or beyond. Then it bends sharply to rearward, forming the inner 
(proximal) side of the triangle (t). At the hind angle of the triangle 
it forks, and its branches arch outward running more or less parallel 
to reach the hind margin. 

The anal vein (A) is here treated as a single vein though its branches 
are perhaps the equivalent of the separate anal veins of other orders 
of insects. It is convenient to designate them as Ai, A2, A3, etc., from 
front to rear. The course of these branches varies greatly in the 
different groups, and sometimes in fore and hind wings. 

There are three principal transverse joinings of veins together in 
the dragonfly wing: 




Fig. 4. Diagram illustrating principal veins and their connections. 

(1) The outermost is the stigma (st). Two veins (C and R) are here 
united by a heavy quadrangular deposit of chitin, that adds strength 
and weight at the point of greatest impact of the wing against the air. 

(2) The middle conjunction is at the nodus, where the subcosta 
ends in a transverse ridge and a furrow. The ridge adds strength to 
basal part of the wing, and the furrow gives pliancy to the wingtip, 
improving its sculling action. The nodus joins two veins (C and Sc) 
strongly to Ri at the front; and subnodus (sn), oblique vein (0) and 
bridge (br) together join three principal branches (Mi, M2, and Rs) 
more flexibly to it at the rear. 

(3) The basal cross connection is the most extensive one. It is 
effected by the bending to rearward of median and cubital veins at 
arculus and triangle, as already noted, and adjustment of crossveins 
to meet and support the bends. The triangle is composed of a portion 
of the cubital vein (the inner side) and two crossveins approximated 
at their front ends. Then at the hind angle of the triangle the cubitus 
is strongly joined to the anal vein. Thus strong basal braces are formed 
involving all the principal veins. 



THE ADULT DRAGONFLY 



17 



This may seem a bit puzzling at first glance. It long was so to 
entomologists. The puzzle was solved by studying vein origin. Wing 
veins develop about the air tubes or tracheae that traverse the wing 
buds of the dragonfly nymph. Chitin is deposited about these tracheae 
forming the stiff, rod-like but hollow supporting veins, while the areas 
between expand and become thin membrane. Crossveins develop 
late ; so that if one examine with a microscope the wing pad of a well 




Fig. 5. Tracheation of nymphal wing of Gomphus. 

grown (but not full grown) dragonfly nymph he may see the course 
of the antecedent tracheae very clearly. The accompanying sketch 
shows clearly the tracheae of the six principal veins. It shows also how 
the three cross connections at stigma, nodus and triangle are formed. 
The stigma is merely a thickening — an area of heavy chitin deposition. 
The subnodus (sn), oblique vein (o) and bridge (6r) are all formed 
about the base of the radial sector. Arculus {ar) and triangle (0 are 
initiated by basal bends in media and cubitus respectively. These 
bends are very gentle at first and become sharply angulated only in 
the adult wing.* 






Fig. 6. Region of arculus and triangle in Zygopterous wings. 

Such is the plan of the venation of the dragonflies (suborder Anisop- 
tera): that of the damselflies (suborder Zygoptera) differs only in 
small particulars. The most marked difference is in the cubital vein, 
which does not bend sharply backward to form a triangle but runs 
directly outward to its place of forking. There its posterior branch 
(CU2) is offset to the rear and angulated at its junction with the tip 
of the anal vein. There is no "triangle" in the damselfly wing. Instead 

* This matter was discussed and illustrated more adequately by the senior 
author in Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 26: 703-764, 1903. 



18 



DRAGON FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



there is a quadrangle (g) ; and it is the equivalent of both triangle (t) 
and supertriangle (s) of the dragonfly wing, as a comparison of the 
accompanying figures will show clearly. There is also a subquadrangle ; 
and these same figures will show that it is the equivalent of both 
subtriangle (f) of the dragonflies and the space before that cell extend- 
ing base ward to the anal crossing (Ac). 

Such are the principal features of dragonfly wing venation. The 
lesser details will be taken up in the discussion of the groups to which 
they pertain. 

Genitalia. — The abdomen of a dragonfly is composed of ten distinct 
segments and a rudiment of an eleventh that is combined with the 
terminal appendages. The first and tenth segments are shorter than 

the others. The second and third are swol- 
len to form a more or less spindle-shaped 
enlargement of the base of the abdomen. In 
the male dragonfly they bear on the ventral 
side the unique copulatory organs that are a 
distinguishing characteristic of this order. 

Since the ultimate criteria of species are 
often to be found in the form of the acces- 
sory genital apparatus, it is important to 
know these parts. They differ so much in 
the two groups that the suborders are better 
considered separately; but there are these 
things in common: 

(1) The males have appendages at the 
Fig. 7. Diagram of copu- end of the abdomen that are forceps-like in 
l&tory position, Aeschna con- action, and that are used for seizing and 
stricta.iAiter Calvert). holding the female. He grasps her by the top 

of the head (Anisoptera) or pro- thorax (Zygoptera) and leads her 
about in flight. The two thus speed about together in tandem, or settle 
together, still in tandem on a stem. 

(2) The males have, also, in a cleft on the ventral side of the swollen 
second abdominal segment, paired hamules for grasping, and a penis 
for sperm transference. Previous to copulation the sperm must be 
transferred from the spermaries, whose ducts open on the ventral side 
of the ninth segment to a cavity in the tip of the penis. This is done 
by bending the abdomen downward and forward, bringing the two 
orifices into apposition. 

(3) The female is not so different from females of other orders. 
She has a genital opening at the apex of the eighth abdominal segment 




THE ADULT DRAGONFLY 



19 



on the ventral side. In copulation she is swung beneath the suspended 
body of the male into an inverted position, the reverse of his own, his 
caudal appendages still holding her in front. Her genital segments 
are grasped and held by the hamules of the male during the transfer 
of the sperm. 

The form of hamules and caudal appendages in the male, and of 
the plate that covers the genital opening of the female is shown in 
many figures on succeeding pages of the book. 

In the Anisoptera the caudal appendages of the male are three; 
a pair of decurved superiors (cerci), and a single median upcurved 





c D 

Fig. 8. Diagrams illustrating principal types of male genitalia. A and 
B, end of abdomen; A in Zygoptera, B in Anisoptera; s, superior, i, in- 
ferior appendages. 

C and D, genitalia of second segment; C in Libellulidae, D in Gom- 
phinae; al, anterior lamina; h, ah and ph, hamules (anterior and posterior); 
gl, genital lobe; v, vesicle. 



inferior appendage. Between these the top of the head of the female 
is grasped preparatory to a mating flight. On the second abdominal 
segment the genital cleft is guarded in front by an anterior lamina, 
and contains one or two pairs of hamules. Folded compactly between 
the hamules is a triple-jointed penis that belongs to the third segment, 
and is attached to a rather conspicuous vesicle at the front end of the 
sternum of that segment. 

In the Zygoptera the caudal appendages of the male are two pairs: 
a pair of superiors (cerci) as before, and a pair of upcurving inferiors, 
developed lower down and not homologous with the single inferior of 
the other suborder. That appendage is represented in this suborder 
by a low rudimentary protuberance between the bases of the superiors. 
The genitalia of the basal segments in the male differ chiefly in that 
the penis belongs to the sternum of the second abdominal segment, 



20 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

and is not an appendage of the vesicle of the third segment : it stands 
in the place of the penis sheath of the Anisoptera. 

Such of these parts as are used in diagnosis of species in this book 
are illustrated in figure 8. 

In all Zygoptera and in many Anisoptera there is an ovipositor 
developed at the genital opening of the female; and when this is 
developed, the anterior lamina of the male is cleft to accommodate 
it in copulation. Females that possess an ovipositor make punctures 
with it for the reception of their eggs, either in green stems, or in logs 
or bottom mud. 

At the front of the mesothorax in the females of the bluets and other 
small damselflies there is a pair of minute plates that are much used 
in the determination of species. These rise beside the mesothoracic 
spiracle or stigma and are called mesostigmal plates. They are over- 
lapped more or less by the hind lobe of the prothorax and are so 
minute that a lens is required for their examination. On the front of 
the synthorax is a conspicuous Y-shaped ridge. The stem of the Y is 
the carina; the fork above, beside the wing roots, is the crest; the trans- 
verse ridge at the front next the prothorax is the collar; and on either 
side at the junction of the carina with the collar lie the mesostigmal 
plates. They are figured for many of the species of the larger genera 
of Coenagrioninae in the following pages. 




HABITSt 

> ORE than any other creatures, dragon- 
flies are dependent on their wings for 
meeting the ends of existence. They 
not only hunt on the wing, but many of 
them also eat and mate on the wing, and 
some of them lay their eggs while flying. 
The larger and stronger species are among 
the fleetest of living creatures. Most of 
their time is spent in pursuit of food or 
of mates. 
In powers of flight they differ, however, enormously. This 
is most easily seen on a hot summer day at the side of a pond 
where many kinds of dragonflies and damselflies are flying together. 
They fly at diff'erent levels, somewhat as indicated in the diagram; the 
big darners highest, the little bluets lowest, the others each habitually 
and generally at a rather constant level in between. Many of the 
damselflies move along so close to the surface that it is hard to take 
them in a net without dipping the water. That it is also harder for big 
dragonflies and for birds to take them at the lower levels is doubtless 
the explanation of the habit. Powers of flight in this order of insects 
seem to vary rather directly with size and strength of wing. 

Their "hawking" operations could not escape the notice of that 
good naturalist, Henry D. Thoreau, and there are frequent brief 
entries like this one in his Notebook: 

Large devil's needles are buzzing back and forth. They skim along the edge 
of the blue flags, apparently quite around this cove and further, like hen harriers 
beating the bush for game.* 

The game they seek is other flying insects. The most direct service 
rendered to man by the dragonfly is doubtless in the destruction of 
many annoying little flies and mosquitoes, some of which, on account 

t Other observations will be found under the account of the genera and species 
in Part II, especially under the following: on manner of flight, species numbers 
2, 12, 16, 34, 44, 50, 53, 55, 66, 78. 93, 95, 100, 116, 121, 136. 137, 148, 154, 159, 
160, 166, 171, 172, 173, 186, 187, 198, 199, 207, 230, 231. 234, 236, 242, 251; on 
oviposition, species numbers 2, 18, 34, 36, 55, 93. 98, 104, 116, 127, 171, 201, 211, 
217, 225, 230, 242, 251, 254, 258, 261, 358; on feeding, species numbers 7, 116, 
277; on transformation, species numbers 2, 48, 173, 190, 220, 358. 

* Collected Writings: entry for June 10, 1857 



21 



22 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

of the role which they play in the transmission of disease, are not only 
annoying but even positively dangerous. Dr. Robert H. Lamborn 
thought their destruction of mosquitoes of such value that he offered 
prizes for the best essays on the artificial rearing of dragonflies as a 
means of exterminating the mosquito. The testimony of the prize 
essays, published in 1890 shows the suggestion to be impractical, 
although there is no doubt that dragonflies do destroy myriads of 
the pest. Kellogg ('05)t testifies that 

in Samoa and in Hawaii, where the dragonflies are conspicuous by their abun- 
dance and variety, they do much to keep in check the quickly breeding mosqui- 
toes. 



V 



The Darners- 






Th« raggedy 

Sklmnar' 



The ten spot ■ 



..}&'.. 



The amber wing v-- 

The Arglas — ____ 2" 
The little Bluet8-^^£^ 



fi 



f 



Fig. 9. Diagram illustrating flight levels over a pond. 

Apparently, dragonflies are in places used for food of man, for 
Carveth Wells says (Six Years in the Malay Jungle, p. 17) : 

Once I saw a little Malay boy running about with a long stick, chasing a 
big dragonfly! I thought he was crazy; but he managed to touch the fly with the 
end of the stick and catch it. The stick was covered with sticky stuff like fly 
paper. He pulled the wings off the big fly and popped it into a box with a lot 
more; that night he went home and fried them in oil, and served them for his 
dinner smothered with onions and shrimps. 

The most direct and obvious injury wrought by dragonflies is that 
of killing honey bees. In the southeastern United States they cause 
very serious losses. They have made queen rearing impractical, 
because unprofitable, in Florida. The damage is due to one or two 

I Numbers thus placed in parenthesis indicate works that are listed chrono- 
logically under authors' names in the Bibliography beginning on page 366. 



HABITS 23 

large species that become very abundant. Sometime the air of the 
bee yard is filled with them, darting about capturing worker bees as 
they slowly wing their way, heavily laden with nectar, back to the 
hive. They crunch and dismember the bees body as they fly, dropping 
detached legs and wings until the ground is sprinkled with bee frag- 
ments. Sometimes, when they fly low in the late afternoon, the 
exasperated bee man lashes them to the earth with willow boughs.* 
The chief enemies of adult dragonflies are birds and frogs. Both 
destroy many at the time of transformation. The destruction of teneral 
imagoes that may occur at this time is well shown by the observations 
of Mary Lyon ('15, p. 57) at Ithaca: 

.... The unusual number of birds along the banks attracted my attention as 
I came into the meadow. When I walked over to look I saw a great many 
Gomphine exuviae, and closer examination showed many glistening wings among 
them. Along the banks of the stream and pond as far as six feet away from the 
water the ground was strewn with them. In a typical spot I counted twenty- 
seven cast skins in a space only two feet square. Not a Gomphus was seen on 
the wing nor were any observed for several days afterward. The sandpipers, 
bronzed grackles, red-winged blackbirds, sparrows and probably other birds 
had enjoyed a sumptuous feast as this was evidently the one morning of the 
season which hundreds of Gomphines had chosen for their emergence. 

This is the work of the early bird. Frogs do not remove the wings, 
but fold them up, wings, legs and body together, and swallow them 
whole. V. R. Haber, in a study of the food of the Carolina tree-frog 
(Hyla cinerea) found that the blue pirate (Pachydiplax longipennis) 
had been eaten by six out of one hundred frogs examined, and that 
one frog had eaten two. J Ovipositing females must often risk capture 
by frogs, fishes and watersnakes, when they hover over the water 
or descend into it for the purpose of laying their eggs. 

The birds that most habitually eat Odonata and that capture them 
in flight are the swifts and swallows. They eat mainly the smaller 
damselflies. They sweep the tops of the marshes and the edges of the 
ponds, and gather them in their wide gapes along with mayflies and 
midges. The bird that is most often seen deliberately selecting in- 
dividual dragonflies for capture is the kingbird. Perched upon a stake 
by the waterside, he watches the dragonflies disporting themselves 
in chase or courtship, and pounces down upon one when he sees a 

* Mr. H. D. Grinslade of Wewahitchka, Fla., has furnished specimens 
enabling us to certainly identify the "bee-butcher." It is Coryphaeschna ingens. 
One big male sent us had his mouth filled with bee fragments, a worker wing 
protruding from his jaws. The case is not yet proven against any other species. 

I Journal Comparative Psychology, 6: 206, 1926. 



24 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

good chance of capture. If successful he may be seen to return to his 
perch and to strip off its wings before breaking and swallowing it. 
The smaller hawks, shrikes, cuckoos and flycatchers also eat dragon- 
flies, only less openly. 

The bee-eater, Merops persicus, is said to capture dragonflies with 
the sole purpose of using the wings as a lining for his nest. 

Spiders capture dragonflies in their webs. Oftenest the litle bluets 
(Enallagma) are found enshrouded in their silk; but even the big 
darners are ensnared by some of the orb weavers. The senior author 
found Aeschna multicolor not infrequently in webs of Argiope tri- 
fasciata in Southern California. Large dragonflies also eat the small 
ones. 

Casualties, also, befall dragonflies. Some get accidentally drowned. 
Some (oftenest the bluets) fall afoul of the leaves of sundew (Drosera) , 
and are there engulfed and digested. The speeding automobile 
captures some in the front of its radiator. At times they are destroyed 
in large numbers by storms and high winds. A wholesale calamity of 
this sort was once reported by the senior author ('00). Two days 
after a violent storm from the northwest on Lake Michigan, a change 
of wind swept back to the west shore vast numbers of insects which 
had been blown out and had drifted widely on the surface of the lake. 
The dragonflies averaged 49 to each linear meter of the drift line. They 
were chiefly the large strong flying darners (Anax and Aeschna), with 
a few of the skimmers (Libellula pulchella) and a very few of the 
damselflies. While some of the other species of insects survived the 
calamity and reached shore living, although sadly battered, the 
dragonflies without exception had succumbed to the buffeting of 
wind and wave. 




EGG LAYING 

' ACH species of dragonfly has its own way 
of laying its eggs, and what that may be 
can be learned only by observation, but 
there are general habits that are shared 
by groups of species. As already noted 
the gift of an ovipositor enables some to place their eggs in punc- 
tures of plant tissues, while others, lacking it, scatter their eggs 
through the water strewing them over the bottom. In either case the 
male may or may not remain with the female after copulation, assist- 
ing in the placement of the eggs. 



r 



/^^ 



^ 



.-'■■r'' 



£ 



^f 



^ 






■"y^^-::^ -,-H^cr---.-_^^^jj^^^)«^- ,«-ig^- -j^iL.^^.. 



^- 



■jL 



Fig. 10. Relative positions of male and female during oviposition. 
Above, Celithemis; middle, Tramea; below, Pachydiplax. 

The female oviposits alone in the majority of species that lack an 
ovipositor. This is the rule with the clubtails (Gomphinae). She 
dashes across the stream, sweeping hither and yon, touching the 
surface of the water now and then and releasing at each descent a 
cluster of eggs. Our diagram (fig. 10) illustrates some of the diversity 
of habit that is found among the skimmers (Libellulinae). The female 
blue pirate {Pachydiplax longipennis) is unattended by the male. She 
flies along at a constant level, the length of her abdomen above the 
water, and now and then swings the tip of it down against the surface 
to wash off her eggs. 



25 



26 



DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



The Eponina skimmer (Celithemis eponina) is attended by the male 
throughout the egg laying. He retains his hold on the top of her head 
for a long time. He seems to direct the course and to assist in the 
flight as they wing up and down in long sweeping sinuous curves 
between distant places of contact with the water. 

The prettiest performance of all is that of the raggedy skimmer, 
Tramea onusta. After copulation the pair, in a wild flight, come 
dashing downward toward the surface of the pond. When about a 
foot above the surface the male releases his hold on the head of the 
female and moves forward a little at that level, marking time, while 
the female descends and touches the water with the tip of her abdomen. 
As she rises, without a sign of effort he seizes her again. Her head 

seems to slip between his clas- 
pers with wonderful precision. 
Without the slightest delay they 
are coupled together and off on 
another bound.* And this sepa- 
ration and recouplement is 
repeated at every descent. 

The females of the more 
primitive forms that possess 
an ovipositor (Cordulegaster, 
etc.) lay their eggs unattended 
by the male. Others, like the 
common green darner {Anax 
Junius) may or may not have a 
male for a pilot, according to 
circumstances. But among the 
more specialized damselflies 
(Coenagrioninae) the female 
seems to have been granted by 
nature a proprietary right to 
her spouse. When he proposes 
and she accepts him, and he, rashly or otherwise, clasps her by 
the thorax placing the tips of his superior appendages in the paired 
cup-Uke depressions between her pro- and synthorax, then she draws 
these parts together, gripping his appendages as in a vise. Then she 
has him, for life, or at least during satisfactory behavior. He cannot 
get away. 

* The limitations of space do not permit us to indicate in our diagram the 
high leaps that are made by the pair between tappings of the water surface. 




Fig. 11. Cordulegaster dorsalis. A, 
Nymph with protective coat of algae. 
B, Cast skin. C. Female ovipositing. 
(After Kennedy). 



EGG LAYING 



27 



Females of Enallagma and of Argia (especially of A. apicalis) are 
not infrequently found with only the abdomen of a male attached to 
the thorax. Has the remainder been snapped up by some bird or frog? 
Did the body break before the grasp of the female would let go? 

Some curious egg laying attitudes result when the superior ap- 
pendages of the male become very short. The senior author once 
('03, p. 243) reported this for Argia violacea as follows: 

This species, like the preceding, oviposits commonly in mats of algae lying 
at the edge of the water, or covering floating vegetation. On such mats I have 
frequently seen many females at work side by side, each with a male clasping 
her prothorax with his forceps, his body sticking up straight in the air, his legs 
and wings placidly folded. This curious position — standing, as it were, on the 
tip of the abdomen — is assumed, I think, on account of the greater ease of 
maintaining the position. The inferior appendages of the male are so much 
longer than the superiors that were the male to remain with his feet on the 
ground, when the female depresses her abdomen in ovipositing, the flexion of his 
body would be extreme, and perhaps uncomfortable. At any rate, he takes the 
elevated position very philosophically, folds his legs and waits till his spouse 
gets ready to let him down; and, when she wants to move from place to place, 
he uses his wings to help her. 

The females of Lestes and Archilestes habitually place their eggs in 
stems above the water, the former in herbaceous stems of iris and bur- 




FiG. 12. Archilestes calif ornica. 16, Ovipositing. 17, In copulation. 18, 
scars from oviposition one year old. 19, Scars 2 years old. 20, Bark cut away 
showing eggs in cambium. 21, Egg. (from Kennedy). 



28 DRAGON FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

reed (Needham, Amer. Nat. 34: 375, 1900), the latter in the woody 
stems of willow, Kennedy (15, p. 267 has described the process in 
Archilestes as follows : 

The male holds the female during oviposition. The female draws the tip of 
her abdomen up until her body forms a loop with the ovipositor between her 
legs, when she makes in the willow branch a downward thrust. On examination 
of twigs it was found that no egg is laid in this first downward thrust. Next 
she partly withdraws the ovipositor, making a lateral thrust on the right side. 
This for the first egg. A third thrust is made in the same side by partially with- 
drawing the ovipositor first and aiming it forward of the second. A fourth thrust 
is made forward of the third for the third egg. Then she twists the tip of the 
abdomen around, making three thrusts on the left side, the lower thrust first, 
the upper thrust last. In each of the six lateral thrusts an egg has been laid with 
the small dark end at the point of insertion. (See figs. 20 and 21.) After such a 
series of eggs has been laid the female withdraws her ovipositor and the pair 
back down the branch about one-fourth of an inch and repeat the process. One 
pair was watched for an hour, at the end of which time the female took longer 
rests between thrusts and finally ceased ovipositing. 

The eggs probably pass the winter in the live cambium tissue of the twigs, 
for in a twig I kept alive until January 1, 1914, the eggs were still unhatched. 

Both dragonfly and damselfly eggs, when laid above the surface of 
the water, are subject to parasitism. Minute hymenopterous egg 
parasites find them an easy prey, whether inserted into the stems of 
iris, as in Lestes, or dropped upon the surface of floating mats of algae 
as in Sympetrum. Indeed the eggs of Ischnura when placed in stems 
beneath the water's surface are commonly sought out and parasitized 
by minute wasps that enter the water as adults and swim through it 
with their wings. 




Collecting and Preserving 

I HE chief instrument for collecting dragonflies is 
an insect net : and the requirements are, that it 
should be large and light and strong; large in 
diameter, so as to sweep a big section of the 
atmosphere ; light in weight, so that it may be 
swung quickly; and strong, so that it will not 
break or tear. In this chase, a net is certain 
to receive hard usage. The complement of 
the net is, of course, the killing bottle; cyanide, 
or whatever preferred. 

The beginner will soon learn that main 
strength will avail little in the capture of the big dragonflies. They 
can fly faster than he can run; they can dodge quicker than he can turn; 
and they can go where he cannot follow. He must study their habits, 
and adapt his methods and his strategy to them. 

He will probably soon learn by observation that many of the large 
ones tend to follow a regular beat in their flight, and then he will 
station himself where they will fly past, and he will wait. He will 
learn by experience that they dodge best when approached from the 
front; and then he will keep his net down out of sight until they are 
passing and sweep them into it by a stroke from the rear. Even then 
he will sweep the vacant air many, many times; and some of the 
finest dragonflies will hover about him most tantalizingly without 
ever coming within reach of his net. 

That there is an element of sport in dragonfly chasing is nowhere 
better brought out than in Kennedy's account ('17, p. 551) of his first 
capture of a male of Gomphus intricatus on the Humboldt River in 
Nevada. 

Until late in the afternoon I saw only two of this small species, and these 
females, both of which were wild and unapproachable. But about four o'clock 
in the afternoon I flushed a male from a clump of rose bushes; and with that 
suspense, which comes to a collector perhaps once a season as he sees a prize 
of prizes flying away, waited several very long moments, while he decided 
whether to alight or to fly across the river out of my reach. Indifferent to danger 
he lit on my side of the river but in the safest place possible, as he chose a bare 
patch of ground in the midst of a broad area of salt grass. As salt grass at its 
best is only six inches high there was no cover whatever to aid in stalking him. 
Resorting to the only antics available, I very slowly approached him on my 
hands and knees and was greatly relieved when I got close enough to see that he 



29 



30 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

still unmindful of his danger, was busily engaged in scratching his head with 
his foot. I was more relieved when a moment later I had the net over him, but 
the suspense was not entirely relieved until I had him in a cyanide bottle, and 
the cork in tight. 

Bits of odd behavior — species idiosyncracies — will be met with 
afield, while collecting. Here is one, related by E. B. Williamson ('07) 
from his collecting of Boyeria vinosa in upper Ontario. It is 

A common species along the streams where its tendency to examine critically 
every object projecting above the water often makes its capture an embarrassing 
matter to the collector. More than once as I waited for an approaching male this 
insect suddenly left the line of flight I had mapped out for it, flew to within an 
inch of my legs, circled around one leg a time or two, then around the other, 
then about both, and then quietly resumed its flight along the stream, oblivious 
to the net which had been frantically fanned all around it. 

There are more prosaic ways of getting dragonflies. The high flyers 
may be brought down with a gun; and if the finest shot be used to 
load the gun, a fair proportion of usable specimens will be obtained 
so. Small dragonflies and damselflies that sit on the low grass by the 
waterside or on the ground may be captured more easily and quickly 
with a fly-swatter than with a net. This calls for a big swatter on a 
long, light handle. A light stroke beats them down and stuns them, 
and they are then picked up, usually uninjured, before recovering. 

The foresighted collector will take advantage of times and places 
of abundance and get plenty of specimens when the getting is good. 
Easy picking for dragonflies rarely occurs; but sometimes numbers 
of them can be picked by hand from their roosting places, and some- 
times a storm will toss good specimens upon the driftline of a beach. 

Specimens may be preserved either dry or in alcohol. If dry — the 
usual way — they may be either pinned or papered; and the methods 
in either case are those that are so familiar to entomologists generally 
that we will not take space to describe them here.* 

It is important that specimens be dried quickly before moulds grow 
and ruin them. No extra precautions are necessary in a dry place; 
but when the atmosphere is very humid some application of artificial 
heat may be needed. 

* For these methods, see Needham's Elementary Lessons on Insects, or any of 
the larger textbooks of entomology, or better still, consult Williamson's Direc- 
tions for Collecting and Preserving Dragonflies for Museum Purposes, Univ. of 
Mich. Museum of Zoology, Misc. Publications No. 1, 1916. This embodies the 
bftst results of the long experience of a very successful dragonfly collector. 



3. THE IMMATURE STAGES 




ENERALLY speaking, dragonflies in their 
immature stages fall into three more or 
less distinct behavior groups: climbers, 
sprawlers and burro wers. They are very 
different in appearance from the adults, and 
altogether different in manner of life. They 
have but one habit in common with the 
adults; they are all carnivorous. 

The more active ones climb about in the submerged weed beds or 
cling to the stems of reeds or to roots. The nymphs of the darners 
(Aeschninae) and of the damselflies (Zygoptera) are of this habit. 
These very slowly and stealthily steal, cat-like, upon their prey, with 
head poised low, and when it is within reach, catch it with a flash. 
Some of these climbing forms are rather prettily colored in patterns 
of green and brown. 

The more sluggish sprawlers lie fiat 
upon the bottom amid the silt with 
legs outspread. Protected by their 
coloration and often by a coat of ad- 
herent silt that hides them perfectly, 
they wait in ambush until their prey 
wanders within reach. Here in the 
accompanying figure is shown a nymph 
which lay still so long that a rapidly 
growing spray of Plumatella attached 
itself to the back of the nymph, anchor- 
ing it in place. Would a nymph so an- 
chored, when grown, have beer able 
to transform? Some of the most slug- 
gish of the sprawlers such as the 
nymphs of the belted skimmers (Macromiinae), are among the most 
fleet and wide ranging of adult dragon flies. 

The burro wers are the nymphs of the club-tails (Gomphinae). They 
live shallowly buried in the silt and sand of the bottom, with the up- 
turned tip of the abdomen reaching up to the water for respiration. 
They lie so near the surface that the footfalls of their prey walking 
overhead, or the wriggling as of blood worms in their tubes, may 




Fig. 13. A nymph of Epicordulia 
overgrown with Bryozoans. 



31 



32 



DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



invite seizure. They have more or less wedgeshaped heads, short 
thick close-laid antennae, and flattened scraper-like front tibiae. These 
are all adaptations for getting through the bottom silt. 




Fig. 14. Sprawlers and burrowers. a, Libellula; b, Cordulegaster; c, Gom- 
phus; d, an unknown Gomphine. Drawn by Olive Tuttle (Mrs. J. T. Lloyd). 

Some habits intermediate between those of sprawlers and burrowers 
will be discussed under the subfamilies Petalurinae and Cordule- 
gasterinae. 

Structures 

Perhaps the most remarkable feature 
of nymphal anatomy is the labium or 
lower hp. It is very much elongated, 
folded upon itself like a hinge at the 
base of the mentum and then folded 
backward beneath the head and thorax, 
the middle hinge resting between the 
legs. At the front end of the mentum 
it bears a pair of strong grasping lateral 
lobes that are variously armed with teeth 
hooks and spines. It is a grasping organ 
of altogether unique design. When 
extended, its full length is almost that 
of the fore leg. It is thrown out and re- 
tracted again with such swiftness that 
the eye cannot follow it. With it the 
nymph reaches for a victim, clutches it 
between the armed lateral lobes, and 
draws it backward right into the jaws. 
The hooks and spines hold; the jaws 
devour; and if fragments are let fall, 
they are retained on the mentum as 
on a tray. The labium is finally thrust forward a little and even 
these fragments are gathered up. This combination of hands, carving 
tools and serving table is highly efficient. 




Fig. 15. Labium of Cordule- 
gaster diastatops. 



THE IMMATURE STAGES 33 

Two pairs of muscles each side operate the labium; one pair, pro- 
jector and retractor, lying in the submentum, operates the middle 
hinge; another smaller pair, extensor and flexor lying in the mentum, 
swings the lateral lobe. 

The jaws are of a distinctly flesh-eating pattern. The mandibles 
with their Z-shaped sharp chitinous ridges cut the victim to pieces, 
while the maxillae, shaped like meat forks, turn it conveniently for 
cutting. So it is made up into pellets and swallowed. These pellets 
stop for a time in the proventriculus or crop whose walls are lined with 
chitinous teeth and prickles. This is a chewing stomach where further 
comminution of the food takes place before it is passed on into the 
true stomach for digestion. 

The structures so far mentioned all nymphs of Odonata have in 
common, but in the breathing organs we come upon structures in 
which dragonflies differ markedly from damselflies. Both breathe by 
means of tracheal gills, but in the dragonflies the gills are numerous 
and are located inside the body, and in damselflies they are but three 
vertical gill plates attached at the tip of the abdomen like tails. 

The dragonfly gill chamber is a modified portion of the hinder 
(rectal) part of the alimentary canal. It is set off by a constriction from 
the part in front that has to do with nutrition, and is enlarged into 
an oval chamber that half fills the abdomen ; the gills hang from the 
inner walls of this chamber in longitudinal rows. They are minute, 
thin walled, and very numerous. They are filled with fine air tubes 
(tracheoles) that are connected with four big air trunks running length- 
wise of the bod3\ The walls of the gill chamber are provided with 
muscles for changing its shape. When it expands, water is drawn 
in from the rear, bringing fresh oxygen. When it contracts, the water 
is expelled. The posterior (anal) opening is guarded by the cluster 
of five spinous caudal appendages which terminate the abdomen. 
Between these are three little valves that guard the immediate open- 
ing. They serve as strainers, partly closing the opening while water 
is flowing in; they fly open like shutters when the water is squirted 
out. 

The regular expanding and contracting of the abdomen is readily 
seen in a living dragonfly nymph. The water currents may be watched 
also if a bit of colored fluid be placed at the end of the abdomen.* 

The gills of the damselflies are three flat plates placed edge upward 

• As by holding a copying "indelible" pencil there a moment, until the color 
dissolves. See Needham's Guide to the Study of Freshwater Biology for directions 
for the dissection of the dragonfly gill chamber. 



34 



DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



at the end of the abdomen, one median and two lateral. They are 
generally thin, as befits the respiratory function, but sometimes 
(Agrioninae) they are thick and ridged lengthwise, and they are very 
variable in shape and coloration. They develop during early nymphal 
life, and if broken off before the nymph is grown they are regenerated; 
wherefore a nymph is often found bearing one or more smaller (re- 
generating) gills. 





Fig. 16. Gomphus graslinellus. X, new hatched nymph; Y, its labium; 
Z, labium of an old nymph. 



Ontogeny 

RAGONFLY nymphs emerge from the egg 
in a form that is retained with but little 
alteration until they are grown and ready to 
transform. There are, of course, no wings, 
nor even wing buds present at hatching. 
The lateral abdominal appendages (cerci), 
also, are wanting. The labium, though 
already developed and ready for business, 
is often quite different in the details of 
its armature, as shown in the accompany- 
ing figures. There are some characters 
such as the head tubercles of the new 
hatched green jacket nymph (fig. 17) (marks of past Macromian 
ancestral history?) that will be lost with the earliest moultings. The 
definitive nymph form is assumed after a few moults and while the 
nymph is still very small. 





Fig. 17. Nymph of the green jacket, Mesothemis simplicicollis. 1, new 
hatched, la, head enlarged, lb, dorsal, Ic, ventral view of adbominal appen- 
dages; 2, second instar nymph of same. 

A detailed study of the form changes, moult by moult, in the nymph 
of Pantala fiavescens through the first ten instars has been made by 
Miss Laura Lamb ('25, pp. 285-312). She has subsequently determined 



86 



36 



DRAGON FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 




Fig. 18. Hagenius brevistylus (drawn by C. H. Kennedy). 



ONTOGENY 



37 



that there are two additional instars, twelve in all. From her account 
we abstract and tabulate the data covering ten points. 



Instars 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


Days duration 


6 


6 


6 


7 


7 


7 


7 


9 


11 


14 


Ant. joints 


4 


4 


5 


5 


5 


6 


7 


7 


7 


7 


Trs. joints 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


2 


2 


3 


3 


3 


Wings 














r 








1 


1 


Lat. abd. app. 














r 








1 


1 


Lat. sp. of 8 














r 








1 


1 


« " 9 








r 


i 


i 








1 


1 


Ment. setae* 





2 


4 


6-7 


8-9 


10-11 


10-11 


12 


13 


14-15 


Lat. setae* 


0-1 


0-1 


4 


5 


6 


8 


8-9 


9-10 


11 


11-12 


Length (mm.) 


1.4 


1.8 


2.2 


2.8 


3.9 


4.9 


7.3 


8.2 


10.7 


14.0 



* On labium, r, rudiments, i, increasing in size. 




Fig. 19. Hagenius transforming (drawn by C. H. Kennedy). 

From this it appears that the wing buds and the lateral abdominal 
appendages arrive together at the 5th instar: that the full number of 



38 



DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



segments is attained by the antennae in the 7th, and by the tarsi in 
the 8th instars: and that the lateral spines appear earlier on the 9th 
than on the 8th abdominal segment. During the first four instars the 
nymphs are practically colorless and very small, and after that the 
definitive characters of nymphal form are rapidly assumed. 

Walker has reported ('25, p. 28) the rearing of nymphs of Somato- 
chlora kennedyi through seven instars with somewhat similar results, 
as shown in the following table : 



Instars 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


Length (ave.) 


1.7 


2.2 


2.7 


3-2 


4.2 


? 


? 


Ant. joints 


3 


3 


5 


5 


6 


6 


6 


Trs. joints 


1 


1 


2 


2 


2 


2 




Wings 











r 


i 


i 


i 


Lat. abd. app. 











r 


i 


i 


i 


Ment. setae 





1 


3 


4 


5 


5-7 


7 


Lat. setae 


1 


1 


2 


3 


3-4 


3-4 


4 



These were from eggs laid in July that did not hatch until the follow- 
ing spring. These seven instars occupied an entire season, at the end 
of which the nymphs were less than one-third grown. 

The remarkable change that takes place at the end of nymphal life, 
making an aquatic creature over into an aerial one, is very well illus- 
trated by Dr. Kennedy's figures of the black dragon, Hagenius brevisty- 
lus (fig. 19). After the final moulting every part of the body reappears 
in greatly altered form. It is, of course, prepared for in the last 
nj^mphal instar. The wings grow and become crumpled within their 
sheaths and flight muscles develop in the tense thorax. The genitalia 
also are developed and prepared for emergence; when freed from the 
narrow confines of the nymphal skin they quickly shape themselves 
after the pattern of the species. Figure 20 illustrates middle and end 
stages in the shaping process.* 

* The following is a memorandum made by the senior author at Havana, 
111., in 1896, of observations on the process of emergence in Gomphus notatus: 

"Boathouse, 5:30 p.m.; sun shining. Watched one emerge. It fastened its 
claws by swinging its entire body, rotating them, as if boring in; rested awhile; 
thorax appeared to be getting dry; nymph turned tip of abdomen forward; 
ejected water upon top of thorax (to soften it?) fifteen minutes after leaving 
water. Emergence began with a split of the skin which started between the 
wing pads and extended to head and across between eyes. Head freed first, 
mouthparts hanging limp; then legs and wings were withdrawn, together with 
entire thorax; body thus lifted at nearly right angles to the abdomen; held this 



ONTOGENY 39 

position 15 minutes, resting. Then it turned forward, fastened its feet, and 
withdrew its abdomen. Rested until wings were fully expanded; half an hour 
expanding its wings. Time from leaving water until wings were fully expanded 
(but not dry), one hour. Water was squirted on top of thorax three or four 
times at intervals of several minutes before the skin broke open." 

The cast skins left behind at transformation are called exuviae. 
Though rent down the back and gaping they preserve perfectly the 
form of the nymph, and are very satisfactory material for the study 
of chitinous nymphal structures. Labia and other parts when de- 
tached, outspread and mounted, show skeletal structures most clearly. 
In all life history work the skins should therefore be carefully preserved 
and labelled to correspond with the individuals that come out of them. 

The exuvia are left at transformation somewhere near the edge of 
the water. The smaller damselflies clamber up the slender stems of 
emergent water weeds, usually about an inch above the water surface. 
The club-tail nymphs (Gomphinae), with legs set wide apart, require 
broad surfaces on which to ascend, such as trees or logs, or more often 
they transform while lying flat on the sand or mud within a few inches 
of the margin of the water. The belted skimmers (Macromiinae) go 
farthest afield to transform, often climbing up tree trunks and fences 
some meters distant from the shore. 




Collecting and Rearing 

N COLLECTING dragonfly nymphs the best single 
tool is a sieve-net which scrapes up the bottom 
sediment and sifts it at a single operation. Thus 
it gathers bottom sprawlers and burrowers. 
Being stoutly built it may be used, also, to 
sweep standing vegetation, to dislodge and 
gather up the climbing forms. A good sieve-net costs several dollars. 
Lacking a sieve-net, a common garden rake may be used. When 
there is a sloping shore, and the bottom is strewn with fallen trash 
(as is usually the case), the rake will draw ashore the mixed mud and 
trash and nymphs. When drawn out of the water the nymphs begin 
kicking and squirming, and may readily be found by picking over the 
rakings. 




Fig. 20. The reshaping of the end of the abdomen during the process of 
transformation in Ophiogomphus carolus. M, nymph; A'^ and 0, adult just 
emerged; P and Q, mature adult. 

The nymphs move shoreward and climb higher as the time of their 
transformation approaches; and forms that ordinarily live as sprawlers 
on the bottom, may at such times be found abundantly in mats of 
floating pond scum. A dip net of some sort will then be useful. A stout 
dip net is best for collecting from green, growing aquatic plants. 

For rearing the nymphs the best kind of a cage is the "pillow cage" 
(so called, from its shape) shown in figure 2L It is also the simplest. 
We have used very many kinds of rearing cages, and have discarded 
all the others for this one. It is made out of a square of ordinary 
window-screen wire-cloth. The tools needed are a tinner's shears 



40 





COLLECTING AND REARING 41 

(to cut the cloth) and folding tongs (to close the seams). A suitable 

size is eighteen inches square, and a square yard cuts four cages. To 

make a cage, opposite edges of the cloth are laid flat and 

twice folded together (making a tinker's "hem"). This 

(opened out) makes a wirecloth cylinder. Then the ends 

are cross-folded in a similar manner to close the cage. 

One of these endfolds may be opened and closed by hand 

for introduction or removal of specimens. The woven 

edge should be at the top to prevent pricking fingers on 

wire ends. Anyone can make a cage of this sort with his 

own hands, in a few minutes. .|,^' " 

Such a cage half immersed in the water gives a good 
foothold and plenty of room for transformation. If placed a little 
aslant, any adults that flutter and fall into the water can crawl up and 
out of it again. 

There are mishaps in plenty that may happen to rearing cages when 
placed out in the field. We believe we have encountered them all. 
A few precautionary measures will save valuable specimens. Losses 
from sudden changes of water level may be avoided by attachment 
of cages to a float. When set in a stream, losses of cages from being 
swept away by flood waters may be prevented by anchoring them 
with a wire to the shore. Losses from vandals and ignorant meddlers 
are most frequent and hardest to control ; but we have found that a 
very dirty (paint smeared) piece of cloth spread over the cages, hiding 
them, will often keep the meddler's hands off them. It is in the field 
where conditions are quite natural, and where nymphs can be caged 
as soon as captured, that the most successful rearing work can be done. 
It can, however, be done indoors. A row of pillow cages may be 
set in an aquarium, or in a deep pan of water in a sink, and a trickle 
of fresh water from the tap allowed to flow through. Grown nymphs 
if introduced uninjured will usually transform under these conditions. 
Rearing cages should be visited every morning and the adults that 
have appeared should be placed singly with their cast skins in paper 
bags (small grocer's bags are excellent), and left there until their color 
are well developed and their chitin is hard; else pale and shrivelled 
specimens will result. 

Most of the larger dragonflies transform very early in the morning. 
By searching the shores at daybreak, many of them may be taken in 
transformation. Teneral adults and the skins from which they have 
just emerged may be found together. Sufficient material for identify- 
ing nymph and imago may thus be obtained very easily. Each limp 



42 



t>ii'.\iuK\Fi ii:'s or xourit .i .w /.;/,• /c.i 



I/' 

r 




? 



crorttuiv slu)uUl he bn^gt'il with its own cnM hIvIii jhuI kcj)! nliv<> to 
color ami linnltMi. Tho two sluniUl tln'ii h(> pimicd or pnprrcd 
toRt'tlu'r. 

Only tlir Ofirly rising ontiunologist nmy mvmII liimw'lf of micli ciiHy 
piokiuj;, but tlnM(' is .mhoIIum- wmv, sonirliiucM v(My HU(M'(>.sMriil ntui 
almost as easy, nnd mow iMUgcninl [o sleepy IicmiIh ji, uny in which 
the drapionflies m;iy he iudwvcd io axt^c i\w\\\»v\\vH, c.mhI Hkius nud nil. 
At tlu* luMi;ht o( tlu< scMMoii of t rtuiMroniiMlioii, 
ovtM'V drMU'onlly rolh^ctor hns nww H<iiiir bed of 
wntcM" W(Huls tiMMuinn with dr!i|;oiiliy mid d.'iiiiHcllly 
nynii>hs with only 1um-«> nnd I Immc m Ht(Mn project injj; 
abov(» the wntiM* surl';iee, nvA ev(Mv enier(';ent stem 
piUnl hi.^h with e;ist skins. U'hen tin* nynipliM nro 
nil niovint; towMriis tht^sc^ v:uitM,i!,(> points for trniis- 
forni.'ition, if tlu> jirojei'linu; stems be mH cut. olT 
below the surfju-e nnd removed, then they will j<o 
to any other projiH'tini; thins:; thnt otT»M-s. If ji stick 
he thrust in the bottom, they will climb up the 
proji'ctini;- end o( that. And if a tra[) lik(» the one 
shown in tigure '2'2 be placed on the top of the stick, 
thi'y will iMiter it on transformation and there 
await the arrival of the collector. 

This cage is merely the pillow cage described 
above, with one end left open. The lower end, 
instead of being closcil is slit lengthwise in half a 
lio/.en segments an inch ov more deep and the seg- 
nliMits 'Avc hcwi inward horizontally to form a shelf 
Mround the lower border. This shelf is to keep a 
tluttering imago from falling out after traiisfor- 
nK'\ti(>n. If it falls, it will alight on this shelf and 
climb up again. Bet ween the inner edge of the shelf 
and lht> stick tluMv must be left enough room for the ascending nymph 
to climb into the trap. The wire brace from stick to cage is to prevent 
dislctdgement o( the latter by wind. The upward inclination at the 
middh* aviuds interference with the ascent of the nymphs. A pin in the 
top (Mul of the stick keeps the top of the cage in position. Such a cage 
was us(h1 vtM-y successfully by the senior author at Laguna Beach, 
(California. 




Km JJ. 

Aiitomutio 

roiirinK oiigo. 



4. THE EGGS 

The eggs of dragonflies are very numerous, especially those of 
dragonflies that drop their eggs at random in the water. The senior 
author once obtained 5200 eggs from an ovipositing female of Gomphus 
externus that had already deposited a part of her stock. They are less 
numerous when carefully bestowed in punctures of plant stems, where 
they are less liable to be smothered by silt. They differ in shape also 
according to the manner of oviposition. Eggs dropped free are in 
general oblong oval; eggs inserted into plant stems are much more 
slender and elongate. 




Fig. 23. Eggs. 1. Anax Junius (line k. k. indicates depth of insertion into 
cat tail. 2. Hagenius brevistylus. 3. Gomphus descriptus. 4. Cordulia shurtleffi,. 
5. Plathemis lydia. 6. Leucorhinia glacialis. 7. Celithemis eponina. 8. Perithemis 
domitia. 9. Tramealacerata. (p. indicates gelatinous envelope). 

It is the Clubtails (Gomphinae) and the Skimmers (Libellulidae) 
that scatter their eggs; and it is easy to get the eggs of these if one can 

43 



44 



DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



capture a female while ovipositing. If she is held by the tips of her 
closed fore wings, leaving the hind wings free to flap, and the tip of 
her abdomen dipped repeatedly in the surface of a tumbler full of 
water, she will usually freely liberate her eggs. She will drop them a 
dozen or so at a time and they will at once descend through the water, 
tending apart as they go, to scatter over the bottom. They are white 
at first, but they quickly gather a covering of adherent silt, and become 
quite undiscoverable in a pond. 

The eggs of other groups are best obtained by collecting the stems 
and leaves in which they have been thrust by the ovipositor of the 
female. It is possible to have fresh eggs "laid to order" by supplying 
ovipositing females with their favorite places and positions for egg 
laying. For example, soft cat-tail (Typha) stems, aslant at the surface 
and placed well out in the open (away from the denser growth of the 
shores where dangers lurk) are the preferred places of Anax Junius 
females for ovipositing. The junior author once obtained an abundance 
of fresh-laid eggs of this species by fastening with tacks a few cat-tail 
stems aslant to the sides of a floating stick, and anchoring it well out 
in a pond. The Anax females promptly and gratefully accepted the 
conveniences provided. 



5. DRAGONFLIES AND FISH CULTURE 

The nymphs of Odonata are strictly carnivorous. This means that, 
directly or indirectly, they are competitors with the fishes for the 
common food supply of the water. They belong to the consuming 
class. They are not primary producers of flesh. They are themselves 
eaten by fishes, to be sure, and under certain conditions of abundance 
they may be important in the food supply*; but their production 
involves an additional turnover of the flesh that herbivores create, 
and from the economic point of view, this is wasteful. Whether the 
waste is justifiable in practice remains to be demonstrated. 

That the larger dragonfly nymphs habitually eat very young fishes 
is well known to fish culturists. The following letter communicated by 
Professor Cockerell {Ent. News, 30: '19) furnishes good evidence. 
It was written by Mr. Frank Springer from the Abbott Ranch, Rito 
de los Frijoles, N. Mex., and concerns the nymphs of the Western 
Biddy, Cordulegaster dorsalis: 

I am sending you some'beasties, that I should like to know more about. 
They are highly predacious devils, and I first discovered them in the act of seizing 
some of a lot of j^oung trout which I was placing in the brook here. The bug lies 
buried in mud or sand, and in shallow parts of the stream where the current is 
not very swift, with only his eyes projecting. When a little fish (about an inch 
long) comes wiggling along close enough over the bug, he snaps, projecting his 
formidable mandibles and the shovel-like part below them for quite a distance 
to the front, and catches the fish by his wiggling tail. By simulating the wiggling 
motion of a fish with a knife blade, I could induce the bug to snap at it, and 

thus saw the motion several times I found the creatures quite numerous 

in the shallow, quieter waters where I was planting the young fry, and apparently 
they constitute a rather serious menace to the stocking of the stream, as they 
infest the shallow places, while the deeper water is dangerous on account of the 
older fish. I found that the trout eat these bugs to some extent as in several 
instances they were contained in the stomach; and they are readily taken when 
offered as bait. 

We have as yet no measure of the losses thus occasioned, but where 
large dragonfly nymphs become abundant these are doubtless con- 
siderable.* 

* Wilson ('20) has made the best possible argument for their economic value. 

* Here are some extemporaneous remarks by the Fish Warden of Kansas, 
quoted in the Trans. Amer. Fisheries Soc, 56: 62, 1926: 

"The dragonfly has an apparatus that he shoots out ahead of his body, like 
a snapping turtle; he grabs the young fish right in the stomach, and the result 
is that the fish dies. We have had large numbers of fry killed by the larvae of 
dragonflies, which, as you know, attain a considerable size in our country. The 
dragonfly may be classed among the vermin of the ponds, and he certainly 
wrecks havoc among the fry when there is nothing to protect them." 

45 



NOTES INTRODUCTORY AND EXPLANATORY TO PART II 

The remainder of this book is a condensed account of the North 
American species of Odonata, with brief diagnostic descriptions and 
figures, and with all that is known about their habits. Here we offer 
a few suggestions that are intended to aid the beginner in its use. 

Confusion of names: — The reader who would make use of the litera- 
ture cited in this book (if unacquainted with the intricacies of zoological 
nomenclature) will need to know two things: 

1. That the older authors used fewer and more inclusive group 
names. The tendency has been and is to multiply subdivisions, creating 
new families, subfamilies and genera, and to name them all. 

2. That the Law of Priority adopted by the international zoological 
congress required the restitution to present day use of older names, 
even to the displacement of many that had obtained general currency. 
This law was first applied to the whole order by W. F. Kirby in his 
Catalogue of the Neuroptera-Odonata in 1890. Its application wrought 
great confusion in our literature through the transfer of names from 
one group to another. For example, the family name Agrionidae was 
long applied to a different family from that which the Law of Priority 
demands that it shall designate. The principle sources of such con- 
fusion are the following : 



Names used by the older 
authors and by 
non-conformists 



Names used by others 
since Kirby 



Calopteryx, which equals Agrion, whence 

Calopteryginae " Agrioninae, and 

Calopterygidae " Agrionidae. 

Agrion, which " Caenagrion, whence 

Agrioninae " Caenagrioninae, and 

Agrionidae " Caenagrionidae. 

Diplax " Sympetrum 

Aeschna* " Aeshna 

Progomphus* " Gomphoidea 

Gomphoides* " Negomphoides 

Herpetogomphus " Erpetogomphus 

Hoplonaeschna " Oplonaeschna 

* We follow the older usage here. 

46 



EX PL A NA TOR Y NO TES 47 

Citations of species. — Under each species we cite: 

(1) The original description. 

(2) The page in Muttkowski's Catalogue of the Odonata of North 
America* (Milwaukee, 1910) whereon other citations may be found. 

(3) Descriptions and additions to knowledge made since the publi- 
cation of that Catalogue. 

(4) Omissions from that Catalogue, and amendments. 

All these citations are by the numbers corresponding to the years 
of publication as indicated in the list of papers beginning on page 359. 

Genera and species have been numbered, and all these numerals 
have been assembled on a single page at the end, to serve the collector 
as a concise checking and exchange list (p. 366). 

For the convenience of the user, size and distribution are condensed 
to a single line at the head of each description, and both are stated 
broadly. Color is used for easy marks of guidance, venation for positive 
recognition of the groups, and figures of genitalia are given where 
needed, for criteria of species. Only experience will enable one to judge 
how much latitude must be allowed for variability in all these, especially 
in color and size. Colors fade with age, greens becoming yellow, and 
blues discoloring to black; they also vary in extent according to the 
age and condition of the specimen, and descriptions must be interpreted 
with some judgment and some discernment as to the trend of patterns. 

Binomials only. — A name is merely a name and not a treatise on 
relationships: hence our decision that, if a group of individuals is 
distinct enough to bear a name, that name shall be a binomial. 

Abbreviations 

Beauv., Beauvais McL., MacLachlan 

Brim., C. S. Brimley Mrtn., R. Martin 

Brtn., Elsie Broughton Mtk., R. A. Muttkowski 

Burm., H. Burmeister Ndm., J. G. Needham 

Calv., P. P. Calvert Prov., Provancher 

Charp., Charpentier Ramh., P. Rambur 

cm., T. D. A. Cockerell Scud., S. H. Scudder 

Dav., W. T. Davis Selys, Baron de Selys 

Fabr., J. C. Fabricius Synn., Marian Seeman 

Garm., P. Garman Walk., E. M. Walker 

Hag., H. A. Hagen Whed., A. D. Whedon 

Hrvy., F. L. Harvey Whts.. F. C. Whitehouse 

Holl., Holland Wils., C. B. Wilson 

Klct., D. S. Kellicott Wmsn., E. B. Williamson 

Kndy., C. H. Kennedy Wstwd., Westwood 

* For sale by Milwaukee Public Museum: price $1.25 postpaid. 



PART II. 
SYSTEMATIC 



PART II. SYSTEMATIC 

The two suborders of Odonata have already been distinguished on 
page 11. We now proceed with their further analysis. 



1. SUBORDER ANISOPTERA 

Dragonjiies 

Insects of rather robust stature. Eyes convergent or touching on 
the top of the compact head. Wings held horizontally in repose. Hind 
wings broader at base than are the fore wings. Triangle and supra- 
triangle and membranule present. Males with a single median inferior 
appendage at end of abdomen. Females with or without an ovipositor. 

KEY TO THE FAMILIES 

Adults 

1 Triangles about equally distant from the arculus in fore and hind 

wing and similarly shaped Aeschnidae, p. 53 

Triangles nearer the arculus in the hind than in the fore wing 
and of different shape Libellulidae, p. 161 

Nymphs* 

1 Labium flat, or nearly so, without raptorial setae (except in 

Cordulegaster, fig. 15) Aeschnidae, p. 53 

Labium mask shaped or spoon shaped; when closed covering the 
face up to the base of the antennae ; armed within with raptorial 
setae Libellulidae, p. 161 

* Some additional data on the nymphs of the eastern species will be found 
in Garman's ('27) paper on the dragonflies of Connecticut, which came to hand 
after our tables for nymphs had been set. That paper is cited under each of 
the species that Garman treated. 

There are seven principal groups of North American dragonflies, 
whose most available diagnostic characters are set forth comparatively 
in the following table: 

51 



52 



DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



Diagnostic Characters of the Subfamilies of Anisoptera 











Brace 


Bisector 


• Lat. car 




Name 


Eyes 


Tri- 


of 


vein to 


of anal 


abd.* 






above 


angles^ 


H.W.^ 


stigma 


loop 




Auricles.* 


AESCHNIDAE 














Petalurinae 


well 
apart 


alike* 


far out 


present 


absent 


variable 


present 


Gomphinae 


well 
apart 


alike' 


far out 


present 


absent 


absent 


present 


Aeschninae 


meeting 


alike 


far out 


present 


absent 


present 


present 


Cordulegast- 
















erinae 


touch- 
ing' 


alike 


far out 


absent 


absent 


absent 


present 


LIBELLULIDAE 














Macromiinae 


meeting 


different 


nearer 


absent 


absent 


present 


present 


Corduliinae 


meeting 


different 


opposite 


absent 


present 


present 


present 


Libellulinae 


meeting 


different 


opposite absent 


present 


present 


absent 



1 Of fore and hind wings. 
' Or nearly so. 

* In relation to arculus. 

* Lateral carinae on abdomen. 

* On side of second abdominal segment of male; notching of inner margin 
of wings goes with presence of auricles. 

Diagnostic Characters of Dragonfly Nymphs 
Groups trs. j. ant. j. labium m. lobe lat. set. ovp. 9 

Petalurinae 3-3-3 

Gomphinae 2-2-3 

Aeschninae 3-3-3 

Cordulegasterinae 3-3-3 

Libellulidae 3-3-3 



7« 


flat 


entire 


absent 


absent 


4« 


flat 


entire 


absent 


absent 


7' 


flat 


cleft 


absent* 


present 


7' 


mask 


cleft 


present 


present 


7' 


mask 


entire 


present 


absent 



The successive columns show the number of tarsal joints on fore, middle and 
hind tarsi, and of antennal joints; the shape of the labium, whether flat or mask 
shaped, covering most of the face, and whether cleft at the apex of the median 
lobe or not; also, whether there is a row of definite raptorial setae upon the upper 
edge of the lateral labial lobe; and finally, whether there is an ovipositor de- 
veloped underneath the apical abdominal segments of the female nymphs. 

' Terminal joints broad. 

^ Terminal joints slender, setaceous. 

• Except in Gynacantha. 



Family Aeschnidae 

KEY* TO THE SUBFAMILIES 

Adults 

1 Stigma with a brace vein at its inner end 2. 

Stigma without brace vein at inner end. . Cordulegasterinae, p. 152 

2 Fore wing, anal vein apparently forked before the triangle 

Petalurinae, p. 53 

Fore wing, anal vein extends direct to hind angle of triangle 3. 

3 Eyes widely separated on top of bead Gomphinae, p. 58 

Eyes meeting on top of head Aeschninae, p. 123 

Nymphs 

Labium flat, or nearly so 2. 

Labium spoon shaped Cordulegasterinae, p. 152 

2 Tarsi 2-2-3 jointed; antennae 4 jointed; burrowing nymphs 

Gomphinae, p. 59 

Tarsi 3-3-3 jointed; antennae 7 jointed 3. 

3 Antennae thick Petalurinae, p. 54 

Antennae setaceous Aeschninae, p. 123 

* It is assumed that the user of this Handbook has some elementary knowl- 
edge of insects; but if not, the parts are named (so far as needed) on the figures 
of the preceding pages; terms not so named will be found in any good English 
dictionary. He should know that insects, like other animals, are grouped suc- 
cessively into Orders, FamiUes, Genera, and Species; that by common consent 
Family names end in idae and subfamily names in inae; and that in order to 
use a "key" for determining specimens he has only to choose between the 
alternatives offered and follow the numerals in the margin to the destination 
indicated. 

Subfamily Petalurinae 

These are large, hairy dragonflies of obscure grayish coloration. 
The eyes are widely separated on the top of the head. The labium 
is divided at the tip by a median cleft. The triangles of fore and hind 
wings are similar in form and nearly equilateral. In the fore wing the 
anal vein appears as if forked before the triangle. The stigma is long 
and narrow, with a well developed brace vein at its inner end. 

The nymphs, so far as known, are rough, angular, thick-set, hairy 
creatures that live in the mud of bogs. 

53 



KEY TO THE GENERA 

Adults 

1 Vein M 1-3 (upper sector of the arculus) springs from the slanting 

upper end of the arculus; triangle of the hind wing not divided 

by a cross- vein: no intercalary sectors running down to the 

wing margin in the two areas between veins M2, M3 and M4. 

Thorax black spotted with yellow Tanypteryx. 

Vein M 1-3 springs from near the middle of a perpendicular 
arculus; triangle of the hind wing traversed by a cross- vein. 
There are well developed intercalary sectors in the marginal 
spaced between veins M2, M3, and M4; thorax yellow, striped 

with black Tachopteryx. 

The nymph is known for but one of our species, Tachopteryx 
thoreyi; it is figured on page 60. 

The group is represented in our fauna by but two genera, each with 
a single species, one Eastern, one Western. It is much more abundantly 
represented in antipodean regions (Chile and Australia) and it was a 
dominant group in past geological times, as evidenced by abundant 
fossils. 

1. Tanypteryx Kennedy 
Includes the following species, and another, T. preyeri, in Japan. 

1. Tanypteryx hageni Selys 

The Western Grayback 

Selys '79, p. 68: Mtk. Cat. p. 74: Ndm. '03, p. 739 (fig.): Kndy. '17, p. 508 

Length 55 mm. Expanse 74 mm. Nev. Wash. Calif. 

This is a large blackish species, rather conspicuously spotted with yellow. 
Face and occiput brown. Front of thorax black, with two upward-pointing 
yellow triangles just above the collar, and two smaller subtriangular spots just 
below the crest. Sides of thorax black with two pairs of rather large ovoid spots, 
the first pair behind the humeral suture, the second smaller pair behind. Legs 
black. Wings hyaline but with a slightly brownish tinge. Abdomen black with 
paired submedian dorsal yellowish spots on segments 2 to 7, slender and sinuous 
on 2, broader, but diminishing in size on 3 to 7. Segments 8 and 9 black. Ap- 
pendages black, with a pale spot on the sides of the superiors of the male at base. 

Nymph unknown. 

2. Tachopteryx Selys 

These are big, gray dragonflies of rather local distribution. The 
triangle of the fore wings is nearly equilateral, that of the hind wings 

54 



TACHOPTERYX 55 

has its outer side longest and angulated at a point whence springs a 
trigonal supplement. There are a number of supernumerary sectors 
springing from vein Rs and M4, and running rearward to the wing 
margin. 




Fig. 24. Wings of Tanypteryx hageni. 

2. Tachopteryx thoreyi Hagen 

The Eastern Grayback 

Hag. '57, p. 373: Mtk. Cat. p. 75: Davis '13, p. 18: Kndy. '17, p. 190 (Figs): 
Howe '17, p. 24: Howe '23, p. 126. 

Length 78 mm. Expanse 106 mm. Eastern U. S. 

This white-nosed, gray, archaic-looking dragonfly, has a hairy thorax that is 
striped, and an abdomen that is ringed with black. The carina is solid black 
but has no closely bordering stripes. A diffuse black stripe overlies the humeral 
suture and turns up at its lower end to rearward, ending just before the spiracle. 
Another similar stripe covers the third lateral suture, likewise turned rearward 
at its lower end in a long subparallel blackish mark that reaches to the base of 
the abdomen. The legs are black. The wings are hyaline, with black stigma. 
The abdomen is mostly yellow on the basal segment, mostly yellow above and 
black on the lateral margin on 2 to 7, with a small spot on the anterior half and a 
large quadrate one on the posteri or half of each of these segments and with both 
broadly on successive segments, connecting laterally with the black of the side 
margins on 6 and 7. Pale areas reduced to small basal spots on 8 and 9, and 10 
and appendages wholly black. 

Davis ('13, p. 18) says of this dragonjQy that it is often found resting 
on the trunks of trees where, owing to its gray color it can hardly be 
detected. 

WiHiamson ('00, p. 398) thus describes the habitat and habits of 
this species, as found by him in a swampy tract, an acre or two in 
extent, in a small valley in western Pennsylvania : 



56 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

In this valley a mile in length, closed in by its wooded sides and cut by the 
small stream which wanders through it, Tachopteryx seemed to be at home. 
Oftenest we found them resting on the rail and board fences which separated 
the woodland from the open fields. Sometimes they were on logs or trees or 
clinging to a twig; always in the sunshine and in an open place, where sudden 
dashes in any direction after insect prey were possible. Rarely one was seen over 
the fields, possibly passing from one side of the valley to the other with swift, 
strong flight. At rest, they seem careless of danger. Possibly, as undisputed 
insect lords of the valley, they have grown to fear nothing. One will hang on a 
fence post, its abdomen pressed against the wood. The insect net is brought 
within an inch of it, but it never moves. To attempt to brush it from the post 
into the net may crush it. You touch the abdomen with the rim of the net. 
The dragon-fly moves impatiently and holds its abdomen away from the^post. 
Then the net is moved up along the post till the abdomen hangs within the ring. 
A quick stroke and the thing is done. 

Once a male was seen within two feet of the ground, clinging to the trunk 
of a small sycamore tree; the writer was within half a dozen feet of the tree. 
Suddenly the dragon-fly dashed from the tree, seized a crane fly (numbers of 
these were rising and falling within a yards distance) then returned to the tree, 
alighting a little higher than its former resting place. This was repeated several 
times, till the dragon-fly was resting ten or twelve feet from the ground. Each 
trip was made with great swiftness and vigor. 

The nymph of T. thoreyi was described by E. B. Williamson ('01), 
from whose plate our figure is taken. It has a length of 38 mm. It will 
be readily recognized and distinguished from all other nymphs in 
our fauna by the breadth of the segments of the 7-jointed antennae. 
The shape of the labium and of its median cleft, and by the angularity 
of the abdominal segments. 

The nymph was found by Mr. D. A. Atkinson in a boggy spot in a 
small tributary to the Allegheny River. He saw the nymph clinging 
to the trunk of a tree, about two feet above the mud from which it 
had recently crawled. The mud which covered it was not yet dry. 
This was about 10 a.m. Placed in a box the nymph climbed up one 
side to a height of about eighteen inches, and the imago emerged at 
5 P.M. In the boggy spot where the nymph was collected, at that time 
the only surface water was that which was retained in small depressions, 
such as the tracks of cattle, among the roots of the sedges and grasses. 
On July 15, 1900, Mr. J. L. Graf observed another female ovipositing 
in this same swale. She alighted among the dense grasses and placed 
the eggs among the roots or in wet decaying vegetable matter above 
the surface of the water. She would raise and lower her abdomen 
eight or ten times in one place, then fly to another spot. The time 
was between 10 and 11 a.m. On June 23, 1900, at Ohio Pyle, Mr. Graf 
discovered still a third female of this species ovipositing. A mere thread 



TACHOPTERYX 57 

of water flowed along the railroad track from several small springs. 
The bed of this small stream was composed of cinders and sand. The 
dragonfly alighted in the grass near this stream and placed her eggs 
in a small depression in the cinders. This depression contained not 
more than a tablespoonful of water. 

This species appears among the earliest dragonflies of the season in 
the South. It was found by the Senior author in early April at Rock 
Bluff on the Appalachicola River in West Florida. The place was near 
the Torreya Field Station of the University of Florida. Adults were 
resting on the trunks of the trees, or making short foraging sallies 
across the sunny openings between the trees, in a little nook at the 
mouth of a rill where it joins the great muddy river. A number of 
specimens were taken, but no egg laying was observed. Probably 
this species flies and forages a long time before the eggs are matured. 



Subfamily Gomphinae 
The Club-tails 

Large dragonflies of low-perching habits and rather bright color- 
ation, usually in a pattern of alternating blackish and greenish* stripes. 
Eyes widely separated on top of head. Tip of labium entire. Stigma 
broad, and with a brace vein at its proximal end. Females with no 
ovipositor, but with a small subgenital plate. 

In the descriptions which follow the blackish stripes of the thorax will 
be designated by the numbers that they bear in figure 27. 

This is a large group of mainly stream-inhabiting forms. The adults 
fly about the shores in sallies from one resting place to another. They 




DROMOOOl^HUS 



LANTHUS 



Fig. 25. Wing bases, a.l., anal loop; t.p., trigonal planate; b, basal 
subcostal cross vein; ac, anal crossing; <, triangle; t', subtriangle; s, supratriangle; 
p.c, first post anal cell. 

squat oftenest flat upon the bare ground, or on some rock projecting 
from the water. The males fly more constantly than the females, 
coursing the banks in search of food and mates. The females in their 



* The greens fade to yellow in old museum specimens. 



SUBFAMILY GOMPHINAE 59 

egg laying are unattended by the males. They move slowly above the 
water, descending to strike the surface at irregular intervals, liberating 
a score or more of eggs at every stroke. In copulation the pairs seek 
the shelter of shore vegetation. Some of the larger forms hang up 
in the tree tops. 

The 7iy}nphs of this group are burrowers in bottom mud, sand and 
sediment. They are at once distinguishable by the wedge-shaped 
form of the head, the thick four-jointed antennae and the two-jointed 
front tarsi. The tips of the front tibiae are more or less flattened and 
hooked for burrowing. Their legs being scarcely opposable, they do 
not climb up slender stems at time of transformation, but lie flat 
upon the sand of the shore or sprawl over mats of grass or climb a 
httle way up on broad rough surfaces, such as tree trunks. 



KEY TO THE GENERA 
Adults 

Fore wing, nodus beyond the middle of the wing and basal sub- 
costal cross vein generally present 2. 

Fore wing, nodus at the middle of the wing and basal subcostal 
cross vein absent 5. 

Anal loop present 3. 

Anal loop wanting 4. 

Triangle short, outer side nearly straight, not at all sigmoid 

Cyclophylla, p. 65 

Triangle long, outer side with sigmoid curvature 

Gomphoides, p. 63 

Hind wing triangle with outer side nearly straight; trigonal 

planate weak Aphylla, p. 64 

Hind wing triangle with outer side angulate; trigonal planate 

well developed Progomphus, p. 62 

Triangles with a cross vein; anal loop of four cells Hagenius, p. 65 

Trianglesopen;analloopof fewer cells or wanting 6. 

Anal loop semicircular, of three cells Ophiogomphus, p. 67 

Anal loop indistinct, or wanting 7. 

Hind wing with anal crossing distant from second cubito-anal 

cross vein by less than its own length 8. 

Hind wing with anal crossing distant from second cubito-anal 

cross vein by more than its own length 10. 



60 



DRAGON FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 




Fig. 26. Nymphs. 1, Tachopteryx; 2, Unknown Gomphine from Florida; 
3, Cordulegaster; 4, Ophiogomphus; 5, Gomphus; 6, Gomphoides; 7, Dromo- 
gomphus; 8, Progomphus; 9, Hagenius; 10, Octogomphus; 11, Lanthus. Parts 
of antenna and labium are shown more enlarged; also for 5, variants in form of 
abdomen within the genus. (From Needham's Guide to the Studtj of Freshwater 
Biology.) 



SUBFAMILY GOMPHINAE 61 

8 Stigma very broad, doubling width of space between bordering 

longitudinal veins Erpetogomphus, p. 78 

Stigma normal, widening this space by not more than half 9. 

9 Hind femora armed with many short spines Gomphus, p. 81 

Hind femora armed with 5-7 long strong spines 

Dromogomphus, p. 1 17 

10 First post anal cell little wider than long. Eastern. Lanthus, p. 119 

First post anal cell twice as wide as long. Western 

Octogomphus, p. 121 

Nymphs 

1 Abdomen circular; third antennal segment circular; legs not 

fossorial Hagenius, p. 66 

Abdomen much longer than wide; third antennal segment 
elongate; legs fossorial 2. 

2 Tenth abdominal segment longer than all the others together 

Genus?, p. 60 

Tenth abdominal segment not longer than other single seg- 
ments 3. 

3 Wings cases divergent 4. 

Wing cases not divergent 5. 

4 Fourth antennal segment cylindric Progomphus, p. 62 

Fourth antennal segment a spherical rudiment Ophiogomphus p. 67 

and Erpetogomphus, p. 79 

5 Third antennal segment thin, flat, oval 6. 

Third antennal segment elongate or linear 7. 

6 Far eastern Lanthus, p. 119 

Far western Octogomphus, p. 121 

7 Segment 9 with a sharp middorsal ridge ending in a straight 

apical spine 8. 

Segment 9 not so Gomphus, p. 81 

8 Lateral abdominal appendages as long as the inferiors 

Gomphoides, p. 63 

Lateral abdominal appendages shorter than the inferiors 

Dromogomphus, p. 1 17 



62 



DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 




Fig. 27. Progom- 
phus nymph. 



3. Progomphus Selys 

This genus, as at present constituted, is a 
rather heterogeneous lot of about a dozen tropical 
American species, and the one widely ranging and 
very variable North American species described 
below. This species has the nodus situated a little 
beyond the middle of the fore wing. In both wings 
the triangle is broad, and its outside is angulated 
at the point of origin of the trigonal planate. In 
the fore wing it is usually divided into 3 cells and 
in the hind wing into 2. The inferior abdominal 
appendage of the male is rather long and very 
deeply divided. 

The mjmph (Cabot, 72, p. 6- Hagen, '80, p. 247; 
and Ndm. and Hart, '01, p. 55) is readily recognized 
by the cylindric and upturned fourth segment of 
the antennae and by the indrawn bases of the 
middle legs. It is a superb burrower and lives in 
the sandy beds of both lakes and streams. 



3. Progomphus obscurus Rambur 
Rmbr. '42, p. 170: Mtk. Cat. p. 79 (as Gomphoides obscura): Howe '18, p. 27: 
Kndy. '21, p. 596: Davis '13, p. 19: Wlsn. '12, p. 190: Wmsn. '20, p. 100: 
Howe '23, p. 127: Smn. '26, p. 19. 

Syn: borealis McL.f 
Length 60 mm. Expanse 75 mm. U. S, generally. 

This is a handsome greenish gray species, striped with brown, and with 
yellow knee caps. Face and occiput greenish. Thoracic stripes of the first pair 
narrowly separated at the pale carina, widened strongly forward and abbreviated 
at the collar, confluent above with stripe 2. Stripes 2 and 3 of nearly equal width 
confluent above, then separated by a small triangular spot, then fused again, 
and then separated by a narrow yellow line below. Stripe 4 obsolete, or an 
exceedingly faint trace in the bottom of a crooked suture. Stripe 5 complete. 
Wings hyaline, brownish at base, as far o\h as basal crossveins, Costa yellow, 
Stigma brown. Legs yellowish basally almost to the knees, brown beyond. There 
is a distinct yellow kneecap covering the base of the tibia externally. The 
middorsal row of abdominal pale markings begins on segment 2, and continues 
as somewhat abbreviated triangles on 3 to 7, on 7 being half as long as the 
segment. Segments 8 to 10 are blackish above. The yellow of the little expanded 
side margins is full length on 7, divided into basal and apical spots on 8, and 
smaller apical spots only on 9 and 10. The superior appendages of the male 
are yellowish. 

t Perhaps the west coast G. borealis of McLachlan should rank as a distinct 
species. Kennedy thought so, and gave some good reasons ('17, p. 527). 



GOMPHOIDES 



63 



The senior author found nymphs of this species exceedingly abun- 
dant in the sandy bed of the Santa Ana River below Riverside Cali- 
fornia in April. A dozen or more of them could be taken at each sweep 
of the sieve net on the bottom. In May the adults were seen along 
the upper reaches of the Santa Margarita River further southward 
They flew swiftly from one resting place on the bare sand to another, 
and were very inconspicuous when at rest. They were not especially 
difficult to approach by stalking, or to capture when at rest. 

Davis ('13, p. 19) found them on several occasions in May and June 
flying up and down a shaded ditch by the side of the railroad track 
at Lakehurst, N. J. 




stigmata 



4. GoMPHOiDES Selys 

This is another tropical American genus of about a dozen species, 
of which a single one enters our limits on the Mexican border. That 
one is a big yellowish clear-winged species. Its triangles are all un- 
usually broad and divided by cross veins into several cells. Its anal 
loop of several cells is well delimited in the rear by the converging 
branches of the anal veins. Its stigma is large and heavily pigmented. 
Texas. 

The nymph is a burrower in muddy stream beds. It is recognizable 
by the sharp middorsal ridge ending in a straight spine on the tapering 
abdominal segments, and when grown, by the length of the lateral 
appendages, these then being about as long as the other appendages. 



64 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

4. Gomphoides stigmata Say 
Say '39, p. 17: Mtk. Cat. p. 81 (as Negomphoides). 
Length 60 mm. Expanse 75 mm. Tex. 

A large yellowish species, broadly striped with brown, and with yellow- 
tipped abdomen. Face and occiput yellow. Thoracic stripes of the first pair well 
separated by the yellow of the carina, strongly widened and abbreviated at the 
collar, confluent with 2 at the crest. Stripes 2 and 3 of about equal width, con- 
fluent along the crest, but well separated below by a rather broad yellow line. 
Stripes 4 and 5 rather broad, coytinuous, well defined. Stripe 4 is connected 
with 3 below and with 5 at its upper end. The mid dorsal yellow triangles of 
the abdomen run down at the sides on segments 2 to 7, giving a ringed appear- 
ance to the abdomen and they overspread almost the whole of segments 8 tolO. 
Appendages yellow. 

The legs are yellowish at base, black lined on the sides of the femora toward 
the apex, bright yellow on the kneecap at the base of the tibia, and elsewhere 
brown. Wings hyaline, with brown stigma, and yellow costa. 

F. G. Schaupp's field notes on this species, made at Double Horn 
Creek near Shovel Mount, Texas, in 1907, and not hitherto published 
are as follows: 

Sits usually on protruding stones in the middle of the creek; very shy; flies 
low when disturbed, sometimes returning to the old place, but usually selecting 
another stone on the other side of the creek, where it cannot be crossed. 

5. Aphylla Selys 
Elongate, smooth, clear- winged dragonflies of obscure brownish 
coloration. The nodus of the fore wing is well out beyond the middle 
of the wing. There is no anal loop. The triangle in both wings is gen- 
erally divided into 3 cells. The inferior abdominal appendage of the 
male is rudimentary. 

A tropical American genus of half a dozen species, and the following 
which just enters our southeastern limits. Habits unrecorded. 

5. Aphylla producta Selys 
Selya '54, p. 79: Mtk. Cat. p. 80. 
Length 42 mm. Expanse 68 mm. Fla. 

An elongated brownish species, very obscurely striped on the thorax and 
with abdomen almost unmarked. Face brown, with a greenish anteclypeus. 
Occiput pale, with a rather wide black border. Thoracic stripes of the first two 
pairs very broad and broadly confluent at the ends, covering the front of the 
thorax except for two wholly inclosed linear-oblong pale lines. Stripes 2 and 3 
are confluent at the ends but well separated between by a pale line. Stripes 4 and 
5 diffuse but entire, obscure. The legs are brown with the femora somewhat paler. 
The wings are subhyaline, with brown veins and tawny stigma; costa brown. 
The usual mid-dorsal line on the abdomen is obsolete except for triangular spots 
on the two basal segments. Segments 8, 9, 10 and appendages somewhat rufous. 

The nymph is unknown. 



HAGENIUS 



65 



6. Cyclophylla Selys 

Elongate, brownish, clear-winged dragonflies of moderate or rather 
large size. The triangle of the forewing points outward, the angulation 
of the cubital vein being moderate. In both wings the triangle is 
divided by one to three cross veins. There is an anal loop of two or 
three cells. (For an exotic nymph see Ndm. '11, p. 394.) 

This is another tropical American genus of about a dozen species, one 
of which just enters our limits on the Mexican border. 




producta 



protricta 



6. Cyclophylla protracta Selys 

Selys '59, p. 546: Mtk. Cat. p. 80. 

Length 68 mm. Expanse 86 mm. Tex. 

This is a fine brown species with a long slender abdomen. Face yellowish, cross 
striped with pale brown; labrum bordered and crossed with reddish brown. 
Thorax brown striped with bright yellow. Brown stripes of the first pair con- 
fluent with each other and with 2, around the narrow, isolated, yellow stripes 
upon the front. Stripes 2 and 3 confluent at ends; separated between by a narrow 
yellow line. Stripes 4 and 5 complete, confluent above; 4 broader than 5. Ab- 
domen yellowish above, brown at sides and across apices of segments 2-9; more 
brown posteriorly, 10 yellow. Appendages brown. 

7. Hagenius Selys 

These are big black stout-bodied, long-legged dragonflies. The wings 
are long and powerful, with a rather narrow but well-braced stigma. 
The triangles are elongated, and angulated on the outer side, with a 
well developed trigonal supplement springing from the angle. The anal 



66 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

loop is 4 celled and a little broader in the female than in the male. The 
male abdominal appendages are short and blunt. 

This genus, properly delimited, includes only the single widely dis- 
tributed North American species, described below. The nearest allies 
are in Japan and India. 

The nymph is of most extraordinary form, the abdomen being flat 
and nearly circular, with a row of blunt dorsal hooks down the middle. 
The enlarged third joint of the antenna also is flat, and their are two 
pairs of tubercles upon the head. It is a sprawler amid the bottom silt 
rather than a burro wer; and it is a stiff ungainly slow-moving awkward 
creature. 

7. Hagenius brevistylus Selys 
The Black Dragon 

Selys '54, p. 82: Mtk. Cat. p. 82: Calv. '17, p. 205: Howe '18, p. 28: Wmsn. '20, 

p. 81; Howe '23, p. 130: Garm. '27, p. 12. 
Length 80 mm. Expanse 110 mm. Me. to Md., to Wis., Tex. and B. C. 

This is the black giant of the order in North America. Face cross-lined with 
black on all the sutures. Occiput black. Thoracic stripes of the first two pairs 
overspread most of the front of the thorax, leaving only a pair of linear-oval pale 
stripes entirely surrounded by confluence of stripes 1 and 2 at both ends. Stripe 3 
is also very broad, confluent with 2 at both ends and just above the middle, 
leaving intervening pale streaks above and below the middle confluence. Stripes 
4 and 5 broad and continuous and well defined. Legs black. Wings hyaline, 
costal edge yellowish, stigma brown. The middorsal pale stripe of the abdomen 
is abbreviated on segments 6 and 7 and wanting farther back, 8, 9 and 10 and 
appendages being wholly black. (Figs. 18 and 19 on pages 36 and 37) 

This is a wide ranging species with a long season of flight. It flies 
from June to September. It frequents clear woodland streams and is 
not at all rare. It flies swiftly from one resting-place to another. 
When at rest on a rail or on the ground it is approachable by careful 
stalking, and is not at all impossible to capture with a net. The female 
drops her eggs during flight, unattended by the male. She strikes the 
water surface at points wide apart, liberating 10 to 20 eggs each de- 
scent. Thus they are well distributed. The senior author saw Hagenius 
capture a big Gomphus in flight, carry it up to a high bough on a tree, 
strip off its wings and send them fluttering down, as it began its repast. 
Davis ('13, p. 19) records having seen Hagenius on Jefferson Mountain 
near New Foundland, N. J., chasing butterflies, though he saw none 
of the latter captured. Wilhamson ('20, p. 81) records the capture of 
a female Hagenius in the center of the business part of the city of 
Bluffton, Ind. 



OPHIOGOMPHUS 67 

The nymphs frequent trashy shores, preferably in running water. 
Several different sizes of nymphs are usually found together, indicating 
that a number of years are probably required for development. The 
grotesque cast skins left behind at transformation, sticking to logs 
and trash, are usually within a foot of the water's edge. 

8. Ophiogomphus Selys 

These are stream-haunting dragonflies of moderate size and of green- 
ish or gray-green coloration. The inferior appendage of the male is 
large and four-lobed, and the occiput of the female usually bears 
sharp thorn-like horns.* The triangles are all free from cross veins. 
The anal loop is semicircular and well defined posteriorly by conver- 
gence of veins Ai and A2 and a connecting cross vein. Usually it is 
divided into three cells. 

This is a holartic genus with a score or more of species, most of which 
are North American. The adults are often locally abundant, but they 
are of elusive habits and are not commonly collected. They are singu- 
larly difficult to see as they flit about the rapids that are their breeding 
places. 

Kennedy carefully studied this genus in the mountains of the Pacific 
slope. He says of it ('17, p. 529) : 

The imagoes of the various species spend the greater part of their time seated 
on gravel bars from which they fly up at intervals to catch insects or to intercept 
individuals of their own kind. They are rarely found far from running water. 
Copulation is a lengthy affair. The male usually captures the female as she 
flies along the water's edge on her business of oviposition, when he grasps her 
head with his feet and then, bending his abdomen forward, grasps her occiput 
with his claspers while freeing his feet. She in the meantime bends her abdomen 
forward and copulates. After a short nuptial flight the pair settles on some bush 
and remains in copulation many minutes. In ovipositing the female deposits 
the eggs in swift water, usually on rapids, where she flies back and forth dipping 

the tip of her abdomen in the stream. Though the 
eggs are laid on the shallow rapids, the nymphs 
during the latter part of their life live in the mud- 
dier bottom of the quieter water, for the exuviae 
^^'^ii'-'w^iujitinjj I ^\ are usually found along the edges of the deeper 
pools. 

The nymphs of Ophiogomphus are shallow 
burrowers in the sandy or gravelly beds of 
clear flowing streams and lakes. They are 

Fig. 28. Tip of labium of ^^^^^^ ^'^^ ^^.^^"^^ ^^^ inconspicuous. They 
Ophiogomphus, with its agree m havmg a rather short stocky body 
lateral lobe more enlarged, with divergent wing cases, and abruptly 
* Whence such specific names as 0. biton and 0. spinicorne. 




68 



DRAGON FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



pointed abdomen. The labium is short, the mentum little longer than 
wide, parallel sided. The median lobe is convexly rounded, its edge 
is beset with minute quadrate denticles (a score or more of them) at 
the base of the fringe of scale-like hairs. The lateral lobe is rounded 
on the end, there being no end hook, and the inner margin is beset with 
very numerous minute teeth. 

As nymphs the species are not sharply defined. Such characters as 
have hitherto (1927) been found for distinguishing the known forms are 
given in the following table : 







The 


Known Ny 


mphs 




Species 


Length 


Teeth on 


Lat. 


Dorsal 


Described 






lat. lobe 


spines on 


hooks 


by 


aspersus 


27 


12-15 


7-9 


2-9 


Ndm. 01, p. 438 


bison 


29 


14 


6-9 


2-9 


Kndy. '17, p. 547 


carolinus 


26 




7-9 


2-9 


Hag. '85, p. 258 


carolus 


26 


14 


7-9 


7-9 


Ndm. '01, p. 439 


colubrinus 


23 




7-9 


2,7-9 


Hag. '85, p. 257 


morrisoni 


28 


12-15 


7-9 


2-9 


Kndy, '17, p. 548 


occidentis 


28 




6-9 


2-9 


Hag. '85, p. 259 


severus 


28 


14 


7-9 


2-9 


Hag. '85, p. 259 


rupinsulensis 


25 




6-9 


2-9 


Ndm. & Hart. '01, p. 60 



KEY TO THE SPECIES 

Adults 

Face cross striped with black 2. 

Face not cross striped with black 3. 

Expanse 64 mm. ; clypeal stripe entire colubrinus, p. 70 

Expanse 48 mm.; clypeal stripe interrupted. . . .anomalous, p. 70 

Tibiae yellow externally 4. 

Tibiae black 10. 

Stripe 2 sinuous on the front margin phaleratus, p. 71 

Stripe 2 straight or gently curved or wanting 5. 

Stripes 4 and 5 wanting 6. 

Stripes 4 and 5 present 8. 

Stripe 1 present 7. 

Stripe 1 absent 9- 

Hair of thorax above hind coxae white occidentis, p. 71 

Hair of thorax above hind coxae brown 8. 



OPHIOGOMPHUS 69 

8 Male, superior appendages in dorsal view acutely pointed; female, 

with two thorn-like spines on head before occipital ridge 

aspersus, p. 71 
Male, superior appendages in dorsal view obliquely truncated; 
female with no spines on head before occipital ridge 

carolinus, p. 72 

9 Stripe 2 wanting, or almost so 10. 

Stripe 2 almost entire rupinsulensis, p. 73 

10 Stripe 2 a small round spot; inferior appendages half as long as 

superior arizonicus, p. 73 

Stripe 2 vestigial or wanting; inferior appendages nearly as jlong 
as the superiors severus, p. 74 



icl 



L 



Fig. 29. Diagram of color pattern of Gomphus graslinellis. cr, crest; ca, 
carina; c, collar; W, wing bases; L, leg bases; Sp, spiracle; C, collar band; 
1, median dorsal stripes; 2, antehumeral stripe; 3, humeral stripe; 4 and 5, 
lateral stripes. 

11 Tarsi yellow dorsally montanus, p. 75 

Tarsi blackish or brown 12, 

12 Stripe 1, 2 and 3 broad aspersus, p. 71 

Stripe 1, 2 and 3 very narrow morrisoni, p. 75 

13 Stripe 2 free above 14. 

Stripe 2 fused to 3 above 15. 

14 Stripes 1 broad and conjoined howei, p. 76 

Stripes 1 narrow and separate carolus, p. 77 

15 Expanse 66 mm.; stripe 1 broad bison, p. 77 

Expanse 55 mm.; stripe 1 narrow mainensis, p. 78 



70 



DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



8. Ophiogomphus colubrinus Selys 

Selys '54, p. 40: Mtk. Cat. p. 84: Howe '18, p. 29: '23, p. 128: Garm. '27, p. 133. 
Length 51 mm. Expanse 64 mm. Me., N. F. 

A greenish species rather heavily marked with black. Face greenish cross 
lined with black on all the sutures and around the free border of the labrum. 
Occiput greenish. Thoracic stripes of the first pair confluent, rather narrower 
than the bordering pale stripes, and slightly widened forward. Stripes 2 and 3 
well developed, separated by a narrow green line, 4 and 5 obsolete. Legs blackish 
except at extreme base. Wings hyaline with yellow stigma. Abdomen with the 
usual maculose middorsal line. Appendages yellowish, the inferior blackish on 
its edges. 

9. Ophiogomphus anomalus Harvey 

Hrvy. '98, p. 60 (fig.): Calv. '01, p. 241: Mtk. Cat. p. 83: Howe '18, p. 28: Garm. 

'27, p. 133. 
Length 47 mm. Expanse 58 mm. Me. 

A slender greenish species rather heavily striped with black. Face greenish 
cross-striped with black on both the frontal and labral and on the middle of 
the clypeal sutures, and around the front border of the labrum. Occiput greenish 
with blackish on outermost angles that are continued in a black ridge behind 
the eye. Thoracic stripes of the first pair confluent and slightly widened forward 




colubrinus 





phaleratus 



to the collar. Stripe 2 presents a free angle above and then is fused with 3 for a 
space, then separated by a greenish hne for most of its length, and then fused 
with 3 again below. Stripe 4 is obsolete above the spiracle; from that level a 
blackish bar runs backward and downward to join the lower end of stripe 5, 
making a black N. Stripe 5 complete continuous. Wings hyaline; stigma brown. 
Legs black. Abdomen black with middorsal and lateral yellow stripes the 
whole length; reduced basal spots on the middle segments; on 8 clubshaped; on 
9 square; on 10 round, pointed behind. Side margins of 9 and 10 entirely yellow; 
on 9 a C-shaped mark. Appendages black. 



OPHIOGOMPHUS 71 

10. Ophiogomphus phaleratus Needham 

Ndm. '02, p. 277; Mtk. Cat. p. 85: Kndy '17, p. 543 (as occidentis). 
Length 50 mm. Expanse 62 mm. Ore., Calif. 

A handsome yellowish species striped with brown and with a brown abdomen 
that is half ringed and tipped with yellow. Face and occiput yellow. Thoracic 
stripes of the first pair divergent at the lower end of the carina, widened down- 
ward. Stripe 2 complete, widest in the middle and with bowed anterior border, 
confluent above with 3 and with the brown of the crest, separated from 3 below 
by a narrow pale line. Stripe 4 obsolete except for a dash at the extreme ends. 
Stripe 5 an obscure and narrow line in the bottom of the suture. An inverted 
U-shaped mark joins the lower ends of 4 and 5. Legs brown, yellow at base and 
on the outer side of the tibiae. The middorsal line of pale spots on the abdomen 
is abbreviated on the middle segments, where the bright yellow is surrounded 
by black U-marks opening forward; 9 is mostly and 10 wholly yellow. The moder- 
ately expanded side margins of segments 7 to 10 are yellow bounded by brown 
externally on 7 and 8. Appendages yellow. 

Kennedy ('17, p. 543) records finding this species emerging in abun- 
dance from the Columbia River at Umatilla, Oregon on July 13, 1913. 

11. Ophiogomphus occidentis Hagen 

Hag. '82, p. 173: Ndm. '99, p. 238. 

Length 53 mm. Expanse 68 mm. B. C, Wash., Utah 

This species is barely distinct from 0. severus, but has a little better develop- 
ment of thoracic stripe 1; the black of the abdomen is darker and there is less 
yellow toward the tip; the superior appendage of the male is less pointed, and the 
notch in the anterior genital hamule more square. 

12. Ophiogomphus aspersus Morse 
Morse '95, p. 209: Mtk. Cat. p. 83: Howe '23, p. 129: Garm. '27, p. 132. 
Length 48 mm. Expanse 60 mm. N. Y., Mass. 

A greenish species with narrow stripings of brown on the thorax and with 
black feet. Face and occiput greenish. Thoracic stripes of the first pair present 
or absent; when present narrow, separate, abbreviated in front, convex ex- 
teriorly, being narrowed to both ends, conjoined with the brown of the crest 
above but isolated below. Stripe 2 isolated at both ends well separated from 3, 
which is broader and arches forward to join the crest above the free end of 2. 
Stripe 4 is wanting above the spiracle, and of 5 there is hardly a trace. Legs 
pale to near the knees, then brown, the tibiae yellow externally, and the tarsi 
black. Wings hyaline; costa yellow; stigma tawny. 

Abdomen brown, with the usual middorsal line of yellow spots that are 
triangular on segments 3 to 5, subquadrate on the basal third of 9, and full length 
lanceolate on 10. Appendages black. 

The senior author observed this species at Saranac Inn, N. Y., 
where it was common. Many imagos of both sexes were observed 



72 



DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



flying over Little Clear Creek in the places where the shallow current 
rippled over sand. The males would fly back and forth a few times and 
then rest for a time on some prominent twig near shore, generally on 
a higher bank. They were not dijBficult to approach or to capture when 
at rest. Except when ovipositing, the females seeemed to remain less 
in the vicinity of the water. The female makes a succession of sweeps 
back and forth near the head of some little riffle striking the water, 
after short flights, again and again near the same place, leaving her 
eggs in it. 

Imagos, living and mature, are of a rich deep green color with the 
usual oblique stripes of blackish brown. Unfortunately the color fades 
readily, even whey daylight is excluded. 






The nymphs were very common in the sandy bed of the creek. 
The cast skins were abundant along the banks through the months of 
June and July, sticking to whatever support offered, within a foot of 
the edge of the water. 

The nymph is a rapid burrower, trailing along at a slight depth 
through nearly clean sand under the currents, often leaving a faint 
line behind showing where the tip of the abdomen, upturned for res- 
piration, has pushed the sand grains aside. 



13. Ophiogomphus carolinus Hagen 

Hag. '85, p. 259 (nymph): Ndm. '99, p. 238: Mtk. Cat. p. 83. 
Length 48 mm. Expanse 60 mm. N. C. 

Similar in coloration to 0. aspersus. Stripe 1 of the thorax is more distinct; 
4 and 5 are absent. There is no pale median spot on the middle of the posterior 
part of frons (not always present in aspersus); the pale line on exterior of tibiae is 
narrower. The real distinction between the two species is that of genitalia as 
stated in our key. 



OPHIOGOMPHUS 



73 



14. Ophiogomphus rupinsulensis Walsh 

Walsh '62, p. 388: Mtk. Cat. p. 85: Howe '18, p. 29: '23, p. 129, Garm. '27, p. 138. 

Syn: pictus Ndm. 
Length 50 mm. Expanse 62 mm. Me. to Pa., to Wis., to Kan. 

A fine greenish species with brown shoulder stripes, and a rusty tipped ab- 
domen. Face and occiput yellow. The blunt and wrinkled occipital horns of the 
female are situated behind the eyes and their tips are directed toward the 
median line. Thoracic stripes of the first pair wanting. Stripe 2 abbreviated 
above, not reaching the crest, widely separated from 3 by a greenish line better 





rupinsulensis 







defined on rear margin than on the front. Stripe 3 continuous, widest toward 
the upper end. Stripes 4 and 5 obsolete. Legs brown, pale to near the knees 
and on the outside of the tibiae. Wings hyaline costa yellow, stigma rufous. 
The middorsal pale line of the abdomen is continuous on the basal segments 
and becomes diffuse and obscure on 5 and 6, and has a russet tinge on the 
remaining segments. Segments 7 to 9 are black above in the apical half, narrowly 
divided by rufous on the middle line in the male. Appendages pale or rufous. 

Muttkowski ('08) reports this species as occurring about moist 
Woods and marshes from May to July. 



15. Ophiogomphus arizonicus Kennedy 

Kndy. '17, p. 538 (figs.). 

Length 54 mm. Expanse 72 mm. Ariz. 

This is a pale yellowish desert species, with stripes of thorax reduced to a 
minimum. Face and occiput yellow. Female with one pair of occipital horns. 
Thoracic stripes 1 and 4 are wanting; 2 is represented by a roundish spot mid- 
way the space that stripe usually occupies; 3, a narrow but complete line, and 
5, a point of brown in the lower end of its suture. Legs black with yellow bases; 
the tibiae are pale externally. Feet black. Wings hyaline, stigma tawny. The 



74 



DRAGON FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



usual middorsal pale stripe on the abdomen is invaded at the sides by brown 
and bilobed on segments 1 to 3 and to a less extent on 4 to 8 where becoming 
abbreviated, reduced on 9 to a small round spot, and outspread again to cover 
10. Segments 7 to 9 are broadly yellow on the moderately dilated side margins. 



16. Ophiogomphus severus Hagen 

Hag. '74, p. 591: Mtk. Cat. p. 85: Kndy. '15, p. 341 and '17, p. 531 (figs.). 
Whitehouse '17, p. 99. 

Length 53 mm. Expanse 68 mm. Colo., Wye, N. M. 

This is a large greenish gray desert species, with scanty development of color 

pattern. Face and hornless occiput yellow, the latter with touches of black on its 

outermost angles. Thoracic stripes 1, 2, 4, and 5, obsolete, and 3 represented 




by a very narrow and obscure pale brownish line. Legs blackish, yellow before 
the knee, on the outer face of tibiae and tarsal segments. Wings hyaline, costa 
yellow, stigma tawny. The usual pale color of the dorsum of the abdomen 
overspreads the sides of the basal segments but is delimited in the rear by black- 
ish V-marks on segments 2 to 9; 10 obscure'. Appendages yellow. 

Whitehouse ('17, p. 99) says that this species frequents sandy roads 
near the river and rests on the soil frequently. Kennedy ('15, p. 341) 
observed that 

On Satus Creek south of Alfalfa (Washington) the emergence commenced 
the second week in June and lasted until the first week in July. It occurred from 
9 o'clock in the morning until 4 o'clock in the afternoon, the nymph seldom 
crawling more than six inches from the water. Oviposition was most common on 
about August 1 and the last specimens were seen August 24. Oviposition occurred 



OPHIOGOMPHUS 75 

almost altogether on the riffles, but emergence was almost altogether along the 
deeper mud-bottomed pools. In copulation the male sought the female while 
she rested on a stone. Copulation occurred immediately after the male grasped 
the female. The latter would rest on a stone in a riffle and every few seconds 
make a short flight, striking the tip of her abdomen on the surface of the water 
just once, when she would rest for a few seconds on a stone and repeat the 
process. These short flights were repeated five or six times in succession. By 
August 1 many individuals showed age in the frayed wings, the olive coloration, 
and in their difficulty in standing. Frequently when one would attempt to alight 
on a stone it would fall over on its side or tumble on its head. During the first 
part of their season they were most abundant on the gravel bars, but during the 
oviposition period they were most abundant about the riffles. 

17. Ophiogomphus montanus Selys 

Selys '78, p. 430: Mtk. Cat. p. 84. 

Length 54 mm. Expanse 64 mm. Mont. 

A greyish green western species, faintly striped with brown. Face and 
occiput greenish, the latter without horns and with a touch of black on its 
outermost angles. Thoracic stripes of the first pair narrow, parallel sides, 
separated by the pale carina. Stripe 2 broader and well separated from 3, which 
is of equal breadth, but tapers downward. Stripe 4 obsolete above the spiracle, 
cross connected at the spiracle with the lower end of 5 by two narrow curved 
lines; 5 continuous but narrow. Legs brown, pale on base of femora, and outer 
side of tibiae. Wings hyaline, stigma tawny. The pale middorsal line on the 
abdomen is reduced to elongate triangular spots on the middle segments, and to 
small round spots on 7 and 8 and 9; 10 wholly pale. The slightly dilated side 
margins of segments 6 to 9 are yellow; 6 and 7 black margined. Appendages 
yellow. 

18. Ophiogomphus morrisoni Selys 

Selys '79, p. 65: Mtk. Cat. p. 84: Kndy. '17, p. 534: '15, p. 336. 

Var: nevadensis Kndy. 
Length 50 mm. Expanse 68 mm. Nev., Calif. 

This is a large grayish green species obscurely striped with brown, having 
the legs brown and yellow and the abdomen chrome yellow ringed with black. 

Face and hornless occiput yellow, the latter touched with black on its outer- 
most angles. Thoracic stripes of the first pair narrow, barely reaching the collar 
below; stripe 2 broad, abbreviated and isolated above and mostly separated 
from 3 except at lower end; stripe 3 widened above, confiuent with 5 above and 
4 below; stripe 4 present only below level of spiracle; stripe 5 narrow, complete. 
Legs yellow at base, on femora beneath and toward base and on tibiae; else- 
where black. Abdomen yellow with middorsal and lateral rows of broad yellow 
spots, the dorsal row club-shaped on 2-9 and narrowing to rearward, the lateral 
spots linear, marginal, and notched by a black spot at the hind angle on 3-8; 
9 is all yellow at the side and the side spot of 10 is confluent with the dorsal spot 
around the hind margin. 



76 



DRAGON FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



Kennedy found this species abundant at Donner Lake, Oregon, 
where he says ('17, p. 535) it is found on the gravel beaches. 

The males rest on the cobblestones scattered over the gravel or pursue each 
other in zig-zag flights along the lake shore. The females are not as numerous 
and are usually found seated on stones very close to the edge of the water. Here 
the males find them and take them back among the bushes in copulation. In 







ovipositing the female poises just over the water and as the wave passes beneath 
her drops the tip of her abdomen into the water raising it again as soon as the 
wave has passed. Emergence occurred between 10 in the morning and 4 in the 
afternoon. Usually the nymph crawled just above the wash of the waves. Robins 
caught many of the tenerals among the rocks. 

Kennedy has described ('17, p. 536) as 0. morrisoni nevadensis a 
paler, desert inhabiting variety, in which the yellow dorsal and lateral 
spots are confluent at the base of the middle abdominal segments. 



19. Ophiogomphus howei Bromley 
Brom. '24, p. 343: Calv. '24, p. 345: Garm. '27, p. 135. 
Length 33 mm. Expanse 43 mm. Me., Pa. 

A short stocky greenish species striped with brown. Face and occiput yellow. 
Thoracic stripes of the first pair confluent dilated toward the crest and narrowed 
forward. Stripe 2 free above and rather widely separated from 3, which is of 
equal width. Stripe 4 wanting above the spiracle, and forked below. Stripe 5 
complete, narrow, and with an inverted U before its lower end. Hind wings 
flavescent on the midst of their basal half, strongly in the female, faintly in the 
male, legs blackish, yellowish at base. The yellowish line of middorsal spots is 
wide on segment 2, abbreviated on the middle segments disappearing on 8 or 9. 



OPHIOGOMPHUS 77 

The moderately dilated side margins of segments 7 to 9 are yellow, bordered 
with black distally and externally. Appendages brown. 

20. Ophiogomphus carolus Needham 

Ndm. '97, p. 183: Mtk. Cat. p. 83: Howe '18, p. 29: '23, p. 129: Garm. '27, p. 134. 
Length 46 mm. Expanse 56 mm. N. Y. 

A rather small greenish species, smartly striped with brown. Face and occiput 
yellow, the latter with or without horns. When horns are present they are small, 
a single pair, close together situated just in front of the hind (occipital) margin. 
Thoracic stripes of the first pair narrow, separate, parallel-sided, complete; 
together, narrower than the stripe of yellow at either side. Stripe 2 abbreviated 
at both ends and separated from 3 by a rather wide green stripe. Stripe 3 wider, 
especially near its upper end. Stripe 4 obsolete except for a dash below the 
spiracle, and stripe 5 complete. Legs brown, the femora paler. Wings hyaline, 
costa blackish, stigma cinereous. The middorsal line of pale markings on the 
abdomen is broadest and completest on 2, bilobed and narrowed on 3 to 7 reduced 
to a small round spot on 8 and 9; 10 and appendages pale. The side margins of 
the moderately expanded segments 7 to 10 are yellowish within a narrow brown 
outer marginal line. Appendages pale. 

The nymphs may be collected by hundreds in Ithaca, N. Y. in April, 
and in May the banks of the stream are fairly covered with cast skins, 
but the adults are rarely seen. 

21. Ophiogomphus bison Selys 
Selys '73, p. 496: Mtk. Cat. p. 83: Butler '14, p. 346: Kndy. '17, p. 540 (figs.). 

Syn: sequoiarum Butler 
Length 50 mm. Expanse 66 mm. Calif., Nev. 

Our largest species and a very handsome one; oUve green stripes with brown, 
with half-ringed black and yellow abdomen. Face and occiput yellow, the latter 
with a pair of slender horns placed close together. Thoracic stripes of the first 
pair rather narrow, parallel-sided, constricted before the collar to a narrow line 
which crosses it. The upper angle is prolonged at the crest to join stripe 2, 
which is fused with stripe 3 in its upper third and then separated by a narrow 
greenish line below. These two stripes are rather broad and heavily colored. 
Stripes 4 and 5 almost obsolete, the former practically wanting, the latter a 
mere black line in the bottom of its suture. Legs brown, paler basally. Wings 
hyaline with black stigma. The middorsal pale stripe of abdomen is a well 
marked row of abbreviated spots surrounded and invaded at the sides by brown 
on the middle segments, broadened on 9 and wholly overspreading 10. The 
side margins of the somewhat dilated segments 7 to 9 are yellow surrounded 
distally with black. Appendages yellow, tipped with blackish. 

Kennedy ('17, p. 541) says that 

"This species occurs on the smaller perennial streams emptying into San 
Francisco Bay and Monterey Bay, also on the smaller tributaries of the Sacra- 
mento River. On the Sacramento itself and its larger tributaries it appears to be 



78 



DRAGON FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



displaced by Ophiogomphus occidentis. I have not found it on streams which 
carry much snow water. It is found on the same streams that are occupied by 
Octogomphus, but the latter stays on the torrential headwaters while bison 
occupies the lowland sluggish portion of the stream. 




"It is usually found on gravel bars bordering a riffle and seldom more than five 
or six are found at one place. The females oviposit where the water is swiftest.' 

22. Ophiogomphus mainensis Packard 

Pkrd. '63, p. 255: Mtk. Cat. p. 84: Ndm. '97, p. 182: Harv. '01, p. 209: Wood- 
ruff '14, p. 61: Howe '18, p. 29: '23, p. 128: Garm. '27, p. 137. 

Syn: johannus Ndm. 
Length 42 mm. Expanse 55 mm. Me., N. Y., Pa. 

A small yellowish green species, striped with brown. Head and thorax clothed 
with brownish hairs. Face and occiput yellow. The occipital border is cleft and 
produced into a pair of long sharp horns that are directed forward. Thoracic 
stripes of the first pair narrowly linear, slightly separated by the pale carina, 
complete from crest to collar, much narrower than the pale area alongside. 
Stripe 2 free at upper end, then fused a little with 3, then separated by a pale line 
below, hardly as wide as 3. Stripe 4 almost obsolete, reduced to two dashes 
at the ends. Stripe 5 continuous, narrowly linear. Legs brownish, pale on under 
side of femora. Wings hyaline costa scarcely yellow, stigma pale. Middorsal 
line of pale markings on abdomen reduced to abbreviated triangles on the middle 
segments, absent on 7 and 8 reappearing on 9; 10 pale. The lateral margins of 
the slightly dilated 7 to 9th segments yellow, with a brown border about the pos- 
tero lateral margins of the segments. Appendages brown. 

9. Erpetogomphus Selys 
These are clear-winged dragonflies of elongate form and rather 
striking coloration. Patterns in black and yellow with much repetition 
on the segments of the long body have suggested a lot of snaky names 



ERPETOGOMPHUS 79 

for the species, as well as the one for the genus. In both wings triangles 
are rather long and free from cross veins, and there is no development 
of the anal loop. The long bifurcated inferior abdominal appendage 
of the male is sharply upcurved in its apical half. The female lacks 
occiptal horns. 

The nymphs of this genus are so like those of Ophiogomphus that 
up to the present time (1928) no means has been found for disting- 
guishing them. One species has been reared E. designatus (Hagen, 
'85, p. 255), and another, referred by supposition E. compositus, has 
been described (Cabot, '72, p. 4). 

This is a North American genus, with several species in Mexico and 
Central America, (one doubtfully reported from Brazil), but with most 
of the species occurring within our range. The adults may be dis- 
tinguished as follows: 

KEY TO THE SPECIES 
Adults 

1 Face striped with black 2. 

Face not striped with black 3. 

2 Thoracic stripe 1 widest in middle diadophis, p. 79 

Thoracic stripe 1 not widest in middle lampropeltis, p. 79 

3 Stripe 2 free above designatus, p. 80 

Stripe 2 fused with crest above compositus, p. 80 

23. Erpetogomphus diadophis Calvert 
Calv. '05, p. 167: Mtk. Cat. p. 87. 

Length 48 mm. Expanse 58 mm. Tex 

Head and thorax yellowish green. Face greenish yellow with cross stripes 
of brown. Vertex and occiput brown. Thoracic stripes of the first pair separate, 
not reaching collar, wider in the middle; stripe 2 broad, isolated above, tapering 
downward; 3 narrow complete, narrowly confluent with 1 on crest; 4 and 5 very 
narrow, complete, 4 subobsolete. Legs blackish except for base of femora. Wings 
hyaline, more or less yellowish at base, especially in front; costa lined with 
yellow; stigma brown with black bordering veins. Abdominal segment 1 yellow; 
2 with a middorsal full length narrow yellow Hne; 3 and 4 with abbreviated mid- 
dorsal line conjoined with a transverse yellow one, the latter repeated on 5, 6 
and 7, interrupted in middle on 7. Round lateral spots on 3 to 7. 8 to 10 obscure 
brownish, paler on sides. Appendages brown. Male unknown. 

24. Erpetogomphus lampropeltis Kennedy 
Kndy. '18, p. 297. 

Length 45 mm. Expanse 56 mm. Calif. 

Face grayish, cross lined with brown. Vertex brown. Thorax brownish in 

front with stripes 1 and 2 separated by isolated pale lines that diverge forward; 



80 



DRAGON FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



2 and 3 by a pale hair line (widened above to a triangular spot) ; stripes 4 and 5 
complete, 4 very irregular and conjoined to 5 above. Legs black beyond the 
knees and on dorsal side of femora; grayish at base. Wings hyaline; stigma black. 
Abdomen blackish in middle, whitish toward the base, orange brown toward the 





^ladophls 



deslgnatus 





tip. Segments 1 and 2 with middorsal pale stripe which on 3 becomes a triangle, 
and on 4, 5 and 6 a lanceolate spot; 2-7 with basal pale rings. Very broad on 7; 
7-9 with narrow apical rings. 10 and appendages wholly pale. 

25. Erpetogomphus designatus Hagen 

Hag. '58, p. 401: Mtk. Cat. p. 86. 

Length 50 mm. Expanse 70 mm, Kan. and Ohio to Tex. 

Face yellow; labrum margined with brown anteriorly. Thorax yellow; stripes 
of the first pair broad, separate, widened forward almost reaching the collar; 
stripe 2 isolated above and below; stripe 3 complete and straight; stripe 4 inter- 
rupted in the middle; stripe 5 complete. Legs blackish on superior surface and 
tarsi, paler basally. Wings hyahne; costa and area near triangles yellowish; veins 
brown; stigma black. Abdomen yellowish becoming reddish on terminal seg- 
ments. Middle segments ringed with blackish at the joints, yellowish at sides 
and with the usual middorsal yellow spots, pointed to rearward, confluent 
basally with the yellow of the sides. Appendages yellow. 



26. Erpetogomphus compositus Hagen 

Hag. '58, p. 400: Mtk. Cat. p. 86: Smn. '26, p. 22. 

Syn: viperinus Hag. 

Length 49 mm. Expanse 64 mm. Ore., Wyo. and Ariz, to Tex. and Calif- 

A greenish gray species striped with brown and with brownish abdomen. 

Face and occiput greenish. Thoracic stripes of the first pair narrow, confluent 

across the carina, parallel sided and isolated at ends. Stripe 2 narrower and well 



GOMPHUS 



81 



isolated from 3 by a broad yellow stripe; 3, 4 and 5 wider, entire. Legs blackish, 
greenish at base. Wings hyaline; stigma black. Abdomen with the usual line 
of middorsal yellow triangles narrowing apically and disappearing on segment 9; 
on 2 a rather broad trilobed band covers the dorsum, separated by black lines 
from the yellow of the sides. Appendages yellow. 

10. GoMPHUS Leach 

The Common Club-tails 

These are clear-winged dragonflies of moderate or large size with 
greenish bodies broadly striped with black or brown (the darker color 
sometimes prevailing over the green). The triangles are free from cross 
veins. There is no anal loop. There is a well developed brace vein 
behind the stigma. The inferior abdominal appendage of the male is 
broadly furcate. The side margins of the sub-terminal abdominal 
segments are often broadly dilated, forming the club shaped abdomen 
to which the generic name alludes, (Gomphus, a club). 




Fig. 30. Color pattern of front of thorax in Gomphus. Left to right: 
scudderi, plagiatus, amnicola, brevis, and villosipes. 

This is the largest genus in our fauna. It is distributed around the 
northern hemisphere but the eastern United States is the center of its 
abundance. It is not reported from below the Mexican border. 

The task of determining species in this genus is somewhat difficult. 
The ultimate criteria are found in the accessory genitalia in both sexes. 
The figures of these parts should therefore be carefully compared with 
the specimens collected before names are applied. 



ARTIFICIAL KEY TO THE SPECIES 
Adults 

Face cross lined with black or brown (faintly so in hrimleyi, 

cavillaris and abditus) 2. 

Face not cross lined with black or brown 15. 

Tibiae paler externally brimleyi, p. 106 

Tibiae not paler externally 3. 



82 DRAGON FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

3 Abdominal segment 9 shorter than 8; expanse less than 60. . . .4. 
Abdominal segment 9 as long as 8 7. 

4 Thoracic stripes of the first pair widened forward to form a tri- 

angle that is broader than the bordering pale color 5. 

These stripes little widened forward, narrower than the bordering 
pale color 6. 

5 Stripes 4 and 5 narrow parvidens, p. 89 

Stripes 4 and 5 broad alleni, p. 89 

6 Labrum with a median cross stripe; femora not pale beneath 

brevis, p. 88 

Labrum with black border but no median cross stripe; femora 

pale beneath viridifrons, p. 89 

7 With a single pale brown stripe across top of frons 

cavillaris, p. 105 
With black stripes on sutures of face 8. 

8 Expanse more than 80 9. 

Expanse less than 75 10. 

9 Stripe 4 continuous; sides of stripe one diverging; fronto-clypeal 

stripe a broad band dilatatus, p. 97 

Stripe 4 interrupted; sides of stripe one parallel sided; fronto- 
clypeal stripe a narrow line lineatifrons, p. 98 

10 Stripes 4 and 5 coalescent; base of femora yellow, .abditus, p. 110 
Stripes 4 and 5 separate; base of femora blackish 11. 

11 Labrum bordered with black and with a transverse black stripe . 12. 
Labrum bordered with black but with no transverse black stripe 

13. 

12 Occiput bordered with black; 10 black below adelphus, p. 94 

Occiput not bordered with black; 10 yellow below. . . vastus, p. 95 

13 Stripes one and two conjoined above collar; carina black 

scudderi, p. 95 

Stripes one and two separate above collar; carina more or less pale 

14. 

14 Side (anterior face) of hind femora yellow amnicola, p. 95 

Side of hind femora black consanguis, p. 94 

15 Stripes of pair one short and more or less indistinct (Arigomphus) 

16. 

Stripes of pair one longer and better defined 23. 

16 Occiput bordered with black villosipes, p. 116 

Occiput not bordered with black 17. 



GOMPHUS 83 

17 Abdominal appendages black 18. 

Abdominal appendages not black 19. 

18 Superior appendages of male forked and with a long external tooth 

cornutus, p. 115 

Superior appendages of male merely angulate externally 
whedoni, p. 115 

19 Stripe 5 complete lentulus, p. 113 

Stripe 5 obsolete or wanting 20. 

20 Stripes 2 and 3 conjoined above furcifer, p. 115 

Stripes 2 and 3 not conjoined above 21. 

21 Femora and tibiae uniformly pale pallidas, p. 114 

Femora and tibiae partly black 22, 

22 Stripes 2 and 3 subequal subapicalis, p. 114 

Stripes 2 and 3 reduced to a line submedianus, p. 113 

23 Stripes of pair one triangularly widened to collar 24- 

Stripes of pair one less widened to collar 25- 

24 Stripes 4 and 5 fused spiniceps, p. 101 

Stripes 4 and 5 obsolete notatus, p. 99 

Stripes 4 and 5 complete and separate; 1 and 2 conjoined below 
plagiatus, p. 101 

25 Tibiae yellow externally 26. 

Tibiae black externally 32. 

26 Stripe not connected with collar; legs more or less yellow 

intricatus, p. 99 

Stripe 2 connected with collar 27. 

27 Abdominal appendages yellow militaris, p. 104 

Abdominal appendages brown or black 28. 

28 Stripes 1 and 2 conjoined above the collar; 4 and 5 coalescent 

exilis, p. 108 

Stripes 1 and 2 not conjoined above the collar; 4 and 5 not co- 
alescent 29. 

29 Stripe 2 not connected with 1 and 3 30. 

Stripe 2 connected with 1 and 3 31. 

30 Length more than 50 externus, p. 90 

Length less than 50 minutus, p. 107 

31 Stripes 4 and 5 subequal; yellow on 9 and 10 

graslinellus and williamsoni, p. 107 

Stripe 4 wider than 5; brown on 9 and 10 lividus, p. 104 



84 



DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



32 Stripes 4 and 5 entirely wanting; expanse 72. . .olivaceous, p. 100 
Stripes 4 and 5 present, at least in part; expanse less than 70 . .33. 

33 Stripe 5 better developed than 4 34. 

Stripe 5 not better developed than 4 38. 

34 Expanse 52 abbreviatus, p. 89 

Expanse more than 60 35. 

35 Stripe 4 wanting 36. 

Stripe 4 partially present 37. 

36 Stripes 2 and 3 separate ; abdominal segment 9 partly yellow 

confraternus, p. 92 

Stripes 2 and 3 fused; 9 above wholly black donneri, p. 94 

37 Femora of male partly yellow crassus, p. 92 

Femora of male black fraternus, p. 90 

38 Stripes 4 and 5 about equally developed 39. 

Stripe 4 better developed than 5 41. 

39 Expanse more than 60 40. 

Expanse 54 quadricolor, p. Ill 

40 Legs all black; black points on occiput descriptus, p. 109 

Base of femora yellow; occiput yellow borealis, p. 110 

41 Stripe 4 well developed 42. 

Stripe 4 incomplete 44. 

42 Stripes 1 and 2 fused above collar spicatus, p. 108 

Stripes 1 and 2 not fused above collar 43. 

43 Expanse 48 cavillaris, p. 105 

Expanse 65 australis, p. 109 

44 Base of femora black hybridus, p. 90 

Base of femora yellow ventricosus, p. 97 



Adults 



Name H. Jem} 


Hamules^ 


Abd. 8^ 


Club of abdomen 


Gomphurus 
Gomphus 
Stylurus 
Arigomphus 


alike 
alike 
alike 
unlike 


variable 

erect 

aslant forward 

aslant backward 


variable 
square cut 
square cut 
oblique 


mostly wide 
moderate 
narrow 
moderate 



1 Hind femora of male and female. 

* Slant of posterior hamules of male. 

' Apical margin of eighth abdominal segment. 



GOMPHUS 



85 



Four fairly well defined subgenera are recognizable in our fauna, and, 
to further facilitate identification, these groups will be characterized, 
and supplemental keys supplied, for the species of each group. The 
known nymphs will be tabulated also under the four subgenera to which 
they seem to belong. 

Nymphs 





Labium 


Abdomen 


Name 


m. lobe^ 


lat. lohe^ 


teeth^ 


width* 


lat. sp.^ 


groove^ 


5:S' 


Gomphurus 


convex 


variable 


4-11 


wider 


6-9 


long 


equal 


Gomphus 


convex 


pointed 


4-10 


wider 


6 or 7 
to 9 


variable 


equal 


Stylurus 


straight 
very con- 


hooked 


3-4 


not 
wider 


6-9 


long 


greater 


Arigomphus 


vex, with 
med. tooth 


pointed 


6-7 


wider 


7 or 8 
to 9 


wanting 


greater 



1 Front border of median lobe. 

^ End of lateral lobe. 

' Teeth on inner margin of lateral lobe. 

* Width of abdomen as compared with width of head. 

' Lateral spines on abdominal segments. 

' Middorsal groove or impressed line on abdomen. 

'' Length of ninth as compared with eighth abdominal segment. 



Subgenus Gomphurus Needham 

Here belong some large species with a very broadly expanded and 
and club-shaped abdomen, and some smaller stocky species that are 
little expanded; but all are characterized by thick heavy bodies, and 
(except in the first five species) squarely cut terminal abdominal seg- 
ments. The hamules of the male stand perpendicular to the axis of 
the abdomen or nearly so, and the subgenital plate of the female is 
rather large. 

The nymphs of the group are broader and flatter of abdomen and 
more blunt at the apex than any others of the genus Gomphus. The 
lateral spines are rather long, especially those of the ninth segment. 
The tenth segment is short, annular and included. The following tabu- 
lar statement of the characters of the nymphs of those species that 
have hitherto (1928) been reared will help in their recognition. 



86 



DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



The Known Nymphs 



Species 


Length 


Med. 
lobe 


Teeth 


Dorsal 
hooka 


Relative lengths 


Lateral 
spinesX 


Described by 


8 


9 


to 


app 


adelphus 


29 


convex 


7-11 


8-9 


9 


10 


3 


8 


6-9 


Hag. '85, p. 262 


amnicola 




straight 


5 













6-9 


Ndm.&Hart'01,p.83t 


confraternus 


28 


slightly 
convex 


6-9 


4-9 










6-9 
= H10 


Ndm. '04, p. 291 


crassus 


34 


straight 


8-9 


8-9 


8 


10 


3 


6 


6-9 
13^X10 


Brtn. '28, p. 32 


dilatatui 


42 


straight- 
ish 


5-6 


8-9 


8 


10 


4 


6 


6-9 
2X10 


Ndm. '03, p. 266 


externus 


32 


slightly 
convex 


5-10 


8-9 


8 


10 


2 


9 


6-9 
2X10 


Ndm. '01, p. 451 


fraternus 


31 


convex 


7-11 


8-9 


9 


10 


3 


8 


6-9 


Ndm. '03, p. 264 


hybridus 


28 


slightly 
convex 


8-9 


8-9 


8 


10 


3 


5 


6-9 
2X10 


Brtn. '28, p. 32 


scudderi 


38 


slightly 
convex 


3-6 





8 


10 


3 


4 


6-9 


Ndm. '01, p. 457t 


vastus 


31 


concave 


4-5 


8-9 


8 


10 


3 


5 


6-9 


Cabot. *72, p. 3* 



t Lateral spines on segments 6 to 9, on 9 equalling. 

t Also in Walk. '28, p. 55 and 87. ■* Also by Hag. '85, p. 265. 

This table includes only known nymphs of the larger wide-clubbed 
species (Gomphurus proper). Nymphs of two species of the smaller 
group are known (Needham '01, pp. 448 and 449): G. abbreviatus 
(length 24 mm.) and G. brevis (length 26 mm.). These two are alike 
in all the characters named in the table, having the median lobe of the 
labium convex, the lateral lobe armed with 8 to 9 teeth, very rudi- 
mentary dorsal hooks on abdominal segments 8 and 9, the relative 
length of segments 8, 9, 10, and appendages as 9:10:4:8, and lateral 
spines on segments 6 to 9. Those of 9 being as long as the tenth seg- 
ment. The real difference between these two species is found in the 
length of the foremost lateral spines, those of the 6th segment in 
G. abbreviatus being less than half, and in G. brevis more than half the 
length of the spines of the 7th segment. In form of the flat blunt- 
tipped body these nymphs resemble those of Gomphurus proper. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES 

G. consanguis (p. 94) omitted: see key on p. 82 

Adults 

1 Short, stocky species (ex. 50-60 mm.) with little widening of the 

club (segments 7 to 9) of the abdomen 2. 

Larger forms (ex. 60-95 mm.) with a great widening of the club 
of the abdomen 6. 

2 Face yellow including the labrum abbreviatus, p. 89 

Face cross striped with black 3. 



GO M RHUS 87 

3 Thoracic stripes of the first pair widened forward, together forming 

a broad triangle 4. 

Thoracic stripes of the first pair parallel sided 5 . 

4 Stripes 4 and 5 narrow parvidens, p. 89 

Stripes 4 and 5 broad alleni, p. 89 

5 Labrum with a median longitudinal black line brevis, p. 88 

Labrum with no median longitudinal black line. . viridifrons, p. 89 

6 Face cross lined with black 7. 

Face not cross lined with black 12. 

7 Expanse more than 80 mm 8. 

Expanse less than 75 mm 9. 

8 Stripe 4 continuous; sides of stripe 1 diverging; frontal stripe a 

broad band dilatatus, p. 97 

Stripe 4 interrupted; sides of stripe 1 parallel sided; frontal stripe 
a narrow hne lineatrifrons, p. 98 

9 Stripes 1 and 2 confluent at lower end; no median stripe present on 

labrum 10. 

Stripes 1 and 2 not confluent at lower end; median stripe present on 
labrum 11. 

10 Clypeus black; stripe 2 and 3 conjoined; stripe 5 present 

scudderi, p. 95 

Clypeus yellow; stripe 2 and 3 free; stripe 5 wanting 

amnicola, p. 95 

11 Stripes 2 and 3 separate below vastus, p. 95 

Stripes 2 and 3 conjoined below adelphus, p. 94 

12 Dilatation at end of abdomen wider than thorax; stripe 5 wanting 

ventricosus, p. 97 

Dilatation not wider than thorax; stripe 5 more or less present 13 

13 Stripe 4 wanting; club narrow 14. 

Stripe 4 more or less present; club broad 15. 

14 Stripes 2 and 3 separate; abdominal segment 9 partly yellow 

confraternus, p. 92 

Stripes 2 and 3 fused; 9 above wholly black donneri, p. 94 

15 Tibiae yellow externally externus, p. 90 

Tibiae black 16. 

16 Femora of male partly yellow crassus, p. 92 

Femora of male black 17. 

17 Expanse 68 mm fraternus, p. 90 

Expanse 60 mm hybridus, p. 90 



88 



DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



27. Gomphus brevis Hagen 

Hag. 78, p. 60: Mtk. Cat. p. 90: Currie '17, p. 223 (figs.): Garm. '27, p. 149. 
Length 43 mm. Expanse 54 mm. Ont., Mass., N. J., to Wis. 

A short stout blackish species striped with greenish. Face cross-lined with 
black. Labrum all black except for a pair of small pale dots. Thoracic stripes 
of the first pair parallel-sided, confluent except on the middle of the carina, and 
separating a pair of pale opposed and inverted 7-marks on the front of the 
thorax. Legs black except at their bases. The middorsal line of yellowish lanceo- 
late spots of the abdomen disappears on the very base of the 8th segment, 9 and 
10 being wholly black above in the male. The lateral margins of 7 to 9 are nar- 
rowly orange. 

An early season species that inhabits the sandy beds of clear streams 
at moderate elevations. The senior author found it emerging before 
the middle of June at Saranac Inn in the Adirondacks and disappearing 
a few weeks later. Walker ('08) reports it as rather common in Ontario, 
frequenting well aerated waters, such as rapid streams and the exposed 
shores of large lakes. 



vlrldlfi'ons 




GOMPHUS 89 

28. Gomphus parvidens Currie 

Currie '17, p. 223 (figs.). 

Length 37 mm. Expanse 50 mm. Lakeland, Md. 

Face with a fine black line along the fronto-clypeal suture. Labrum black, 
except for two small yellow dots. Thoracic stripes of the first pair fused (except 
on the middle of the carina) into a rather broad triangle, widening forward to 
the collar, across which they are narrowly connected with the cross band below. 
Wings hyaline; veins black; stigma brown. Legs black except at base. Abdominal 
segments 8-10 all black above. A single male has hitherto been found. 

Female unknown. 

29. Gomphus alleni Howe 
Howe '22, p. 19. 

Length 44 mm. Expanse 56 mm. N. H. 

This is another short, thick set, blackish species with a pair of opposed 
inverted 7-marks on the front of the thorax. Face yellow with a black line across 
the fronto-clypeal suture. Occiput yellow with a blackish edge. Front of thorax 
with the stripes of the first pair broad and much widened downward where 
abbreviated laterally. Stripes 2 narrower, and in a large part, confluent with 3 
above and below around a narrow yellow line that extends two-thirds their 
height; confluent also with 1 above. Stripes 4 and 5 broad, complete, paler, con- 
fluent at ends with each other and 3. Abdomen blackish with the usual line of 
middorsal yellow spots on segment 1 to 8, abbreviated to rearward, very small 
on 8, very wide on 1 and 2. Sides of 1 and 2 blotched with yellow; of 3 to 7 with 
small yellow spots; of 7 and 8 with the lower half yellow. 10 black above, yellow 
beneath. Appendages blackish. 

30. Gomphus abbreviatus Hagen 

Hagen '78, p. 464: Mtk. Cat. p. 89: Currie '17, p. 223 (figs.): Garm. '27, p. 149. 
Length 34 mm. Expanse 52 mm. Me. to Pa. 

A small greenish species striped with brown. Face pale. Thoracic stripes of the 
first pair widened a very little to forward, then contracted to a narrow line that 
crosses the collar, joining the cross stripe just below it. Wings hyaline with 
brown veins. Legs blackish, paler on the femora beneath. The usual middorsal 
line of yellowish lanceolate spots on the abdomen ends on the 8th segment, 9 
and 10 being wholly black above. 

This species occurs sparingly in the rocky gorge of Fall Creek along 
side the Cornell University Campus, but there appear to be no records 
of its habits. 

31. Gomphus viridifrons Hine 

Hine '01, p. 60 (figs.): Mtk. Cat. p. 98: Currie '17, p. 226 (figs.): Wmsn. '20, 
p. 101. 

Length 46 mm. Expanse 60 mm. Ohio, Ind., Pa. 

A stout but small blackish species, striped with yellowish green. Face 

greenish. Occiput yellowish; in the male narrowly marked with black around its 



90 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

convex border; in the female, all yellow, and narrowed to the median line. The 
thoracic stripes of the first pair parallel-sided and narrower than the inverted 
and opposed bordering pale 7-marks. Wings very faintly tinged with yellow at 
the base. Legs black, somewhat paler on side of femur and at base. The mid- 
dorsal line of diminishing yellowish triangles on the abdomen disappears in a dot 
on the base of 7, 8 to 10 being wholly black above in the male, 9 only so in the 
female. 

32. Gomphus hybridus Williamson 
Wmsn. '02, p. 47: Mtk. Cat. p. 93. 

Length 49 mm. Expanse 60 mm. Ind., Tenn. 

A rather small, stocky species, having much the aspect of the preceding species 
having the thorax green striped with brown and the abdomen black marked with 
yellow. Face and occiput green. The thoracic stripes of the first pair fused above 
and below across the carina. Stripe 2 free above, then shortly fused with stripe 3, 
and then separated by a pale line below: 2 and 3 of equal width; stripe 4 inter- 
rupted above the spiracle; stripe 5 complete, narrow. Legs black, wings hyaline, 
veins black. Middorsal line of spots on middle abdominal segments long, 
lanceolate, narrow on 4; 5 and 6, shorter and wider on 7 and 8; 9 and 10 all black 
above. Segments 8 and 9 are yellow at the sides, including the lateral margins. 

33. Gomphus fraternus Say 

Say '39, p. 16: Mtk. Cat. p. 93: Whed. '14, p. 94: Garm. '27, p. 163. 
Length 54 mm. Expanse 68 mm. N. H. to Va. to Wis. to Ark. 

A large, strong-flying, hairy species. The thorax and the swollen basal seg- 
ments of the abdomen are densely clothed with fine soft short black hair. Face 
and occiput yellow. Thoracic stripes of the first pair, narrow with parallel sides, 
narrower than the bordering yellow. Stripe 2 free above, then narrowly fused 
with 3, then separated by a narrow green line down to the level of the collar. 
Stripe 4 is interrupted in its upper third and not at all confluent with stripe 6 
except at its ends; 5 is narrow and complete. Wings hyahne with black veinss 
Legs black. Abdominal segments 9 and 10 black above; the preceding segment, 
marked as usual in related species. 

Whedon's ('14, p. 94) notes on the habits of this species are as fol- 
lows: 

Very often taken in pastures and open woodlands back from the rivers- 
About rapids they dart swiftly here and there above the turbulent waters, dash 
in and out of the leafy arches along the banks, or rest tightly flattened against 
the boulders in mid-stream. 

34. Gomphus externus Hagen 
Hag. '58, p. 411 (figs.): Mtk. Cat. p. 92. 

Syn: consobrinus Walsh 
Length 54 mm. Expanse 68 mm. Me., Wis., 111., Neb., Tex. and N. Mex. 

A stout fine big species of yellowish or greenish color, striped with brown. 
Face and occiput yellow. Thoracic stripes of the first pair narrow, parallel-sided. 



GOMPHUS 



91 



narrower than the bordering pale bands. Stripe 2 free above, then joined to stripe 
3, then separated by a pale line to the level of the collar. Stripe 4 broad, some- 
what diffuse and ill-defined on its posterior margin, tending toward confluence 
through its whole length with stripe 5, which is complete. Wings hyaline, faintly 
tinged with yellowish at base. Legs black, tibiae yellow externally. The usual 
middorsal row of pale spots on the abdomen, are broadened on the 9th segment 
and diffuse and obscure on 10. The yellow lateral spot on segment 9 extends the 
full length of the side margin of that segment. 




The habits of this species were observed at Havana, 111. by the 
senior author in June and July 1896. The males were commonly seen 
flying about the floating house-boat laboratory, chasing one another, 
making long irregular sweeps together, and then flying apart and 
seeming to alight by preference on the boathouse deck, and on a floating 
cage nearby. They were most in evidence about mid-day. At rest, 
they sat flat upon the boards or on the bare sand, tail elevated, wings 
decHned, touching the sand, in an attitude of great alertness. Their 
food was taken in swift sallies from such resting places. 

Females were much less frequently seen. When ovipositing they flew 
over the water, dipping the tip of the abdomen to wash off the eggs. A 



92 DRAGON FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

clutch of 5200 eggs was obtained from a single female by dipping her 
abdomen in a watchglass of water (see p. 44 for the method). 

Transformation occurred in the early morning, and the cast skins 
were left on the sides of barges, bridge piers and stumps a foot or two 
above the surface of the water. 

35. Gomphus crassus Hagen 

Hag. 78, p. 453: Mtk. Cat. p. 91: Wmsn. '19, p. 294: Garm. '27, p. 162. 
Length 54 mm. Expanse 70 mm. Ont. to Tenn. 

Another species with the same vestiture of soft black downy hairs on thorax 
and base of abdomen, and the same general coloration, the color differing only 
in that the black is a little less extensive; the spots on the middle abdominal 
segments are a little larger, and there is usually a trace of yellow on the dorsum 
of abdominal segments 9 and 10. It is to be distinguished by the form of the 
genitalia shown in the figures herewith. 

Williamson ('20) remarks of this species that is is often seen bowling 
its way over the asphalt streets in the business part of town (Bluffton, 
Ind), and at such times may frequently be captured clinging to screen 
doors. 

36. Gomphus confraternus Selys 

Selys '73, p. 744: Mtk. Cat. p. 90: Kndy. '17, p. 558 (as sobrinus) 

Syn: sobrinus Selys 
Length 55 mm. Expanse 80 mm. Calif., Ore., Wash. 

A stout green-and-brown striped, west coast species, with a very moderate 
enlargement of the terminal abdominal segments. Face and occiput yellow. 
Thoracic stripes of the first pair are almost parallel-sided and narrower than the 
bordering green. They are abbreviated below, where conjoined to the collar band 
by a narrow median line of brown. Stripe 2 is notched above next the crest, con- 
fluent with 3 (which is of about equal breadth) except for a narrow dividing line 
below, and broadly joined to the collar band of brown. Stripe 4 incomplete, not 
extending above the spiracle, but almost confluent with 5 at that level. Stripe 5 
well developed and broad. Wings hyaline, stigma brown. The middorsal line 
of yellow triangles on the middle abdominal segments ends in a basal spot on 
segment 8 or 9. Segment 10 above and appendages black. The yellow spots on 
the side margins of segments 8 and 9 do not reach the apical border of those 
segments. 

Kennedy ('17) says this is an early spring species, appearing in April 
and gone by July, and it inhabits the warmer constant streams of 
moderate size and to a lesser extent the ponds. 

In May I found it very abundant on Coyote Creek within the city hmits of 
San Jose, where in a single day's collecting I succeeded in taking over 50 speci- 
mens. 



GOMPHUS 



93 



On Coyote Creek, a warm sluggish stream with mud banks and much mud 
bottom, it does not appear about the water in numbers until about 11 in the fore- 
noon. Earlier than this it can be found on the sunny patches of bare ground back 
a few yards from the creek bank. It is active about the water during'thej,heat 
of the day but leaves about four in the afternoon. The males are four or five times 
as abundant as the females, and usually stay low over the water, seldom rising 




higher than four or five feet above its surface. They usually rest on the bare 
sandy spots but ahght also on logs, brush and willows. The females oviposit by 
tapping the surface of the water with the abdomen at irregular intervals as they 
fly close over its surface. It is at such times that the males swoop on them and 
take them away in copulatory flights, which end in a long resting period in 
copulation on some tree or bush. 



94 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

37. Gomphus donneri Kennedy 

Kndy. '17, p. 562 (figs.). 

Length 55 mm. Expanse 80 mm. Calif. 

"An almost black species," similar to the preceding, and doubtfully distinct 
therefrom; differs from confraternus by having thoracic stripes 2 and 3 wholly 
confluent, by greater extent of black upon the abdomen, and by the slight differ- 
ences of form shown in the accompanying figures of the male appendages. 

Dr. Kennedy ('17) observed the species at Donner Lake, Nevada 
Co., California (elevation about 5000 ft.). He says: 

It passes most of its time resting on the bare beach or some low stone, though 
it occasionally lit on a low bush or weed. Along the west shore, where the sandy 
beach was continuous, it was the only species found, but along the west end of 
the north shore, where sandy stretches alternated with gravel and rock it was 
associated with Ophiogomphus morrisoni, Enallagma cyathigerum, and Argia 
vivida. 

38. Gomphus consanguis Selys 

Selys 79, p. 66. 

Length 55 mm. Expanse 68 mm. N. C. 

This species is unknown to us. We abstract the following from de Selys 
original description. Face and front yellow, olivaceous, with both front and rear 
borders and a central spot on the labrum black. Fronto-clypeal suture and two 
impressions on the postclypeus also black. Occiput yellow, ciliated with black. 
Front of thorax yellow striped with black. Stripes of the first pair narrowly 
separated on the carina, and abbreviated below, not touching the collar. Stripe 2 
and 3 broader, close together but not confluent, complete. Stripes 4 and 5 com- 
plete. Legs black with the front femora pale beneath. Wings hyaline. Abdomen 
black marked with yellow at the base, there being a three lobed spot on the 
dorsum of segment 2, and side spots on 1 and 2 that are prolonged into a line 
inferiorly on 3 to 7. The dilated lateral margins of 8 and 9 are also yellow and 
there is a vestige of a basal yellow line on 8. Appendages black, as long as 10, 
subequal. 

Female unknown. 

39. Gomphus adelphus Selys 

Selys '58, p. 413: Mtk. Cat. p. 89: Howe '18, p. 33. 

Length 43 mm. Expanse 58 mm. N. Y., Mass. 

This is a greenish species, heavily striped with black. Labrum yellow, 
bordered and traversed by black. Anteclypeus black; postclypeus bordered with 
black and with two black dots. Occiput yellow, bordered with black. Thoracic 
stripes of the first pair confiuent and truncated at collar but crossing its middle 
line; stripes 2 and 3 confluent in their lower half, separated above by a pale 
streak that widens next to the crest. Abdomen with the usual line of mid- 
dorsal triangles on the bases of the segments. Sides of 8, 9 and 10 black. 



GOMPHUS 95 

40. Gomphus scudderi Selys 

Selys 73, p. 752: Mtk. Cat. p. 96: Howe '18, p. 35: '23, p. 136: Garm. '27, p. 161. 
Length 58 mm. Expanse 7S mm. Me. to N. Y. 

A stout blackish species, narrowly striped with green. Face green, cross- 
striped with black on all the sutures. Labrum bordered with black, and more 
or less divided by a median streak of the same color. Occiput yellow, with a 
heavy fringe of black hairs. Thoracic stripes of the first pair fused, broadly 
widened forward, much broader than the two oblique green stripes on the front, 
which, by confluence with stripe 2 at both ends, they entirely surround. Stripes 
2 and 3 broad, confluent in the middle and almost so to the ends. Stripes 4 and 5 
broad and more or less confluent, often only an obscure, oblique pale streak 
showing between them. Wings hyaline, veins black. Legs black. Middorsal 
line of pale markings of the abdomen almost obliterated on the middle segments; 
short triangles on 8 and 9; 10 black above. The large side spots of yellow in the 
greatly dilated lateral margins of 8 and 9 do not touch the lateral margin. 

This is a late season species, whose home is in cold spring-fed wood- 
land streams. 

41. Gomphus amnicola Walsh 

Walsh '62, p. 396: Mtk. Cat. p. 89: Howe '23, p. 136: Garm. '27, p. 160. 
Length 48 mm. Expanse 72 mm. Mass. and N. Y. to Iowa 

A very dainty species with much black on the front and yellow on the sides 
of the thorax. Face greenish, with narrow black cross lines on the upper and 
lower sutures, and on the ends of the middle suture, and across the lower margin 
of the labrum. Occiput yellow, with blackened outer angles. Middorsal thoracic 
stripes of the first pair separated by a yellow carina, narrow (much narrower 
than the bordering pale stripes), laterally extended below to join stripe 2 above 
the collar. Stripe 2 very broad, almost entirely confluent with 3, which is 
narrower. Stripe 4 narrow but continuous. Stripe 5 obsolete. Legs black; front 
femora more or less greenish beneath. Wings hyaline, veins brown. The mid- 
dorsal line of triangles on the abdomen is very narrow upon the middle segments, 
then is broadened on 8 to form a wide triangular spot, with a corresponding dot 
on 9. The large yellow side spots on 7-9 do not touch the widely expanded 
lateral margin. 

42. Gomphus vastus Walsh 

Walsh '62, p. 391: Mtk. Cat. p. 97: Howe '18, p. 33: Calv. '21, p. 225 (figs.). 

Garm. '27, p. 165. 
Length 54 mm. Expanse 66 mm. N. H., N. Y., Pa., Tenn., Iowa 

This is a fine species, with yellowish green thorax, brightly striped with 
brown, and with blackish abdomen, brightly marked with yellow at both ends. 
Face broadly cross-striped with black on all sutures and on the lower margin of 
the labrum, the latter more or less divided also by a median black line, leaving 
only the sides greenish. Occiput yellow, with a fine black long-ciliate margin. 
Thoracic stripes of the first pair fused and dilated in front to form a broad tri- 



96 



DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



angle not meeting stripe 2; the latter is broader than the intervening yellow, is 
free above but is conjoined with 3 below, and only narrowly separated from it 
through most of its length. Stripes 4 and 5 narrow but continuous and well 
defined. Wings hyaline with black veins and stigma. Legs black. There are 
lanceolate yellow middorsal |basal triangles on abdominal segments 3 to 7; 8 
to 10 are black above; 7 to 9 are bright yellow at the sides. 

This species frequents the shores of the larger lakes and streams. 
Wilson ('99, p. 662) says that the banks of the river, with alternating 
reaches of sand and gravel seem peculiarly attractive to these dragon- 
flies. Muttkowski says that the males are hard to capture, since they 
persit in alighting amid the brush near the waters edge. 




llnodtlfrons 



GOMPHUS 97 

43. Gomphus ventricosus Walsh 

Walsh '63, p. 249: Mtk. Cat. p. 98: Howe '18, p. 33: Garm. '27, p. 166. 
Length 51 mm. Expanse 63 mm. Mass., Pa., Mich., 111. 

A dainty little club-tail, having a greenish body brightly striped with brown, 
and a blackish abdomen. Face and occiput yellow, the latter black-margined only 
next the eyes. Thoracic stripes of the first pair are narrow and parallel-sided, 
confluent above and below across the carina, and hardly wider than stripe 2. 
Stripe 2 is rather broad, partly separated above, then confluent with stripe 3 
for a space, then separated again lower down by a narrow green line. Stripe 3 
is narrower, well defined. Stripe 4 is abbreviated above, extending only a little 
above the spiracle. Stripe 5 is narrow and obscure, but continuous. Wings 
hyaline with brown stigma. Legs blackish, the bases paler. The middorsal line 
of yellow triangles on the black abdomen ends on segment 7. The large yellow 
spots on the widely expanded sides of 8 and 9 do not touch the lateral margin. 

44. Gomphus dilatatus Rambur 

Ramb. '42, p. 155: Mtk. Cat. p. 91: Calv. '21, p. 224, and '23, p. 87. 
Length 70 mm. Expanse 92 mm. Fla., Ga. 

The largest species of the genus. Face with two black cross-stripes and with 
a black lower border to the labrum. Occiput yellow, narrowly margined with 
black. Thoracic stripes of the first pair very broad and broadly dilated forward, 
broader than the adjacent pale stripes which by confluence with stripe 2 below 
they almost surround. Stripe 2 free above, narrowly separated from stripe 3, 
but confluent with the cross-band at the collar. Stripes 4 and 5 complete and of 
moderate width. Legs black; the hind femora and tibiae below armed with very 
numerous sharp close-set spines. Wings hyaline, lightly tinged with yellowish 
at base, and with black veins. The dorsal stripe of the abdomen is obsolete on 
the middle segments, represented by a long triangular basal spot on 7 three- 
fourths as long as that segment; 8-10, black above; 7-9 broadly yellow on the 
widely dilated side margins. 

This species is common on the lower Chipola River in west Florida. 
The adult goes steaming along in steady horizontal flight two or three 
feet above the open river with tail aloft, and wings scarcely showing 
vibration. It is a striking figure. The slender middle part of the ab- 
domen is inclined upward and the broadly dilated end segments are 
held parallel with the course of flight, but at a higher level than that 
of the bulky, striped thorax. 

Back and forth it goes, steadily, easily, as ruler of the lesser life over 
the open stream. Once in a while it picks a blackwing {Agrion macu- 
latum) for food, and carries the long, limp captive away to a resting 
place and feeding place among the willows. 

The nymphs live in the muddy banks of the river, and clamber sev- 
eral feet up the swollen bases of the tupelo trees to transform. 



98 



DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



45. Gomphus lineatifrons Calvert 

Calv. '21, p. 222 (figs.). 

Length 69 mm. Expanse 90 mm. Mich., O., Ind., 111., Wis. 

Similar to the preceding species in stature and appearance, but slightly 
smaller. The uppermost black line across the face is narrow; the thoracic stripes 
of the first pair are almost parallel sided; the hind lobe of the prothorax is not 
wholly black in the middle dorsally; stripe 4 is interrupted in the middle, and the 
spot on the dorsum of the 9th abdominal segment is half as long as the segment. 

Subgenus Stylurus Needham 

These are large Gomphines of elongate form having but little dilata- 
tion of the club segments of the abdomen. The posterior genital 
hamules of the male are strongly inclined forward at their tips (the 
anterior, very small and sequestered), and the subgenital plate of the 
female is very short, almost rudimentary. 

The nymphs of this group are of very elongate form with abdomen 
narrow, hardly wider than the head, and slowly tapering with lateral 
spines on 6 to 9; the ninth segment is very long and the tenth is very 
short. The tibial burrowing hooks are almost wanting. The labium is 
long and narrow with the sides of the mentum convergent toward the 
middle hinge. The end hook of the lateral lobe is long and strong, and 
incurved at almost a right angle; the teeth before it are very few and 
increase in size proximally. The differences between the known species 
may be tabulated as follows : 

The Nymphs 



Name 


Length 


Relative lengths 


Dorsal 
hooks 


Spines of 9 


Teeth 


Described by 


8 


9 


10 


app. 


spiniceps 

plagiatus 

notatus 

olivaceous 

intricatus 


40 

35-36 

36-38 

38 

27 


6 

8 
8 
7 
8 


10 
10 
10 
10 
10 


2 
2 

2 
4 

4 


3 
2 
3 

4 
4 


on 9 
" 9 
• 9 
« 9 
" 


= 10 
Hoi 10 

= 10 
Hof 10 

= 10 


2-37 

2-4 

3 

3 

3 


Cabot '72, p. 5t 
Hag. '85, p. 269* t 
Ndm. '03, p. 267 1 
Kndy. 'H. p. 554t 
Kndy. '17. p. 570t 



* Also by Ndm. & Hart '01, p. 84. 
t Also by Walker '28, p. 79. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES 
Adults 

L Face brown plagiatus, p. 101 

Face yellow 2. 

2 Stripes 4 and 5 broad and fused spiniceps, p. 101 

Stripes 4 and 5 very narrow or obsolete 3. 



GOMPHUS 



99 



3 Stripes 2 and 3 fused in the middle 4. 

Stripes 2 and 3 separate in the middle intricatus, p. 99 

4 Stripe 1 isolated below olivaceous, p. 99 

Stripe 1 fused with 2 at collar notatus, p. 100 

46. Gomphus intricatus Hagen 

Hag. '58, p. 418: Mtk. Cat. p. 94: Kndy. '17, p. 550 (figs.). 
Length 41 mm. Expanse 58 mm. Tex. to Mo. to Calif. 

A small yellowish species with black feet. Face and occiput yellow. Thoracic 
stripes of the first pair well separated at the carina, and rather widely diverging 
forward, and narrower than the adjacent yellow areas, the truncate lower ends 
parallel with the collar. Stripe 2 free at its lower end, not reaching collar, but 
touching crest above, and tapering to both ends, wider than 3 and separated 
therefrom by a yellow stripe its own width. Stripes 4 and 5 obsolete except for 
a trace of 4 below the level of the spiracle. Wings hyaUne, costa yellow. Legs 
yellow with black feet, black sides to the tibiae and a line on the sides of the 
femora at the knees. Abdomen more yellow than black, the black being mainly 
restricted to two pairs of large spots on the sides of each of the middle abdominal 
segments. Appendages yellow, their tips black. 



47. Gomphus olivaceous Selys 
Selys '73, p. 749: Mtk. Cat. p. 95: Kndy. '17, p. 557. 

Var: nevadensis Kndy. 
Length 56 mm. Expanse 72 mm. Calif, and Neb. 

This is a pale olivaceous black-footed species. Face and occiput yellow. 
Thoracic stripe of the first pair narrow, widened below to collar, confluent above 




with 2 at the crest; stripe 2 broader, narrowly separated from 3 below, more 
broadly by a pale yellow triangle above, next to crest; stripes 4 and 5 wanting. 
Legs blackish beyond the knees and on upper surface of femora. Wings hyaline; 



100 



DRAGON FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



costa yellow, stigma brown, between black veins. Abdomen yellowish at base 
and sides black above with the usual line of pale spots that are pointed in the 
middle segments, and abbreviated on 8 and 9; 10 above black. There are round 
black side spots in the yellow of segments 3-6. Appendages blackish. 



48. Gomphus notatus Rambur 

Ramb. '42, p. 162: Mtk. Cat. p. 95: Wlsn. '12, p. 191. 

Syn: fluvialis Walsh. 
Length 58 mm. Expanse 75 mm. Que. and Mich, to N. C. 

An elegant yellowish species, heavily striped with brown, and with a red- 
tipped abdomen. Face and occiput yellow. Thoracic stripes of the first pair 
strongly widened forward, wider than the bordering yellow stripes, separated 
narrowly by the yellow of the carina, confluent at the crest with the incurving 
stripes of the second pair. Stripes 2 and 3 fused more or less extensively at the 
shoulder, usually in such way as to leave a pale spot above and a streak below 
them. Stripe 2 is much wider than 3. Stripe 4 is narrow and interrupted in the 
middle, plainest below the spiracle. Stripe 5 is very narrow. Wings hyahne, 
veins brown, stigma reddish brown when mature. Legs black from a little before 
the knees, their bases yellow. Dorsum of abdomen obscure blackish, the middle 
segments obscurely ringed with paler basally. Segments 7 to 10 are reddish 
brown, yellow at the sides. Appendages yellow. 

This species was observed by the senior author at Havana, 111. in 
July 1896, where it was emerging daily. On the boathouse of the Illi- 





spinlcepg 



GOMPHUS 101 

nois State Laboratory of Natural History River Survey, between five 
and six o'clock in the afternoon it was transforming in great numbers 
in the sunshine; also in the early morning, from before daylight until 
seven o'clock — which is a much more usual time for Gomphine emer- 
gence. The nymphs live in the sandy bed of the broad river, and cast 
skins thickly covered the sides of the Havana bridges, piers, etc. at 
an elevation of one or two feet above the surface of the water. 

49. Gomphus plagiatus 

Selys '54, p. 57: Mtk. Cat. p. 95: Wlsn. '12, p. 191: Garm. '27, p. 166. 

Syn: elongatus Selys 
Length 70 mm. Expanse 80 mm. N. Y., Ga., N. C. 

A fine large dark brown species. Face obscure brownish, lighter and some- 
what greenish on the outer sides of the labrum basally. Occiput green, fringed 
with long black hairs. Thoracic stripes of the first pair very broad, especially 
toward the front where they are together widened to form a mid-dorsal triangle 
of brown, confluent with stripe 2 at collar and crest, leaving an oblique pale 
mark each side upon the front. Stripes 2 and 3 conjoined above and below, and 
separated by pale line between. Stripes 4 and 5 complete and distinct. Wings 
hyaline, veins and stigma brown. Legs blackish, except basal half of the femora 
which are paler. Abdomen blackish, with a suggestion of rufous on the slightly 
enlarged terminal segments. Appendages brown. 

50. Gomphus spiniceps Walsh 

Walsh '62, p. 389: Mtk. Cat. p. 97: Wlsn. '12, p. 191: Howe '18, p. 35: '23, 
p. 137: Garm. '27, p. 166. 

Syn: segregans Ndm. 

Length 57 mm. Expanse 75 mm. N. Y. and III. to Pa., Tenn., Mich. 

A pale obscure-brownish elongate species. Face and occiput yellow. Thoracic 
stripes of the first pair confluent, very broad, the two covering the front of the 
thorax, these being fused with stripe 2 around a pair of yellow lines that are 
strongly divergent forward; stripes 2 and 3 confluent; 4 and 5 very broad, com- 
plete, diffuse. Legs brownish, yellowish at base. Wings hyaUne, with tawny 
stigma; slightly flavescent at base; veins black. Abdomen with segments 3-7 
with the usual pale middorsal spots, abbreviated behind, nearly obsolete on 7. 
Laterally segments 1-8 or 9 are yellow; 10 wholly brown. Appendages blackish. 

Wilson ('17, p. 191) writes concerning the habits of this species: 

Quite a number were present in the immediate vicinity, but it was practically 
impossible to detect any of them before they flew up out of the grass. One was 
caught accidentally while sweeping the grass for damselflies. It is a strong flier, 
and frequents the vicinity of riffles where the water flows rapidly over small 
stones. 

It frequents the riflBes flying back and forth over the swift current, and is sel- 
dom seen in the long stretches of quiet water between. Frequently it dives into 



102 



DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



the water for its prey, plunging entirely beneath the surface. It immediately 
comes forth, spreads its wings, and flies away into the very top of one of the 
tallest trees along the river bank, there to enjoy its meal in quiet security. 

It very seldom alighted on the shore and proved diflScult to capture, all the 
specimens having to be shot either while hovering over the water or while munch- 
ing their prey in the trees. 

It may be recognized when flying near at hand by the reddish-brown posterior 
end of the abdomen, which stands out in good contrast to the darker color of the 
rest of the body. In hovering over the water the abdomen is not elevated, but is 
held nearly horizontal. 

Subgenus Gomphus 

This, the typical group, contains species that are more slender 
than those of Gomphurus, having the clubbed segments of the abdomen 
narrower and their lateral margins less dilated. In our species, veins 
Ai and A2 are generally wide apart, at the base, with two rows of cells 
between. The posterior hamules of the male stand vertically or nearly 
so, and the subgenital plate of the female is normally short. 

The nymphs of this group are depressed, with abdomen wider than 
head and regularly tapering to a pointed rear end. Burrowing hooks 
are fairly well developed on fore and middle tibiae. There is a rather 
well developed end hook on the lateral labial lobe with 4 to 10 teeth 
before it, and the teeth, if unequal, diminish in size proximally. Lowrudi- 

The Known Nymphs 







Med. 




Dorsal 


Relative lengths 


Lat. 




Species 


Length 


lobe 


Teeth 


hooks 










sp. 


Described by 




















8 


9 


10 


app 






australis 


30 


convex 
2 teeth 


8 


ri on 9 
g^on 5-6 


7 


10 


6 


6 


7-9 


Ndm. & Hart '01, p. 78 


borealis 


30 


convex 
1 tooth 


8-9 





8 


10 


5 


6 


7-9 


Ndm. '03, p. 265 


cavillaris 


30 


convex 


10 


r' on 5-9 


7 


10 


6 


5 


7-9 


Brtn. '28. p. 33 


descriptus 


29-32 


hardly 
convex 


7-10 


ri on 3-9 


7 


10 


4 


5 


6-9 


Ndm. '01. p. 454 


exilis 


19-26 


convex 
1 tooth 


4-7 


low on 6-9 


7 


10 


6 


5.5 


6-9 


Hag. '85. p. 263« 


graslinellus 


32 


hardly 
convex 


9 


4-6, r on 
3 and 9 


8 


10 


5 


5 


6-9 


Hag. '85. p. 264* 


li vidua 


30 


straight 


6-8 


humps on 
7-9 


8 


10 


4 


5 


6 or 
7-9 


Ndm. '01, p. 455 


minutus 


30 


convex 
convex 


8 





8 


10 


6 


6 


7-9 


Brtn. '28, p. 32 


spicatus 


28-31 


1 orO 
teeth 


7-9 


ri on 9 


7 


10 


5 


5 


7-9 


Hag. '85. p. 265« 



' Rudimentary 
' Middorsal groove 

• Described also in Needham '01. 

* Described also in Needham and Hart '01. 



GOMPHUS 103 

mentary dorsal hooks are present on a variable number of abdominal 
segments, and lateral spines are present on segments 6 or 7 to 9. 

The following table will assist in determination of the nymphs of 
those species that have hitherto (1928) been made known. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES 
Adults 

1 Faces faintly cross striped with brown 2« 

Face pale 5. 

2 Expanse less than 50 mm 3. 

Expanse more than 60 mm 4. 

3 Middorsal yellow stripe on middle abdominal segments 

brimleyi, p. 106 

Middle abdominal segments obscure brown cavillaris, p. 105 

4 Stripes 4 and 5 confluent; top of stripe 2 turns toward 3 

abditus, p. 110 

Stripes 4 and 5 separate; top of 2 turns toward 1 
australis, p. 109 

5 Tibia yellow externally 6- 

Tibiae not yellow externally 11. 

6 Stripe 2 free below; legs yellow intricatus, p, 99 

Stripe 2 connected with collar 7. 

7 Abdominal appendages yellow militaris, p. 104 

Abdominal appendages brown or black 8. 

8 Expanse less than 55 9. 

Expanse more than 58 10. 

9 Stripe 2 free above; 1 not fused; 4 and 5 separate; tarsi 

yellow above minutus, p. 107 

Stripe 2 not free above; 1 fused; 4 and 5 united; tarsi black above 
exilis, p. 108 

10 Stripe 4 about equal to 5 . . . . graslinellus and williamsoni, p. 107 
Stripe 4 broader than 5 lividus, p. 104 

11 Stripes 1 and 2 confluent above and below; 4 broader than 5 

spicatus, p. 108 

Stripes 1 and 2 separate above collar 12. 

12 Expanse less than 55 quadricolor, p. Ill 

Expanse more than 58 13. 

13 Legs all black descriptus, p. 109 

Base of femora yellow borealis, p. 110 



104 



DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



51. Gomphus lividus Selys 

Selys '54, p. 53: Mtk. Cat. p. 94: Howe '18, p. 32: '23, p. 134, Garm. 27, p. 154. 

Syn: sordidus Hag., umbratus Ndm. 
Length 52 mm. Expanse 68 mm. Mass., Wis., N. C, Ark. 

A dull greenish species of medium size, obscurely striped on the thorax and 
spotted on the abdomen. Face and occiput greenish. Thoracic stripes of the 
first pair, confluent, slightly widened forward to the collar, each about as wide 
as the bordering green. Stripe 2 isolated above, then joined with 3, then separated 
from 3 below by a narrow greenish line, these stripes being of about equal width. 
Stripes 4 and 5 and the entire area between them pale brown. Wings slightly 
flavescent at the base. Legs brown, femora pale beneath, tibiae externally yellow. 
The middorsal line of spots on the abdomen nearly continuous beyond the 
middle segments but ill-defined, with the spots shortened and widened on 7 and 8. 
Segments 9 and 10 are obscure yellowish brown, paler dorsally and toward the 
lateral margins. Appendages blackish. 




52. Gomphus militaris Hagen 

Hag. '58, p. 416: Mtk. Cat. p. 94. 

Length 50 mm. Expanse 68 mm. Tex. 

An elegant slender bright yellow species striped with brown. Face and occiput 
yellow. Thoracic stripes of the first pair confluent at ends of carina, widened a 
little toward the collar, wider than the bordering yellow. Stripe 2 barely reaching 
the collar, isolated above and separated from 3 by a yellow line. Stripes 4 and 5 
distinct, complete, or the upper half of 4 obscure, and the area between 4 and 5 
sometimes a little overspread with brownish. Wings hyaline; stigma tawny; 
costa yellow. Legs yellow and black, the sides of the femora and the tibiae 
externally being yellow. The yellow middorsal line of the abdomen is rather 
broad and nearly continuous, with segments 8, 9 and 10 mainly yellow, and the 
appendages. 



GOMPHUS 



105 



53. Gomphus cavillaris Needham 

Ndm. '02, p. 276: Mtk. Cat. p. 82. 

Length 41 mm. Expanse 48 mm. N. C. and Fla. 

A small olivaceous species, obscurely striped with pale brown. Face and 
occiput olivaceous, with pale brownish cross-stripes on the sutures of the former, 
and with a touch of the same color on the outer corners of the latter. The thoracic 
stripes of the first pair are confluent across the ends of the carina, widened 
forward almost to the collar, and are almost confluent with the stripes of the 
second pair at both ends. Stripes 2 and 3 are of about equal width, and are 
separated by a pale line, more widely at the ends. Stripe 4 is complete but 
narrowed above. Stripe 5 complete, narrow, of uniform width. Wings hyaline, 
crossveins and stigma yellowish. Legs uniformly pale brownish, without color 
pattern. The middorsal pale stripe of the abdomen is broad on the middle 
segments, and on segments 7 to 10 it spreads laterally to cover the entire seg- 
ments. Appendages obscure yellowish brown. 

This species was observed by the senior author on Chipola Lake, 
west Florida, where it is very common. In that waste of drowned 
cypress trees the adults squat on floating logs most of the time. Often 
they will settle on the brail of a passing row boat. They make only 




brlmleyl 



short flights. They sit close with tail and wing tips touching their 
support. They do not startle easily and are not difficult to capture. A 
few were flushed from paths on shore in the more open places, and a few 
pairs were seen together among low shubbery. 

The nymphs clamber up the broad sides of mossy cypress stumps and 
leave their empty skins a foot or more above the surface of the 
water. 



106 DRAGON FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

54. Gomphus brimleyi Muttkowski 

Mtk. '11, p. 221. 

Length 41 mm. Expanse 48 mm. N. C. 

Olivaceous green and brown on head and thorax; yellow and black on ab- 
domen. Face greenish narrowly cross-striped with brown on sutures. Vertex 
black. Occiput olivaceous. Thoracic stripes of first pair brown, narrowed to a 
point at the crest and widened forward but not reaching the collar; stripe 2 
narrowed and pointed above; twice as wide as surrounding pale stripe; stripe 3 
distinct, complete, widened upward; 4 and 5 complete, 5 half as wide as 4. Legs 
brown, femora beneath and tibiae externally and first two joints of tarsi super- 
iorly paler. Abdomen blackish with the usual middorsal yellowish line on seg- 
ments 1-8, interrupted at sutures, abbreviated on 8; apex of 7-9 edged with 
yellow; 9 above black; 10 brown. Appendages brown, black at tips. 

55. Gomphus graslinellus Walsh 

Walsh '62, p. 394: Mtk. Cat. p. 93: Garm. '27, p. 164. 

Length 48 mm. Expanse 60 mm. Md. to Wis. 

A slender greenish species, striped with brown. Face and occiput greenish. 
Thoracic stripes of the first pair confluent, parallel sided, about as wide as the 
bordering pale areas. Stripe 2 isolated above, then fused with 3, and then 
separated below by a narrow greenish line. Stripe 2 is wider than 3. Stripes 4 
and 5, broad and complete, and a bit diffuse. Wings hyaline with brown veins. 
Legs brown, tibiae yellow externally. The middorsal pale stripe of the abdomen 
is composed of nearly continuous and rather wide triangles, shortened on 8 but 
lengthened again on 9 and 10. The sides of 8, 9 and 10 are marked with yellow. 
Appendages blackish. 

This species was studied by the senior author at Galesburg, IlHnois, 
in 1895. It appeared on the wing on May 23rd, reached its greatest 
abundance in about a week and a month later had disappeared. It 
was seen most commonly when flushed from the bare paths that ter- 
raced a steep hillslope beside a pond. Females were seen ovipositing, 
unattended, moving slowly along above the water close to a steep 
clayey bank, descending to strike the surface at irregular intervals a 
few feet apart. Captured and dipped to the surface of water in a 
tumbler they would let fall 30 to 50 eggs at a dip. When free they kept 
at the egg-laying process for a surprisingly long time. They certainly 
lay many thousands of eggs. 

The nymphs burrow in the steep clayey banks. Tail tip upturned 
for respiration, they leave a shallow groove in the bottom marking 
their trail. Transformation occurs between daybreak and sunup, 
flat on the bank or on low grass, a foot or two from the water's 
edge. 



60MPHUS 



107 



56. Gomphus williamsoni Muttkowski 

Wmsn. '03, p. 253 (figs, no name): Mtk. Cat. p. 98. 
Length 48 mm. Expanse 62 mm. 



Ind. 



grasllnellus 




wllllarasoni 



Similar in appearance to the preceding species. The figures presented here- 
with are copied from Williamson, who considered it a hybrid between that species 
and G. lividus. Muttkowski merely appUed the name given above, without 
further characterization. Is it a distinct species? 



57. Gomphus minutus Rambur 

Ramb. '42, p. 161: Mtk. Cat. p. 94. 

Length 44 mm. Expanse 55 mm. Fla., Ga. 

This is a dainty little greenish species, heavily striped with brown. Face and 
occiput green. Thoracic stripes of the first pair broad, widened forward toward 
the collar, broader than the bordering green stripes. Stripe 2 isolated above and 
separated from 3 (which is of equal width) by a narrow green line. Stripes 3 and 




108 



DRAGON FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



4 complete and rather broad, the area between them sometimes obscure. Wings 
hyaUne, costa yellow, stigma brown. Legs brown, marked with yellow under- 
neath the femora, on the outer face of the tibiae, and the tarsi. Abdomen brown 
with the pale middorsal line obscure, yellowish, continuous, becoming diffuse 
on segments 9 and 10. The little dilated sides of segments 7 to 10 are yellowish. 
Appendages pale brown. 

58. Gomphus exilis Selys 

Selys. '54, p. 55: Mtk. Cat. p. 92: Howe '18, p. 32: '23, p. 134: Garm. '27, p. 153. 
Length 43 mm. Expanse 54 mm. Me., Wis. to Ky. and Pa. 

This is a small dull greenish species striped with pale brown. Face and occiput 
green. Thoracic stripes of the first pair broad, fused except on the middle of the 
carina, dilated forward, together forming a median triangle. Striped 2 incurved 
above to the collar: 2 and 3 are of about equal width, more or less fused for a 
distance, but separated both above and below the fusion by narrow pale lines. 
Stripes 4 and 5 and the entire area between them dull brown. Wings hyaline, 
stigma brown. Legs brown; tibiae externally yellow; tarsi black. The middorsal 
pale line on the abdomen is nearly continuous, narrowed on segment 8, broadened 
and diffused on 9 and 10. The slightly dilated side margins of segments 7 to 9 
are dull yellow. Appendages brown. 

A common species of the northeastern United States, about the 
shores of canals lakes and ponds, frequenting the more sheltered places. 
Williamson ('20) noted it "resting on blue grass heads and on the 
leaves of maples not over two feet high." "On dead weed stems, and 
on the windrow of debris along the lake." 



59. Gomphus spicatus Hagen 

Hag. '54, p. 54: Mtk. Cat. p. 97: Stout '18, p. 68: Howe '18, p. 34: '23, p. 133. 

Garm. '27, p. 156. 
Length 47 mm. Expanse 56 mm. Me., Ont., Wis., and Pa. to 111. 




spicatus 




australls 




A greenish species striped with dull brown. Face and occiput green. Thoracic 
stripes of the first pair broad, diffuse, widened a little toward the collar; laterally 



GOMPHUS 



109 



spreading at both crest and collar to unite with stripe 2 around the ends of 
an isolated green line. Stripes 2 and 3 confluent or very nearly so. Stripes 4 and 5 
and the entire area between them brown, with an additional brown oblique bar 
extending rearward from 5 below. Wings hyaline with brown veins. Legs blackish 
with tibiae yellow externally. The pale middorsal markings of the abdomen are 
very obscure, nearly continuous, shortened on segments 7 and 8; the side margins 
of segments 7, 8 and 9 are narrowly yellow. Appendages black. May to July; 
about the shores of the larger lakes and streams. 

60. Gomphus australis Needham 

Ndm. '97, p. 184: Mtk. Cat. p. 90. 

Length 52 mm. Expanse 58 mm. Fla. 

An olivaceous species striped with black. Face j'ellow with short blackish 
pubescence and two blackish cross stripes, one on base of labrum, the other 
across frons. Vertex black. Occiput yellow. Thoracic stripes of the first pair 
fused except on middle of carina, widened forward, not reaching collar, confluent 
above with incurved stripe 2; stripes 3, 4, and 5 distinct, entire, narrow. Legs 
black. Wings hyaline, costa yellow, stigma brown. Abdomen with middle seg- 
ments black; sides of 1 and 2 pale; middorsal lanceolate pale spots on 7 and 8; 
sides of 7 apically, and of 8 and 10 entirely, yellow. Appendages brown. 

61. Gomphus descriptus Banks 

Banks '96, p. 194: Mtk. Cat. p. 91: Garm. '27, p. 151. 

Length 50 mm. Expanse 60 mm. N . Y. to III. 

This is a greenish species striped with brown and with blackish abdomen. 

Face and occiput green. Thoracic stripes of the first pair confluent except on the 




middle of the carina, nearly parallel sided, rounded to the collar where narrowly 
connected forward with the collar band. Stripe 2 free above, then fused for a 
distance with 3, then separated below by a narrow green Une. Stripes 2 and 3 



no 



DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



are of about equal width; the latter is sometimes narrowly divided by pale green- 
ish on the upper part of the suture. Stripes 4 and 5 complete, angulated, variable, 
more or less overspreading the intervening area. Wings hyaline; stigma tawny. 
Legs blackish, with only the sides of the front femora pale. The middorsal spots 
of the abdomen are shortened on segments 6 and 7; 8, 9, and 10 are black above, 
yellow at the side margins. Appendages black. 

This rather local species is not uncommon at Ithaca, N. Y. in the 
latter part of May. The males sometimes occur in large numbers, 
foraging over meadows half a mile back from the streams in the lee of 
the forests. The senior author once found a number of them going to 
roost at 3 in the afternoon in a pine tree, and clubbed them out and 
caught them with a net. 

Transformation occurs very early in the morning within from one 
to three feet of the edge of the stream. 

62. Gomphus borealis Needham 

Ndm. '00, p. 454: Mtk. Cat. p. 90: Howe '18, p. 33: Garm. '27, p. 157. 

Length 49 mm. Expanse 62 mm. N. H., N. Y., N. C. 

Similar to the preceding species (G. descriptus) ; distinguishable only by the 
form of the appendages. 



63. Gomphus abditus Butler 
Butler '14, p. 347. 

Length 50 mm. Expanse 66 mm. Mass. 

This is a slender pale green species striped with brown. Face obscure, with 
broad pale brown cross-stripes on frontal and labral sutures and another on the 
free border of the labrum. There is also a suggestion of a median longitudinal 
stripe on the labrum. Occiput yellow, with a touch of brown on the outermost 



quadrlcolor 




GOMPHUS 111 

corners. Thoracic stripes of the first pair narrow above and widened below to a 
confluence with stripe 2 above the collar, leaving only an isolated oblong stripe 
of yellow between. Stripes 2 and 3 confluent above and below, and separated in 
the middle by a narrow line of yellow. Stripe 2 is broader than 3. Stripes 4 and 5 
are complete, and the area between is washed with pale brown. Wings hyaline, 
with brown veins and tawny stigma. Legs brown, paler basally to the middle 
of the femora. Tibiae brown externally. The middorsal line of pale triangles 
on the abdomen is slender, abbreviated on segments 6 and 7, widened and further 
abbreviated on 8; 9 and 10 brown above. The side margins of the very moderately 
dilated segments 7, 8 and 9 are broadly washed with obscure yellow. Appendages 
brown. 

64. Gomphus quadricolor Walsh 

Walsh '62, p. 394: Mtk. Cat. p. 96. 

Length 44 mm. Expanse 54 mm. Mass., Wis. to Tenn. 

A small green species striped with blackish brown, and with blackish ab- 
domen. Face and occiput greenish. Rear of eyes black, with a mid-lateral pale 
spot. Thoracic stripes of the first pair fused except in the middle of the carina, 
and parallel sided, each not as wide as the bordering greenish stripe, truncate 
below at the collar, but narrowly conjoined with the brown collar band on the 
median line. Stripe 2 reaches the brown of the crest by a narrow prolongation, 
fuses with stripe 3, isolating a triangular greenish spot above, then separates 
from 3, leaving a green stripe below. Stripe 3 is broadest at the point of fusion 
with 2, and tapers downward therefrom. Stripes 4 and 5 are complete, narrow, 
and conjoined at the upper end. Wings hyaline; veins black. Legs black. The 
usual middorsal pale stripe of the abdomen is reduced to basal triangles on the 
middle segments. Segments 8, 9 and 10 are wholly black above and yellow at 
side margins. Appendages black. 

Subgenus Arigomphus 

These are graceful and strong flying Gomphines of less distinct color- 
ation than the preceeding, the dark stripes of the thorax and the pale 
spots of the abdomen becoming diffuse or obsolete. The hind femora of 
the male are hairy, and of the female are spiny beneath. The apical 
margin of the eighth abdominal segment is cut obliquely, being longest 
on the dorsal side. The posterior genital hamules of the male slope 
backward. 

The nymphs of this group are lanceolate in outline, the wide abdomen 
being narrowed before the end and then drawn out in a long tapering 
point so that the side margins of the long ninth segment are concave. 
The tibiae have strong burrowing hooks. The mentum of the labium 
has parallel sides and a convex median lobe that usually bears one or 
more teeth in the middle of the front border. The lateral lobes are 
blunt at the tip and bear, within, a series of jagged and widely spaced 
teeth that diminish in size proximally. Dorsal hooks are wanting except 



112 



DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



for a low rudiment on the ninth abdominal segment. Sometimes there 
is a median ridge before it but there is no median groove or impressed 
line. Segment 10 is long and cylindric and the long vertically flattened 
spines of 9 are closely applied to its sides. There are lateral spines on 7, 
or 8 to 9, only. 

The following table sets forth the more salient characters of the 
nymphs of the species hitherto described. 

The Known Nymphs 



Name 


Length 


Teeth 


Dorsal 
hooks 


Relative lengths 


Lateral 
spines* 


Described by 


8 


10 


10 


app. 


furcifer 

pallidus 

submedianus 

▼illosipes 


33 

38 
3S 
35 


6-7 

8 

6-7 

6 




9 
9 



8 

8 

7 
7 


10 

10 
10 
10 


6 

6 
5 
6 


4 

5 

4 
4 


8-9=1/5 

of 10 

7-9=10 

7-9=10 

8-9 = 1/5 

of 10 


Walk. '04, p. 358 

Hag. '85, p. 266 

Ndm. & Hart '01, p. 79 

Ndm. '01, p. 460 



'* And length of 9 in terms of length of 10. 



KEY TO THE SPECIES 
Adults 

Occiput bordered with black villosipes, p. 116 

Occiput not bordered with black 2 

Abdominal appendages black 3 

Abdominal appendages not black 4 

Superior appendages of male forked and with a long external tooth 
cornutus, p. 115 

Superior appendages of male merely angulate externally 

whedoni, p. 1 15 

Stripe 5 complete lentulus, p. 113 

Stripe 5 obsolete or wanting 5 

Stripes 2 and 3 conjoined above furcifer, p. 115 

Stripes 2 and 3 not conjoined above 6 

Femora and tibiae uniformly pale pallidus, p. 114 

Femora and tibiae partly black 7 

Stripes 2 and 3 subequal subapicalis, p. 114 

Stripes 2 and 3 reduced to a line submedianus, p. 113 



GOMPHUS 



113 



65. Gomphus lentulus Needham 

Ndm. '12, p. 275: Mtk. Cat. p. 94. 

Length 49 mm. Expanse 64 mm. Ill> 

An olive species striped with brown. Face yellowish. Vertex brownish. 
Occiput yellow. Thoracic stripes of the first pair obscure, narrow, well separated, 
parallel; stripe 2 abbreviated above and diffuse at borders, well separated from 
3 which is of equal breadth; 4 wanting; 5 complete, diffuse. Legs blackish with 
tibiae and 2 basal segments of tarsi yellow externally. Wings hyaline; costa 
yellow; stigma fulvous. Abdomen brownish with mid-dorsal and lateral streaks 
of yellow, basally and suffused with rufous toward the apex. 10 and appendages 
yellow. 

66. Gomphus submedianus Williamson 

Wmsn. '14, p. 54: Howe '18, p. 35: Kndy. '21, p. 596 (figs.): Howe '23, p. 133 

(as pallidus). 
Length 52 mm. Expanse 63 mm. lU. 

This is another, shghtly smaller and less hairy, northern species, with face 
and occiput pale, thoracic stripes of the first pair narrow and obscure, stripe 2 




pallldua 



broader, stripe 3 a narrow line and 4 and 5 wanting (or, sometimes, a trace of 6 
on the upper part of the suture). Wings hyaline with costa yellow and stigma 
tinged with rouge. Legs rather heavily hned with black on the femora before 



114 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

the knees and on the under side of the tibiae. Tarsi wholly black. Middle ab- 
dominal segments obscure greenish olivaceous; 3 to 6 each with an incomplete 
basal blackish ring, 7, 8 and 9 rusty brown; 10 and appendages yellow. 

This species was observed near Galesburg 111. by the senior author in 
1896. It was common about the sloping shores of a small artificial lake. 
It rested much on the flat dirt roads and paths and on the mud close to 
the water's edge. Its flights were short, much like the flights of robber- 
flies, direct from one objective to another, at low elevation. It has a 
long season, being collected first on May 28th, and being most abundant 
about July 4th. Transformations occurred between daylight and sun 
rise, and the cast skins were left lying flat on the mud from one to three 
feet from the edge of the water. 

67. Gomphus subapicalis Williamson 

Wmsn. '14, p. 54: Kndy. '21, p. 596 (figs.). 

Length 56 mm. Expanse 68 mm. Tex. 

A similar southwestern species, with unmarked face and occiput, the thoracic 
stripes of the first pair usually present but narrow and incomplete, stripes 2 
and 3 of about equal width. The rusty color of the tip of the abdomen is less ex- 
tended, being little developed on segment 7. 

68. Gomphus pallidus Rambur 
Ramb. '42, p. 163: Mtk. Cat. p. 95: Wmsn. '14, p. 54 (figs.). 

Syn: pilipes Hag 
Length 56 mm. Expanse 68 mm. Ga. 

A large pale olivaceous species, almost without thoracic stripes and with 
long hairy hind legs. Face and occiput pale greenish. The usual thoracic stripes 
are represented by indistinct traces, that of the 3rd pair (on the humeral suture) 
being best developed. Wings hyaline, costa and stigma yellow. Legs pale, 
blackened at tip of tibia and on tarsi; the first and second tarsal segments are 
yellow on the dorsal side. The middle abdominal segments have a somewhat 
annulate appearance, the pale color of the dorsum overspreading the sides, 
leaving them darker apically. Segments 7-9 are rusty brown; 10 and appendages 
yellow dull yellow. 

Wilson's observations ('17, p. 192) on this species are that: 

It flies comparatively slowly and hovers a great deal; its wings have a yellow- 
ish tinge, very visible when hovering. When it alights on a pebbly beach it 
hovers a moment and apparently feels the rock, testing it before settling, and 
meanwhile holdings its abdomen pointing upward. It then settles down slowly, 
lowering the abdomen until it is flat against the rock. In this position its colors 
harmonize so well with the surroundings that it can be seen only in a favorable 
light. It also frequently alighted on the boat, holding its abdomen elevated at 
an angle of 45. 



GOMPHUS 



115 



This species was also fairly common at the riffles but unlike plagiatus it fre- 
quently alighted on the river bank and was then comparatively easy to capture. 

69. Gomphus cornutus Tough 

Tough '00, p. 17: Mtk. Cat. p. 91: Mtk. '10, p. 110: Mtk. & Whed. '15, p. 88, 

90, 97. 
Length 50 mm. Expanse 63 mm. Ont. to Iowa, Wis. 

A yellowish green species with black and brown markings. Face and occiput 
greenish. Thoracic stripes of the first pair obscure, separated, abbreviated below, 
divergent towards both ends; stripe 2 wanting; 3 better developed, entire, con- 
fluent at crest with 1; 3 and 4 entire but diffuse and obscure. Legs black, front 
femora green beneath. Wings hyaline, veins black, costa pale, stigma yellowish. 
Abdomen blackish with middorsal row of spots on 1-8; small and basal on 9; 
also a small quadrangular spot on 10. Appendages blackish. 

Found by Whedon ('15 p. 95) "transforming at a little kettle-hole 
near Mankato (Minn.). A fresh female and a dozen exuvia were picked 
up from floating sticks, algae, etc., at this time." 




70. Gomphus whedoni Muttkowski 
Mtk. '13, p. 167. 

Length 50 mm. Expanse 63 mm. Wis. 

This species though appearing to differ from G. cornutus strikingly in form 
of superior appendages of the male (as stated in the key), according to the 
describer, shows no other differences and is perhaps only a specimen in which 
these appendages have suffered an arrested development. Doubtfully distinct. 

71. Gomphus furcifer Hagen 

Hag. '78, p. 458: Mtk. Cat. p. 93: Howe '18, p. 34: '23, p. 133: Garm. '27, p. 158. 

Length 46 mm. Expanse 64 mm. Mass., N. Y., Ohio, Mich. 

A dark colored greenish species, striped with black. Face and occiput green. 

Thoracic stripes of the first pair well separated at the carina, ill defined, rather 



116 



DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



narrow and divergent, and abbreviated below, not reaching the collar. Stripe 2 
wider than 1 but not as wide as the intervening spaces, and well separated from 
stripe 3 by a green line. Stripe 3 is narrower than 2 except at a depression toward 
its upper end. Stripes 4 and 5 are very incomplete. Wings hyaline with black 
veins and tawny stigma. Legs black, yellow to middle of femora, black beyond. 




villosipes 



Hind femora of male with only a few long white hairs. Middorsal line of yellow 
triangles on the abdomen narrowly lanceolate on the middle segments, becoming 
obsolete on the eighth; segment 9 wholly black above; 10 yellow, and there are 
apical touches of yellow on the lateral margins of 7, 8 and 9. 



72. Gomphus villosipes Selys 

Selys '54 53: Mtk. Cat. p. 98: Wlsn. '09, p. 656: Lyon, '15, p. 46: Howe '23 

p. 132: Garm. '27, p. 159. 
Length 54 mm. Expanse 68 mm. Mass., Pa., to Mich., 111. 

A large greenish species striped with brown on the thorax, and with blackish 
abdomen. Face and occiput yellow, the latter black margined in the male, and 
with a median marginal tooth in both sexes. Thoracic stripes of the first pair 
narrower than the adjacent green areas, a little widened forward, abbreviated 
in front and separated by the carina. Stripe 2 free above, separated from 3 by 
a pale line. Stripe 3 complete, 4 and 5 obsolete, except at extreme ends. Wings 
hy aline; costal margin yellow; stigma yellowish. Legs black except at base. 
H ind femora of male densely clad with long soft hairs commingled with numerous 
slender spines. Tibiae pale externally. Middorsal pale line of abdomen obscure, 
abbreviated on segments 3-7; 8 and 9 black above on male, paler in female; 10 
and superior appendages yellow, blackish at sides. 

This is a common species at Ithaca N. Y., where its nymphs burrow 
in the mud of the settling basins of all the larger hill streams. The 
middle of May is the time of emergence. The handsome strong-flying 
greenish gray adults are hard to follow with the eye as they dart about 



DROMOGOMPHUS 117 

over the riffles. Half submerged boulders in mid-stream seem to be 
their preferred resting places. 
Wilson ('09, p. 656) found it. 

Common, squatting on bare ground, logs and rocks; strong and pugnacious; 
catches and eats smaller dragonflies such as Leucorrhinia and Sympetrum. 

11. Dromogomphus Selys 

These are large yellowish green Gomphines with spiny hind legs. The 
venation is as in Gomphus, and only the legs show distinctive charac- 
ters. The hind femora are armed beneath with a row of 5 to 7 long, 
strong spines. 

The nymph of this genus (page 60, no. 7) bears a sharp median 
abdominal ridge that ends posteriorly on each segment in a straight 
spine. The lateral abdominal appendages are considerably shorter than 
the inferiors. 

The genus includes only the three following nominal North American 
species. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES 

Adults 

1 Face with a cross stipe of brown on the fronto-clypeal suture 

armatus, p. 117 

Face yellow 2 

2 Thoracic stripes 4 and 5 present spoliatus, p. 117 

Thoracic stripes 4 and 5 wanting spinosus, p. 1 18 

73. Dromogomphus armatus Selys 
Selys '54, p. 59: Mtk. Cat. p. 100. 

Length 54 mm. Expanse 76 mm. Ga. 

A yellowish species with faint thoracic stripings. Face yellow with a narrow 
brownish line across the middle suture. Thoracic stripes of the first pair very 
narrowly linear and separated by the yellow carina, isolated from 2 above and 
below. Stripes 2 and 3 narrow and separated by a still narrower yellow line. 
Stripes 4 and 5 broader, continuous, diffuse. Wings hyaline with yellowish costa 
and stigma. Abdomen very much dilated on the terminal segments, yellow with 
a broad brownish black stripe each side. 

74. Dromogomphus spoliatus Hagen 

Hag. '57, p. 409: Mtk. Cat. p. 100: Wmsn. '20, p. 101: Garm. '27, p. 169. 
Length 62 mm. Expanse 75 mm. Wis., Ind., O., Tex. 

A fine big yellowish species striped lightly with brown. Face and occiput 
yellow. Thoracic stripes of the first pair widely separated at the carina, and 



118 



DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



strongly widened downward; prolonged at both ends to a narrow confluence with 
2, leaving a rather wide yellow included stripe each side. Stripes 2 and 3 of about 
equal width, widened at a point of convergence near the upper end, and rather 
widely separated by yellow both above and below this point. Stripes 4 and 5 
complete, narrowly linear, deep in the sutures. Legs brown yellowish toward 
the base. Wings hyaline with tawny stigma and yellowish costal margin. Ab- 




splnosus 




spollatua 




domen brownish basally and reddish on the slightly expanded apical segments. 
Paired pale dots invade the brown on the dorsum of segments 1 to 6 and a black- 
ish narrow line borders the apical and inferior lateral margin of segments 8 and 9. 
10 and appendages yellow. 

Williamson ('01, p. 119) characterizes it as "An active, inquisitive 
species, relentless in love and war, more wary than D. spinosus and 
most numerous about the water from 9 a. m. to 4 p.m.: conspicuous by 
reason of the yellow, or reddish yellow, 7th to 9th abdominal segments" 
He found them abundant along the old canal-feeder of the St. Josephs 
River in Indiana and observed them capturing cabbage butterflies 
{Pieris rapae) and damselfiies ( Hetaerina americana and Argia putrida). 

75. Dromogomphus spinosus Selys 

Selys '54, p. 40: Mtk. Cat. p. 100: Wlsn. '12, p. 192: Brim. '03, p. 151: Howe 
'18, p. 75: '23, p. 138: Garm. '27, p. 168. 

Length 58 mm. Expanse 78 mm. Me., Wis., Fla., Tex. 

A fine slender yellowish species with rather conspicuous brown shoulder 
stripes. Face and occiput yellow, the latter with blackish touches on the outer- 
most angles. Thoracic stripes of the first pair very narrowly linear and widely 
separated by yellow at the carina and narrowly connected at the ends with 
stripe 2 to surround a wide yellow trapezoidal stripe. Stripes 2 and 3 of about 



LANTHUS 119 

equal width, broad and confluent except for a slight divergence at the lower end. 
Stripes 4 and 5 wanting. Legs blackish, yellowish at base. Wings hyaline with 
yellow costal margin and brownish stigma. Middorsal stripe of abdomen wide 
and trilobed on 2, narrow and continuous on 3 to 7, abbreviated triangular on 
8 and 9, and rounded on 10. Side margins of the moderately expanded segments 
7, 8 and 9 largely yellow with a blackish external border. Appendages blackish. 

Inhabits still water : a common species about the shores of the finger 
lakes in central New York; found by Professor G. W. Herrick trans- 
forming abundantly on the shore of Canandaigua Lake in June 1897. 
Taken in transformation by Mrs. P. Babiy on the shore of Keuka 
Lake at Penn Yan, N. Y. July 12th 1925. 

12. Lanthus Needham 

These are dainty little Gomphines conspicuously striped with black 
and yellow. In the venation of the wings there are several distinguish- 
ing characters. The stigma is short, hardly more than twice as long as 
wide. The upper section of the arculus (undivided portion of vein M) 
is short; vein Mi_3 departing from it in a descending rather than in an 
ascending curve. There are usually but weak antenodal cross veins in 
the costal space between the thickened antenodals. The triangle of the 
hind wing is larger than that of the fore wing and tends to be angulated 
externally at the point where a weak trigonal supplement originates. 
The cell between the bases of A2 and A3 is often very long. The genital 
hamules of the male are inclined to rearward. The genus includes only 
two species of the eastern United States. 

The nymphs of this genus are stocky little fellows with short abruptly 
pointed depressed abdomen and with the flat broadly oval, third anten- 
nal segment overspreading the face. The labium is short, the sides of 
the mentum are parallel; the front border of its median lobe is straight 
and scale-fringed with some low chitinous teeth in the middle. The 
lateral lobe is obliquely rounded to the first of a series of coarse teeth 
on its inner margin, and there is thus, no distinct end hook. The second 
of this series of 6 or 7 teeth is largest and the others diminish in size 
proximally. There are very short lateral spines on abdominal segments 
8 and 9, and there are no dorsal hooks at all. 

These nymphs inhabit the sandy places in the beds of rocky spring- 
fed brooks where they burrow shallowly, and whence they are easily 
obtained by sifting. They do not at once make themselves evident by 
action, however; instead they feign death for some minutes after being 
taken from the water and are apt to be thrown away with the trash, 
undiscovered by the careless collector. 



120 



DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



KEY TO THE SPECIES 
Adults 

1 Abdominal appendages pale; thoracic stripe 4 complete 

albistylus, p. 120 

Abdominal appendages black; thoracic stripe 4 interrupted 

parvulus, p. 120 

76. Lanthus albistylus Hagen 

Hag. 78, p. 460: Mtk. Cat. p. 88: Howe '18, p. 31: '23, p. 130: Garm. '27, p. 139 

Syn: naevius Hag. 
Length 36 mm. Expanse 46 mm. Me. to N. C. and Tenn. 

The smallest and daintiest of our clubtails, a greenish species heavily marked 
with black. Face pale, cross lined with black on all the sutures, the upper and 
middle sutures conjoined by an inverted black 7, the lower stripe runs down on 
the middle of the labrum and the latter is bordered with blackish. Thoracic 
stripes of the first pair are broad and broadly confluent and strongly widened 
downward. Stripes 2 and 3 are of about equal width and well separated by a 
pale stripe. Stripes 4 and 5 are complete. Legs black. Wings hyaline with 
stigma and costal margin brown. Middorsal pale line of abdomen narrows at 
the third segment and disappears at the fourth. Sides of 8 and 9 yellow. Ap- 
pendages yellow. 

77. Lanthus parvulus Selys 

Selys '54, p. 56: Mtk. Cat. p. 88: Howe '18, p. 31: '23, p. 132: Garm. '27, p. 140. 

Length 38 mm. Expanse 48 mm. N. S., N. Y., N. C. 

A very pretty little blackish species. Face greenish cross lined with black 

on the sutures and overspread with the same between the two lower ones (ante- 




parvulu3 



clypeus). Labrum bordered with black. Thoracic stripes of the first pair very 
broad, confluent, widened below and conjoined there with the 2nd, whereby 
the isolated intervening pale stripe is narrowed downward and abbreviated. 
Stripe 2 rather broad and broadly confluent with 3, leaving usually only a little 



OCTOGOMPHUS 121 

green triangle between them below the crest. Stripe 4 broadly interrupted above 
the spiracle. Stripe 5 continuous. Legs black. Wings hyaline with brownish 
stigma. The yellow middorsal line of the abdomen narrows on 3, disappears 
on 4, and the posterior part of the abdomen including the appendages is black. 

The nymphs of this species (Ndm. '01, p. 442) frequent the sandy beds 
in the deeper parts of small spring brooks. They dig rapidly. They 
feign death for a few minutes when taken from the water. 

13. OcTOGOMPHUs Selys 

These are elegant little black and yellow Gomphines that are easily 
recognized by the broad yellow patch that almost covers the front of 
the thorax (stripe 1 being wanting) and that has the shape of an in- 
verted urn. In venation they resemble Lanthus, except in the minor 
characters stated in our key to the genera. 

The abdominal appendages of the male terminate in 8 points (whence 
the generic name), the inferior being four-lobed, and the superiors each 
two-lobed, as shown in our figures. 

The sole known species occurs along the mountain streams of our 
Pacific slope. 

The nymphs burrow in the sandy places in the edges of snow-fed 
mountain stream beds or lie amid the loose trashy sediment, whence 
they are easily obtainable by sifting the surface layer. The senior 
author found them associated with larvae of soldier flies (Euparyphus) 
and midges (Chironomous and Tanytarsus) at the edges of the current 
in Cucamonga and other Canons in the San Gabriel mountains in 
Southern California. A few were found in the sand bars of the Santa 
Ana River, where it meanders over the hot plain. These nymphs, when 
placed in a dish of gravel or sand, quickly buried themselves by digging 
deeply into it. Kept for weeks in a small dish with the big predacious 
nymphs of Cordulegaster, they managed to escape being eaten. They 
are quite agile. They are the cleanest of Gomphine nymphs, as befits 
their dwelling in the clear, cold streams. 

78. Octogomphus specularis Hagen 

Hag. '59, p. 544: Mtk. Cat. p. 101 : Kndy '17, p. 574: Smn. '26, p. 20. 
Length 50 mm. Expanse 66 mm. Calif. 

A very pretty little Western club-tail with a yellow inverted-urn shaped mark 
covering the front of the thorax, and very broad shoulder stripes of black. Face 
pale cross-lined with black on the sutures, the lower stripe running down on the 
middle of the labrum; the latter is margined with black. Occiput black, with 
yellow hind border. Thoracic stripes of the first pair wanting, so that there is 
a very wide median yellow area. Stripes 2 and 3 unusually broad, often wholly 



122 



DRAGON FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



confluent. Stripe 4 wanting below the spiracle, stripe 6 continuous but narrow, 
conjoined with 3 and 4 below. Legs black. Wings hyaline with black veins and 
brown stigma. The middorsal pale stripe of the abdomen becomes very narrow 
on segments 3 and 4, disappears on 5 to 9, and reappears as a diffuse pale round 
spot on 10. The extreme apical margin of 8 and 9 is pale above, and 8 has an 
isolated yellow spot on the slightly expanded lateral margin. 




Kennedy ('17, p. 574) found this species on the wing from April to 
August — a rather long season of flight for a Gomphine. He studied its 
habits carefully in the coast streams of California. He says of it: 

As with most gomphines, the males of this species stay near the water while 
the females are seldom seen there. The males are usually found in the sunlit 
openings of the streams where they perch on stones, driftwood, or on the foliage 
of the surrounding alders. But while preferring the sunny spots they do not hesi- 
tate to hunt up and down stream through the shade. The four females I have 
taken were found along a road on the side of the gorge several hundred feet above 
the stream. They appear to resort to the stream only to oviposit. 

After having spent various days wading down mountain streams observing 
Octogomphus more often than catching them, I was rewarded on July 7 by seeing 
a female oviposit. She came volplaning down through an opening in the canopy 
of alders and, while going through evolutions involving several figures, 8's and 
S's, she touched the surface of the pool lightly with the tip of her abdomen at 
intervals of 2 to 6 feet. After 20 seconds of this she airily spiraled up and out 
into the sunshine, where she alighted on a bush on the hillside above the creek. 

Kennedy found the cast nymphal skins sticking to exposed roots of 
alder trees a foot or two above the surface of the pools in the streams. 
Judging by sizes of nymphs found together, he thinks that three years 
are required for development. He has published a careful description 
and figures of the nymph (I.e., p. 579). 



Subfamily Aeschninae 
The Darners 

Very large and strong flying dragonflies, with nearly smooth bodies 
and rather brilliant coloration. The eyes meet broadly on the top of 
the semiglobular head, crowding between the visible part of vertex and 
occiput. The labium is cleft at the apex on the median line. The 
moderate stigma generally has a strong brace vein at its proximal end. 
The triangles are elongated in the axis of the wing and a trigonal 
planate springs from a prominence in the outer side of each. The fe- 
male has a well developed ovipositor. 

This family contains a large proportion of our biggest dragonflies. 
They dominate the upper air over pond and meadow. They venture far 
from water. They invade city streets and fly into open laboratory 
windows. 

These are the true "mosquito hawks"; but their diet is by no means 
restricted to mosquitos. Midges and mayflies, and moths and crane- 
flies are eaten freely. When the evening swarms of mayflies rise by the 
waterside, these big darners may be seen coursing through the swarms, 
in and out again repeatedly, gathering a meal. At noon, when the 
midges are settled on the tree trunks by the water side, a big darner 
may often be seen searching a tree, his face a few inches from the bark 
as he slowly moves along it up and down on the leeward side, rustling 
his wings as if to flush the midges, and now and then seizing one of 
them. They all eat other smaller dragonflies. 

The nymphs of this group are smooth and slender of body with long 
thin legs. The labium is flat and lacks raptorial setae (except in Gyn- 
acantha) ; its median lobe is cleft at the front. The prothorax bears 
prominent tubercles at the sides. The abdomen is widened beyond the 
base. There is a considerable development of color pattern, suited to 
different types of environment. 

The nymphs are active climbers. They live amid green vegetation 
in still waters or in trash fallen in the edges of streams. They are pred- 
atory and cannibalistic, and often approach their prey by stealth. 

KEY TO THE GENERA 

Adults 

1 Radial sector simple 2. 

Radial sector bearing an apical fork (except in Oplonaeschna) . .4. 

123 



124 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

2 Two cubito-anal cross veins; vein M^ undulate; supratriangle 

without cross veins; one cross vein under stigma 

Gomphaeschna, p. 125 

Three or more cubito-anal cross veins; vein M2 not undulate; 
supratriangle divided by cross veins; several cross veins under 
stigma 3. 

3 Basal space traversed by cross veins Boyeria, p. 126 

Basal space open Basiaeschna, p. 126 

4 Sectors of the arculus separating from the arculus at or below 

its middle 5. 

Sectors of the arculus springing from above the middle of the 
arculus Anax, p. 128 

5 Radial sector apparently unbranched; 2 cross veins under the 

stigma Oplonaeschna, p. 129 

Radial sector distinctly branched ; three or more cross veins under 
stigma 6, 

6 Fork of radial sector under the middle of the stigma; outer end of 

radial planate gently curved Coryphaeschna, p. 131 

Fork of radial sector before the stigma; outer end of planate bent 
forward abruptly 7. 

7 Radial sector symmetrically forked; one or two rows of cells be- 

tween it and its planate 8. 

Radial sector strongly deflected towards the stigma at the base 
of its fork, unsymmetric; 3 to 7 rows of cells between it and its 
planate 9. 

8 Face strongly produced above, the upper margin of the frons very 

acute; veins Mi and M2 parallel to the level of the stigma; the 
radial planate subtends one row of cells . . . Nasiaeschna, p. 132 
Face vertical, not sharply angulate at upper edge of frons; veins 
Ml and M2 approximated at the stigma; the radial planate 
subtends .4xro. .yinyrs .»2 . cjdJLs Epiaeschna, p. 133 

9 Two rows of cells between Cui and Cih beyond the anal loop of 

the hind wing Aeschna, p. 134 

One row of cells between Cui and Cih beyond the anal loop of 
the hind wing Gynacantha, p. 149 

Nymphs 
1 Lateral lobes of labium armed with strong raptorial setae 

Gynacantha, p. 150 
Lateral lobes of labium lacking raptorial setae 2. 



GOMPHAESCHNA 125 

2 Hind angle of head strongly angulate 3. 

Hind angle of head broadly rounded 5. 

3 Superior abdominal appendages as long as inferiors 

Coryphaeschna, p. 131 

Superior abdominal appendages much shorter than inferiors ... 4. 

4 Lateral lobe of labium squarely truncate on tip. . Boyeria, p. 127 
Lateral lobe of labium with taper pointed tip Basiaeschna, p. 126 

5 Lateral spines on abdominal segments 7-9 Anax, p. 128 

Lateral spines on abdominal segments 6-9 Aeschna, p. 135 

Lateral spines on abdominal segments 4 or 5-9 6. 

6 Low dorsal hooks on segments 7-9 Nasiaeschna, p. 132 

No dorsal hooks on abdomen Epiaeschna, p. 133 

14. GoMPHAESCHNA SclyS 

These are small brown darners of rather secretive habits and of very 
local distribution. The stigma of the wings is short, with only two 
cells bordering it behind. Between the two thickened antenodal cross 
veins there are usually but two weak ones. The triangles are divided 
by a single cross vein. There are but two cubito-anal cross veins. A 
single row of cells is subtended by the radial planate. The anal loop 
is small, enclosing usually but four cells. This is a large array of vena- 
tional characters setting off this genus from all our other Aeschnines, 
allying it somewhat with the preceding subfamily (as the generic name 
suggests), as does also the forking inferior appendage of the male ab- 
domen. 

The single species is restricted in its distribution to the eastern states. 
Its nymph is still (1928) unknown. 

79. Gomphaeschna furcillata Say 

Say '39 p. 14: Mtk. Cat. p. 104: Howe '19, p. 43: Hag. '74, p. 354: Garm. '27, 
p. 177. 

Syn: quadrifida Ramb. Var: antilope Hag. 
Length 50 mm. Expanse 70 mm. Me. and Mich, to Pa. and Ga. 

A dull brownish species with obscurely spotted abdomen. Face and frons 
obscure bluish or dirty whitish including sides of frons above and tip of vertex. 
Base and middle of frons above and occiput black. Thorax obscure brownish 
thinly clothed with greyish hairs. Front of thorax greenish brown with carinae 
narrowly blackish, occasionally showing a pair of obscure pale, parallel stripes. 
Sides greenish brown striped with black narrowly on the humeral suture (stripe 2) 
broadly on the lower half of the middle suture (stripe 4) and on all the third 
lateral suture (stripe 5). These side stripes are widened and confluent below 
around the leg bases. Legs shining brown, darker on knees. Wings hyaline wth 



126 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

tawny stigma and brown veins. Abdomen brown with yellow auricles in the male 
and equivalent side spots in the female; with 3 tawny yellowish spots on the 
dorsum of the middle segments, one broad basal spot and a pair of large tri- 
angular apical spots on each segment. Lower lateral margin of 1-8 pale beneath. 
9 and 10 are obscure. Appendages thinly fringed on inner side with long brown 
hairs. 

A somewhat large form (Length 58 mm.) with brownish face, black 
stigma, more elongate abdomen and appendages, and generally more 
obscure coloration, has been described under the name G. antilope 
(Hagen). 

15. Basiaeschna Selys 

These are slender brownish darners with brown spots on the bases 
of both wings. The radial sector is unbranched and the anal loop en- 
closes two vertical rows of cells. They are common about woodland 
streams in early summer. They fly rather slowly and unwarily and 
are not especially difficult to capture. The one known species is re- 
stricted in range to the eastern states. 

Its nymph was described by the senior author ('01, p. 466) and by 
Ndm. & 'Hart ('01, p. 38). 

80. Basiaeschna Janata Say 

Say '39, p. 13: Mtk. Cat. p. 103: Howe '19, p. 42: '23, p. 127: Garm. '27, p. 174. 

Syn: minor Ramb. 
Length 56 mm. Expanse 76 mm. Me. and Wis. to N. C. and Mo. 

This is a pretty brownish darner with conspicuous yellow side stripes. Face 
obscure. Frons with a black T spot above, whose base envelops the vertex 
except at its pale transverse summit. Occiput brown. Front of thorax brown with 
2 obscure parallel yellowish streaks that disappear superiorly. Sides of thorax 
with 2 brown yellow oblique stripes that are rendered more conspicuous by 
borders of darker brown. Legs brown. Wings hyaline with yellowish stigma 
and brown veins, and with a brown spot at their extreme bases. Membranule 
white. Abdomen pale on the swollen basal segments, ringed with brown on the 
carinae; segments 2-9 ringed with black and with a very obscure pattern of 
broad paler parietal areas covering most of the segments; 10 paler above, except 
(male) around its low median tubercle. Appendages brown. 

16. BoYERiA McLachlan 

These are large brown species with two big pale spots on each side of 
the thorax, by which they may be recognized even in flight. A dis- 
tinctive structural character is the presence of cross veins in the space 
before the arculus, (the first median space). 

They are inhabitants of woodland streams where the adults fly near 
the water, especially on sunny afternoons. They glide along but little 



BOYERIA 



127 



above the shining surface, on well poised, transparent wings, which, 
against the background of the water, are well nigh invisible. They do 
not fly very rapidly. They haunt the shadows in the edges of the woods, 
and when discoverable they are not hard to capture. 

The nymphs are blackish and smooth of body with obscure rings of 
paler color on the legs. The hind angles of the head are sharply angu- 
late. There is a minute brown tooth on the front border of the median 
lobe of the labium, a little remote from the median cleft. The superior 
appendage of the male is narrowly cleft lengthwise at the tip. 

They cling to timbers, fallen trash and drift wood and to roots that 
trail in the stream. 

Nymphs 



Name 


Length 


Lateral spines 


Width by length 
of labium 


Described by 


vinosa 
grafiana 


35 

38 


5-9 
4-9 


1X2 
less than 1 X2 


Cabot '81, p. 29* 
Walk. '13, p. 164 



* Also by Ndm. '01, p. 465 & Ndm. & Hart '01, p. 36, fig. 



KEY TO THE SPECIES 
Adults 
1 Side spots of the thorax yellowish; abdominal segments 9 and 10 

unlike in color, 10 more yellowish vinosa, p. 127 

Side spots of thorax bluish; abdominal segments 9 and 10 alike 
in color, greenish blue grafiana, p. 128 

81. Boyeria vinosa Say 

Say '39,-p. 13: Mtk. Cat. p. 102: Wlsn. '12, p. 192: Howe '19, p. 41: '23, p. 126. 
Garm, '27, p. 172. 

Syn: quadriguttata Burm. 
Length 64 mm. Expanse 80 mm. Me. and Wis. to Ark. and Tenn. 

A slender brownish species with conspicuous yellow side spots on thorax. 
Face and thorax pale except for a very obscure brownish T spot above on the 
latter. Occiput yellow, brown at the sides. Thorax brown in front with very 
obscure pale stripes diverging forward and dilated above. Sides of thorax brown 
with the 2 round spots of bright yellow. Wings hyaline except for a short brownish 
basal spot; veins brown and stigma tawny. Abdomen with moderately expanded 
basal segments and very obscure coloration; wholly brown with black apical 
carinae and the sides of the tenth segment paler. Appendages brown, the lower 
one paler. 



128 



DRAGON FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



Mr. J. L. Graf (Wmsn. '07, p. 5) observed this species ovipositing 
in damp algae while at rest on rocks just above the water. 



82. Boyeria grafiana Williamson 

Wmsn. '07, p. 1: Mtk. Cat. p. 102: Walk. '13, p. 161: Howe '19, p. 42: '23, 

p. 127. 
Length 64 mm. Expanse 88 mm. Mass. and Ont. to Pa. and Ky. 

A handsome brown species with bluish face and side spots. Face and frons 
bluish or yellowish with an obscure diffuse T spot on the top of the latter. Vertex 
brown with a pale hind border. Front of thorax with 2 narrow bluish yellow 
spots that strongly diverge forward and that are dilated at their upper end 
before the collar. Sides with 2 large bluish yellow spots on the lower more convex 
portion. Legs obscure brownish. Wings hyaline with brown costa and tawny 
stigma. A diffuse brownish spot at extreme base along the veins. Abdomen 
brown, auricles of male yellow; 3 narrow pale spots on dorsum of second segment, 
one basal, two lateral and transverse; segments 3-7 with broad, smooth, basal 
brown cross bands followed by encircling yellow line narrowed at sides, and a 
pair of submedian, narrow, transverse, pale dashes. 9 and 10 paler on sides. 
Appendages brown. 

17. Anax Leach 
The Green Darners 

These are large, strong flying dragonflies. The males lack auricles 
on the second abdominal segment, and the adjacent wing margin is 
not notched, nor^stiffened with an anal triangle. The upper section of 
the arculus (undivided portion of vein M) is very short, so that both 
its sectors spring from the upper half. 

The nymphs are active climbers in submerged vegetation. Their 
long, smooth bodies are decorated in a neat protective pattern of greens 
and browns. There are lateral spines only on segments 7-9 of the ab- 
domen. 

The genus is world wide in its distribution. It contains some 27 

The N}nnphs 



Species 


Length 


Teeth on 
Med. lobe* 


Cleft of 
Med. lobe 


End hook** 
Character 


Movable hook 
Setae 


Described bv 


Junius 
longipes 
amazili 
walsingbami 


40-62 
62 
53 
58 




at cleft 
at cleft 
wide apart 


closed 
opent 
opent 
open 


rounded 
truncate 
truncate 
truncate 


moderate 

coarse 
fine 


Cabot '81. p. 15 

Byers '27, p. 67 
Byers '27. p. 66 



♦ Median lobe of labium. 

** Of lateral lobe of labium. 

t Reaching the level of the cord: caudal app. more than 8 mm. long. 

t Not reaching the level of the cord: caudal app. about 6 mm. long. 



ANAX 129 

species, of which only one is generally distributed in this country, 
while three others of tropical coastwise distribution are found in our 
borders. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES 

Adults 

1 Top of frons yellow longipes, p. 129 

Top of frons with a black spot 2, 

2 Black spot on frons surrounded with blue 3. 

Black spot on frons not surrounded with blue .... amazilli, p. 129 

3 Expanse 105 mm Junius, p. 129 

Expanse 120 mm walsinghami, p. 130 

83. Anax longipes Hagen 

Hag. '61, p. 118: Mtk. Cat. p. 106: Howe '19, p. 44: '23, p. 120: Garm. '27, p. 179. 
Length 79 mm. Expanse 107 mm. Mass. and Ohio to Fla. 

This is a fine green-bodied species with long red legs. Face yellow, including 
top of frons. Thorax green. Hind femora 15 mm. long. Wings with costa and 
stigma yellow. Abdomen green on 1 and on side of 2; brick red beyond with 
some spots of yellow on sides. Appendages red. 

84. Anax amazili Burmeister 

Burm. '39, p. 841: Mtk. Cat. p. 105: Calv. '19, p. 37: Byers '27, p. 67. 

Syn: maculatus Ramb. 
Length 79 mm. Expanse 108 mm. La., P. R. 

This is a fine greenish species with black legs. Face yellow. Frons with a 
triangular brown spot above on each side of which is a spot of blue. Thorax 
green. Legs black, paler basally. Costa greenish; stigma brown. Abdomen thick, 
much swollen at base where green; brown on segments 3-10, with a dorsal black- 
ish stripe that is narrowed on the middle of segments, and two touches of blue 
or green each side on segments 3-7. Large spots of same color on 9. 10 brown, 
unspotted. Appendages brown. 

85. Anax Junius Drury 

Drury 1773: Mtk. Cat. p. 105: Osburn '16, p. 90: Howe '19, p. 43: '23, p. 120. 
Ndm. '23, p. 129: Smn. '26, p. 24: Byers '27, p. 67: Garm. '27, p. 168: Calv. 
'28, p. 12. 

Syn: spiniferus Ramb. 
Length 76 mm. Expanse 104 mm. N. Am. 

This is a fine big darner with a green thorax and bluish abdomen. Face 
yellow. Frons above blue, margined with black and with a round black central 
spot within a ring of blue surrounded by yellow. Thorax wholly green. Legs 
blackish beyond femora, which are reddish. Wings hyaline, often tinged with 



130 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

amber yellow, except at the ends; costa yellow; stigma tawny. Abdomen pale 
at base on sides of much swollen segments, and blue beyond with a very obscure 
pattern of paired pale, dorsal markings. Appendages brown. Distinguishable, 
even in flight, from all other northern dragonflies, by the big, green body. 

The nymphs are cannibals. They climb rapidly, and swim well by 
means of ejections of water from the gill chamber. They are often 
seen half hiding behind submerged stems with the head poised low, 
and the abdomen lifted in a position of great alertness. Transforma- 
tion occurs before daybreak, usually not far from the water's surface. 
The nymphs are sometimes found in brackish water having a high de- 
gree of salinity. 

This species is discussed at length in Part I, page 7, and is illustrated 
in our frontispiece. 

86. Anax walsinghami McLachlan 

The giant green darner 
McL. '82, p. 127: Mtk. Cat. p. 106: Ndm. '23, p. 129: Smn. '26, p. 24: Byers 

'27, p. 66. 
Length 105 mm. Expanse 122 mm. Calif. 

This is our largest dragonfly. Face yellow. Top of frons with an elongate 
brown spot surrounded by yellow outside of which is a circle of blue. Thorax 
green. Legs black with the front femora yellowish beneath. Wings broad with 
yellow costa and a short, narrow, brown stigma. Abdomen very long, narrow, 
blue except the first segment which is red. A mid-dorsal brown line on the follow- 
ing segments widens posteriorly almost covering 7-9 dorsally, leaving on 10 
only two blue spots. Appendages brown, short, somewhat spatulate. 

18. Oplonaeschna Selys 

These are brownish darners with rather short thick abdomens. Vein 
Rg is unbranched, veins Mi and M2 are strongly convergent just be- 
fore the stigma. Vein Mi bends away from M3 at the beginning of the 
terminal curve. The tenth abdominal segment of the male bears a 
high median tubercle. 

There is a single Sonoran species. Nymph unknown. 

87. Oplonaeschna armata Hagen 

Hag. '91, p. 124: Mtk. Cat. p. 104. 

Length 68 mm. Expanse 100 mm. Ariz, and N. Mex. 

This is a short brownish species with blackish side stripes and black ringed 
abdomen. Face pale greenish with yellow labrum and a broad black transverse 
spot on rounded summit of frons, often forming a T spot. Very small black 
vertex is tipped with yellow. Occiput and summit of carinae yellow. Front of 
thorax brown with 2 obscure greenish blue narrow stripes more or less interrupted 



CORYPHAESCHNA 131 

above. Sides of thorax with 2 bluish stripes that become yellowish below where 
they are bordered by black, with a general background of brown; pubescence 
of thorax whitish, short in front, long below and to rearward, grading down 
the sides. Legs brown. Wings hyaline with yellow costa and brown veins and 
yellow or brown stigma. There are rather conspicuous roundish black spots upon 
and above the base of the wing roots. The swollen basal segments of the abdomen 
are tufted above with tawny hairs; apical margins of segments 2-8 are narrowly 
ringed with shining black at apex and on dorsum there are 2 pairs of yellow 
spots, the hinder pair well separated, adjacent to an apical black ring; the other 
pair subbasal, approximate, laterally tapering and confluent with obscure 
yellow, submarginal, lateral, streaks; 10 brown with conspicuous mid-dorsal 
spines. Appendages blackish. 

19. CoRYPHAEscHNA Williamson 

These are huge, neotropical darners that enter only the southeastern 
U. S. The head is very wide and the abdomen is very long; likewise, the 
slender abdominal appendages, which may reach 10 or 12 mm. Veins 
Ml and M2 converge behind the stigma. The fork of the radial sector 
is very unsymmetrical and its base is under the middle of the 
stigma. The apical planate takes origin far beyond the stigma. 

These are swift-flying, powerful insects, very difficult to capture with 
a net. One of them, at least, is of economic importance as an enemy of 
the honeybee. Two species are said to occur within our limits, and a 
third lives farther southward. Ours may be distinguished as fol- 
lows: 

KEY TO THE SPECIES 

1 Dorsum of thorax brown with green stripes ingens, p. 131 

Dorsum of thorax green with brown stripes virens, p. 132 

The nymph is at once distinguished from all our other darners by 
the possession of a pair of long, sharp parallel spines besides the median 
cleft of the labium. Kennedy ('19, p. 107) has described the nymph 
of C. ingens. 

88. Coryphaeschna ingens Rambur 

The Bee Butcher 
Ramb. '42, p. 192: Mtk. Cat. p. 115: Kndy. '19, p. 106. 

Syn: abbotti Hag. 
Length 88 mm. Expanse 120 mm. N. C, Ga. and Fla. 

This is a gigantic species with stout thorax and very long abdomen. Face 
greenish with brown-bordered yellowish labrum. Frons above with a pale brown 
T-spot and a basal half ring. Occiput yellowish. Front of thorax brown with 
2 broad green stripes, divergent and tapering below, and dilated at the top in a 
recurrent lobe surrounding a stripe of brown (stripe 2). Sides of thorax green 



132 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

with a broad median stripe widened below to cover the spiracle, and confluent 
with the brown of the under surface. Legs blackish. Wings hyaline, sometimes 
tinged with yellow beyond the triangles and at the base; stigma brown. Ab- 
domen slender; sides of basal segments clothed with white hairs; auricles small; 
segments 3-8 cross-banded with greenish yellow, interrupted middorsally and 
confluent at sides with submarginal streaks of the same color; 9 with paler apical 
half-ring, which on 10 becomes a pair of dorsal spots. Appendages long, straight 
smooth, hairy within. 

89. Coryphaeschna virens Rambur 
Ramb. '42, p. 192: Mtk. Cat. p. 115. 

Length 87 mm. Expanse 115 mm. Ga.? 

Face, occiput and tip of vertex green. Thorax similar to that of the preceding 
but with the dorsum greenish, marked with brown, in a line on each side of the 
carina (stripe 1) and another short, very oblique one on each side (stripe 2); 
sides greenish with brown lines on first and last sutures (stripes 3 and 5). Feet 
black with only base of femora reddish. Wings hyaline, sometimes a little tinted 
with brown; costa black; stigma brown; anal triangle of 2 cells. Abdomen 
slender a little enlarged on the second segment or narrowed on the third; blackish 
spotted with green; 3-8 with middorsal streaks and a terminal ring of green; 
10 flat above. Appendages brownish. 

20. Nasiaeschna Selys 

These are big, angular, greyish blue and brown darners of rather 
archaic aspect, built on lines that are rather less graceful than those of 
related genera. The frons projects forward above the sloping clypeus 
in a sharp-edged snout-like shelf (whence the generic name). The 
radial sector is symmetrically forked. The radial planate subtends but 
a single row of cells. Veins Mi and M2 are not convergent behind the 
stigma. 

There is a single species distributed well over the eastern United 
States, but it seems to be rare and local. 

The nymph is at once distinguished from all the other darner nymphs 
of our fauna by the possession of a series of dorsal hooks on the ab- 
domen. It was described by the senior author ('01, p. 468) and by Ndm. 
and Hart ('01, p. 34). 

90. Nasiaeschna penthacantha Rambur 

The Blue-nosed Darner 
Ramb. '42, p. 208: Mtk. Cat. p. 116: Howe '19, p. 50: '23, p. 125: Garm. '27, 

p. 194. 
Length 68 mm. Expanse 98 mm. 111. and New England to Fla. and Tex. 

This is a blue-nosed, black-legged creature of rather elongate form and 
slender abdomen. Face yellowish with brownish margin to the labrum below and 



EPIAESCHNA 133 

to the frons above. Top of frons porcelain blue, more obscure basally. The 
bifid summit of the vertex is blue. The lateral ocelli, inserted upon its upper 
surface, are narrowly ringed with yellow. The occiput is very narrow, limited 
to the rear of the very long eye seam. Thorax compact, smooth, shining with 
very short obscure vestitute. Front brown with 2 broad bluish green stripes 
abbreviated below, where there points are directed laterally, dilated above into 
T-shaped or 7-shaped summits near the crest. Sides greenish blue between 3 
broad bands of brown, the first on the humeral suture (stripes 2 and 3) emarginate 
below; the second on the second lateral suture (stripe 5) widened below and with 
a spur running forward; the third covering the rear of the thorax. Legs black, 
becoming rufous basally. Wings hyaline, becoming a little rufous; stigma narrow 
tawny. Abdomen slender, little widened at base, little constricted on 3, slowly 
tapering; auricles of male large, triangular; sides of 1, 2, 3, bluish green below. 
Remainder of abdomen very obscurely spotted with paler on a background of 
brown with shining subbasal and apical rings of black encircling all the segments 
Appendages short and slender, shining brown. 



21. Epiaeschna Hagen 

These are among the largest of our dragonflies, attaining a wing 
expanse of 116 mm. The face is vertical and not acutely angulated at 
top of frons; the head is very wide, due to the huge, bulging eyes. 
The radial sector is forked rather symmetrically. The radial planate 
subtends 2 rows of cells. Veins Mi and M^ converge behind the 
stigma. 

These are voracious swift flying dragonflies, widely and generally 
distributed throughout the eastern United States. Due to their strik- 
ingly large size, their fearless approach and their habit of flying into 
open windows betimes, they are rather well known. They are exceed- 
ingly hard to capture in flight. There is but a single species. 

The nymph is a very large smooth, greenish creature with a some- 
what spindle shaped abdomen. It has no dorsal hooks but it has lateral 
spines on segments 5-9 of the abdomen. The mentum of the labium is 
parallel sided in its basal half and then suddenly and roundly widened 
to the base of the rather slender lateral lobes. The front border of 
the mentum is divided into 2 smoothly rounded lobes whose convergent 
curves meet in a median acute notch. The inner border of each lateral 
lobe is armed with a dozen sharp denticles, and there is a longer, 
stronger, internal tooth at its tip. 

The senior author collected a cast skin of this species at Dead Pond 
near Rock Bluff P. O., Florida, on April 2nd. It was clinging to the 
bark of a cypress tree more than 6 feet above the surface of the water. 
The tree stood in a sphagnum filled pond. 



134 



DRAGON FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



91. Epiaeschna heros Fabricus 

Fabr. 1798, p. 285: MtK. Cat. p. 117: Howe '19, p. 50: '23, p. 125: Garm. '27, 
p. 196. 

Syn: multicinda Say 
Length 82 mm. Expanse 116 mm. Me., Ont. and S. D. to Fla. and Tex. 

This is a very large and handsome, strong flying species with brown body and 
more or less smoky wings. Face brownish, paler on sutures. Frons with diffuse 
blackish border next the transverse apical carina. Vertex bilobed, black. Occiput 
brown. Thorax brown in front with 2 broad greenish stripes divergent below, 
with long, slender points, and dilated above beneath the collar. Sides brown with 
2 very broad greenish stripes; the rear one widened superiorly. Legs black. 
Wings subhyaline, the membrane more or less deeply tinged with amber brown; 
costa and subnodus yellow; stigma brown. Abdomen brown with black carinae; 
a half ring of greenish on the base of segment 2 includes the small scale like 
auricles in the .male; a middorsal ridge on 10 ends in a triangular spine. Ap- 
pendages black, hairy internally in the male, smooth and leaf like in the female. 



22. Aeschna Illiger 

The Blue Darners 

By Elsie Broughton 
Expanse 78-100 mm. 

This cosmopolitan genus is represented in our fauna by eighteen 
species. The wings are moderately broad with a well developed anal 
loop. The radial sector is more or less sinuate and 
is forked unsymmetrically. Vein Mi rises either just 
before the stigma or opposite its inner end. The 
males have an anal triangle of two or three cells and 
a pair of auricles on the second abdominal segment. 
The eyes are broadly contiguous. The thorax has 
on each side a pair of lateral pale stripes the form 
of which is more or less characteristic of the species. 
These stripes are of four main types (Fig. 33) : (1) 
moderately broad, the anterior margins nearly 
straight and parallel; (2) the anterior margin, es- 
pecially of the fijst, excavated by the body color 
of the thorax; (3) the anterior margin, of the first 
at least, excavated, sometimes rectangularly, and 
with a dorsal posterior spur; (4) slender, the first 
one bent twice, nearly at right angles. One species, 
interrwpta, shows great lack of conformity, possess- 
ing lateral pale stripes ranging from long, slender, 




Fig. 31. Nymph of 
Aeschna umbrosa. 



parallel stripes, through broader ones with excavated anterior margins, 



AESCHNA 



135 



to a complete constriction of the stripes into two pairs of small 
spots. 

The abdomens of fresh specimens are conspicuously patterned with 
yellow, blue or green, but this color was so faded in our specimens 
that it is not here described, (see Walker '12). 

These strong-flying dragonflies may be found foraging miles away 
from their breeding places. In the humid East they fly unceasingly 
on the hottest days, and take prolonged rests in the shade when the 
weather is cool; but in the arid West, according to Kennedy ('17): 

Both A. calif ornica and multicolor hang in the shade from the underside of 

leaves of trees on very hot days I have not noticed them resting when 

the temperature was less than 100. These rests last for a few minutes only but 
occur at short intervals. It is only at such times that they are easily taken away 
from the water. 

While ovipositing the female is not accompanied by the male. She 
lays her eggs a little beneath the surface in the tissues of soft stems, 
making oblique rows of punctures with her ovipositor. Walker ('12) 
says that : 

In most species the males seize the females while ranging over the reeds and 
rushes which grow in their breeding places. Very frequently the females are 
picked up while ovipositing. If copulation ensues, the pair usually fly off to the 
nearest trees, often circling about in the air a few times. 

The Elnown Nymphs 



Species 


Length 


Lat. sp. 


0/91 


ap. 6X12 


Lat. lobe 


Described by 


californica 


36 


6-9 


3/5 


subequal 


rounded 


Walk. '12, p. 188 


canadensis 


37 


6-9 


1/2 


5/7 + 


hooked 
truncate 


Walk. '12, p. 141 


constricta 


37 


6-9 


2/5 


6/7 


pointed 


Ndm. '01, p. 470 


clepsydra 


38 


6-9 


2/3 


5/7 


hooked 


Walk. '12, p. 134 


eremita 


45 


5-9 


3/5 


7/9 


truncate 


Cabot '81, p. 23s 


interrupta 


40 


5 or 6-9 


3/5 of 10 


5/7 


truncate 


Walk. '12, p. 109 


juncea 


41 


6-9 r. on 6 


1/2 of 10 


3/5 


truncate 


Lucas '00, p. 193 


multicolor 


38 


6 9 r. on 9 


1/2 


8/9 


squarely 
truncate 


Walk. '12, p. 195 


palmata 


41 


6-9 


3/5 or 2/3 


4/5 


squarely 
truncate 


Walk. '12, p. 162 


subarctica 


40 


6-9 r. on 9 


1/2 of 10 


3/5 


truncate 


Walk. '12, p. 98 


tuberculifera 


41-45 


6-9 r. on 9 




1/2 + 


truncate 


Walk. '14, p. 370 


umbrosa 


40 


6-9 


1/2 


3/4 


squarely 
truncate 


Cabot '81. p. 24> 


verticalis (?) 




6-9 






hooked 


Ndm. & Hart '01, p. 41 



1 In relation to length of segment 9. 

' Proportion of apical breadth to length of mentum, 

» Also Ndm. & Hart '01, p. 42. 



136 



DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



The nymphs are climbers among the submerged, standing aquatic 
plants in still shallow waters, where they await almost motionless 
the coming of their prey. Some are exceedingly voracious (see Walk. 
'12, p. 53) and will attack animals considerably larger than themselves. 




Fig. 32. Color patterns. Thoracic stripes of 1, juncea; 2, eremita; 
S, canadensis; 4> caerulea. 6, Dorsum of abdominal segments 1 to 4 to 
show naming of spots after Walker. 6, Lateral aspect of same. 7, T-spot 
Dn top of frons of caerulea; 8, same of sitchensis. 

KEY TO THE SPECIESf 
Adults 
1 Lateral thoracic pale stripes bent twice, almost at right angles .2. 
Lateral thoracic pale stripes not so bent 3. 



AESCHNA 137 

2 Labrum with a black upper border and a brownish lower margin; 

T spot with long stem (Fig. 32) caerula, p. 139 

Labrum margined narrowly with black above and below; T spot 
with a short stem sitchensis, p. 139 

3 Ventral tubercle present on segment 1 4. 

Ventral tubercle not present on segment 1 6. 

4 Fronto-clypeal stripe present californica, p. 140 

Fronto-clypeal stripe not present 5. 

5 Ventral tubercle prominent; vein Mia rising beyond the stigma; 

outer side of anal loop longer than the inner side of triangle 

multicolor, p. 141 

Ventral tubercle low; Mia rising under the distal end of stigma; 

outer side of anal loop equal to the inner side of triangle 

mutata, p. 142 

6 Dorsum of 10 smooth, without tubercles or spines; anal triangle 

of male three celled 7. 

Dorsum of 10 with a median tooth between one or two pairs of 
spines; anal triangle of male two celled 11, 

7 Rear of head black 8. 

Rear of head with some brown or yellow umbrosa, p. 142 

8 Abdominal spots ML (Fig. 32) on 3-6, minute . . . walkeri, p. 143 
Abdominal spots ML on 3-8 9. 

9 Abdominal spots PL (Fig. 32) on 5-8; lateral thoracic pale stripes 

of female entirely surrounded by black arida, p. 144 

Abdominal spots PL on 3-5, 6 or 7; lateral stripes of female not 
surrounded by black 10. 

10 Abdominal spots MD on 3-7; cross bar of T spot straight, its 

stem parallel sided palmata, p. 144 

Abdominal spots MD on 3-8; cross bar of T spot curved, its stem 
wider at base constricta, p. 145 

11 Dorsal thoracic stripes reduced to 1 or two spots 

interrupta, p. 145 

Dorsal thoracic stripes present 12. 

12 Black stripe on fronto-clypeal suture 13. 

No black stripe, sometimes a fine brown line, on fronto-clypeal 

suture 16. 

13 Pale spots between two lateral thoracic stripes large and con- 

spicuous, sometimes confluent with first lateral stripe; fronto- 
clypeal stripe not reaching lateral margins . . . clepsydra, p. 146 
Not as above 14. 



138 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

14 Vein Mia rising under the proximal third of the stigma or before 

its inner end eremita, p. 146 

Vein Mia rising under the middle or distal third of stigma. . . .15. 

15 Sides of lateral thoracic pale stripes more or less straight; first 

one without dorsal posterior spur juncea, p. 147 

Sides of lateral thoracic pale stripes excavated; with a dorsal 
posterior spur on first stripe subarctica, p. 148 

16 Abdominal segment 10 black tuberculifera, p. 148 

Abdominal segment 10 with pale spots 17. 

17 Anterior margin of first lateral thoracic pale stripe rectangularly 

sinuate* canadensis, p. 148 

Anterior margin of first lateral thoracic pale stripe obtuse- 
angularly sinuate verticalis, p. 149 

t In the determination of species the final criteria must be the genitalia 
Characters such as the color of the face and the dark markings on it, and even 
the thoracic color pattern, are dependent too much upon state of preservation of 
the specimen to be reliable; the dorsal thoracic pale stripes are often too faded 
to be discernible. For a careful and detailed description see Dr. Walker's mono- 
graph: The North American Dragonflies of the genus Aeshna, University of 
Toronto Studies, Biological Series No. 11, 1912. This very excellent work is 
indispensable to any worker in the genus. It has been drawn upon to a very large 
extent in assembling the material herein. 

* Not constant; see figures of genitalia. 

Nymphs 

1 End hook of labium curving to an internal terminal tooth 2. 

End of labium truncate 4. 

2 End hook broadly curved to a point 3. 

End hook abruptly curved, almost truncate canadensis. 

3 End of lateral lobe slender, 9 X 1.5; lateral spine on 6 less than one 

fourth as long as segment constricta. 

End of lateral lobe broader, 7X3; lateral spine on 6 one half as 
long as the segment clepsydra. 

4 Lateral spines on 5-9 5. 

Lateral spines on 6-9 6. 

5 Lateral spine on 9 reaching beyond the posterior margin of 10 . . 

interrupta. 

Lateral spine on 9 reaching three fifths of the margin of 10 (all 
spines shorter than in the above) eremita. 

6 Femora concolorous 7. 

Femora striped 8. 



AESCHNA 139 

7 Lateral spine on 9 reaching to the middle of 10 juncea. 

Lateral spine on 9 not reaching to the middle of 10 

subarctica. 

8 Mentum of labium 1 and one fourths times as long as broad. . .9. 
Mentum of labium not much longer than broad 11. 

9 Lateral lobes of labium with an internal apical tooth; lateral lobe 

nearly twice as long as broad. (See Walk. '14, p. 372) .... 10. 
Lateral lobes of labium with no internal apical tooth; two- 
thirds as long as broad palmata. 

10 Mentum of labium twice as long as width of its base 

interrupta. 

Mentum of labium three times as long as width of its base 

tuberculifera and umbrosa. 

11 Lateral spine of 6 rudimentary multicolor. 

Lateral spine of 6 well developed calif ornica. 

92. Aeschna caerulea Burmeister 
Burm. '39, p. 839: Mtk. Cat. p. 113: Walk. '12, p. 72: Howe '19, p. 47. 

Syn: septentrionalis Burm. 
Length 47 mm. Expanse 78 mm. N. H. and Labr. to Gr. Slave L. 

Face brownish with a heavy black line on the fronto-clypeal suture, labrum 
bordered above and below with brown. Occiput yellow. Lateral thoracic pale 
stripes exceedingly narrow, stripe one bent twice at alternate right angles, second 
stripe nearly straight sometimes divided at middle, two small spots sometimes 
present between. 

93. Aeschna sitchensis Hagen 

Hag. '61, p. 119: Mtk. Cat. p. 114: Walk. '12, p. 77: Whts. '17, p. 99: Walk. 
'21, p. 221. 

Length 51 mm. Expanse 80 mm. N. F. and Mich, to Alaska 

Face dull greenish or olivaceous with a black line on the fronto-clypeal suture 

increasing in width laterally. Anteclypeus dark, labrum bordered narrowly above 





-T 


^>= ■ — cr~^ 


^^^^^ r 


^^^ 


caerulea 


sitchensis 



and broadly below, with black. Lateral thoracic pale stripes narrow and sinuate; 
the first pair bent twice at alternate right angles. Legs dark brown, femora 
darker beneath. Wings hyaline, costa and stigma brown. 



140 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

Whitehouse ('17) says: 

I incline strongly to the opinion that the true breeding ground of this northern 
insect is muskeg, which may account for the nymphs being still unknown. 

And then in '21 Walker writes: 

.... I found at the foot of a mountain, a small mossy bog, fed by springs 
and by the seepage from a small cold mountain brook. The bog was partly en- 
closed by spruce forest and supported a scattered growth of stunted white spruce 
and willows, shrubby cinquefoil, and a few other swamp plants, but, excepting 
the moss, which was partly submerged, there was practically no aquatic vegeta- 
tion, neither standing nor floating. Here were 2 species of dragonflies flying and 
ovipositing. One was Somatochlora franklini Selys, the other Aeshna sitchensis. 
The latter was the commoner of the two, but was far from numerous, the bog 
often appearing for many minutes at a time to be devoid of dragonfly life. 

The males of A. sitchensis flew low, as a rule, only a foot or two from the 
ground; sometimes apparently at random over the bog sometimes following 
the stream for some distance, but not covering a definite beat. They flew less 
swiftly than most Aeshnas and frequently dropped to the surface of the water 
for an instant, in a manner somewhat suggestive of an ovipositing female. 

The females were frequently observed ovipositing in the wet moss about 
the edges of the small puddles in the bog, many of which were less than a square 
foot in area. The manner of oviposition was quite like that of other Aeshnas. 
The insect would light on the moss and thrust the abdomen into it in various 
directions, following no regular plan. Usually she remained at one spot less than 
half a minute, then flew on a few yards and repeated the operation. Once or twice 
copulating pairs were seen to rise from the bog and fly to the neighboring trees. 

A prolonged search was made for nymphs and exuviae, but although Somato 
Mora exuviae were found, no traces of the early stages of sitchensis appeared. 

I was now, however, on the right track. I had at last penetrated the mystery 
of this strange dragonfly's haunts, which proved to be the same as those of 
the equally little-known Somatochlora. It may be recalled, however, that the 
correct solution of this puzzle was already hinted at by Mr. F. C. Whitehouse. 

He then reports his experiences at another bog a few days later: 

The upper and middle parts of the bog were mossy and practically without 

standing aquatic plants and the open areas of water were mere puddles 

The water here was also warmer There were very few dragonflies here, 

but I soon observed A. sitchensis flying and ovipositing as before, .... At 

length, however, I found 4 small Aeshna exuviae These, which from their 

small size I had no doubt were sitchensis, were supplemented by 3 others the 
following day. 

94. Aeschna californica Calvert 

Calv. '95, p. 504: Mtk. Cat. p. 109: Walk. '12, p. 184: Kndy. '15, p. 343: '17, 

p. 596. 
Length 50 mm. Expanse 80 mm. B. C. and Calif, to Utah and Ariz. 

Walker '12 describes this as a species of somewhat less than medium size, 
with a rather short broad abdomen. Face greenish with a black line on the 



AESCHNA 141 

fronto-clypeal suture and another at the base of the labrum. Lateral thoracic 
pale stripes narrow, diffusely edged with blackish behind. First stripe with more 
or less parallel sides, slightly wider below. Legs black, femora yellowish basally. 
Wings hyaline, costa yellow, stigma brown. 

Dr. Walker says that this is the earhest North American Aeschna 
to appear in the adult state. He found it in Calif, and Wash, as early 
as the second week in April. Mr. Kennedy ('17) found it very abun- 
dant in Washington the first of May. He observed it, ('15) swarming 
about alkaline ponds as well as on the cold torrents of the Yakima 
Reservation. 




multicolor 



calif ornica 



95. Aeschna multicolor Hagen 

Hag. '61, p. 121: Mtk. Cat. p. 113: Walk. '12, p. 190: Wmsn. '14, p. 226: Kndy. 

'15, p. 344: '17, pp. 596, 607: Ndm. '23, p. 129: Smn. '26, p. 25. 

Syn: furcifer Karsch 

Length 55 mm. Expanse 90 mm. B. C. to Tex., Colo, and So. Calif. 

Mr. Walker describes this species as: "Of average to rather large size, the 

thorax robust and the abdomen somewhat short. Frons and postclypeus pale 

blue or grey-blue with a narrow yellowish white submarginal area; fronto-nasal 

suture ochraceous Rhinarium (anteclypeus) and labrum greenish, the 

latter narrowly margined above and below with dark brown." Lateral thoracic 
pale stripes straight, the second one slightly wider above. Legs black, first 
femora with a basal pale streak externally. Wings hyaline, costa yellow, stigma 
brown. 

Kennedy ('15) says that both this species and calif ornica are wide 
fliers, being found at times several miles from the nearest water. And 
later ('17) he writes: 

This species was observed catching insects on the market street of the city 

(Sacramento, Calif.) at twilight They flew among the wagons and buggies 

entirely indifferent to the numerous passers-by. This habit of familiarity with 
man's haunts is very noticeable in multicolor. It is the most domestic of all 
the western Odonata. 

Williamson ('14) says that it is associated with Anax Junius and is 
of similar habits. A like reference in Needham ('23) says that it was: 
"Nearly as abundant (at ponds near Laguna Beach, Calif.) on the 



142 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

wing as was Anax Junius, but the nymphs and nymph skins were far 
less common. Two adults were found ensnared in the strong webs 
of the spider Argiope trifasciata." 

Abundant about alkaline ponds from June to August. 

96. Aeschna mutata Hagen 
Hag. '61, p. 124: Mtk. Cat. p. 113: Walk, '12, p. 198: Garm. '27, p. 192. 
Length 58 mm. Expanse 93 mm. Ind., Ohio, Mass* 

Walker ('12) describes this as a "species of average size and build, with a 
rather short abdomen, and somewhat long and narrow wings." 

Face pale bluish, yellowish near ocular margin. Occiput yellowish, edged 
laterally with black. Lateral thoracic pale stripes distinct and straight, the 
first parallel sided, the second shghtly wider above. Legs black, femora with a 
basal external pale streak. Wings hyaline; costa brownish yellow; stigma dark 
brown. 

Williamson ('08) reports it as flying slowly in and out, with much 
stationary fluttering among the leaf stems. 

On bright mornings when the eastern sky was unobscured they were hunting 
low over the western side of the marsh at 4:45 o'clock. One cloudy morning they 
did not appear at all. After 9 or 10 o'clock their visits to the marsh were rare 
and they were more wary, leaving the marsh when any effort was made to 
approach them and flying directly to or above the tree tops. A. mutata spends 
most of the day after 9 or 10 A.M. either resting in the trees or flying about over 
the tree tops, very probably the latter. As is usual in the genus the night is 
spent clinging to the tree trunks or larger limbs at some elevation. 

97. Aeschna umbrosa Walker 

Walk. '08, p. 380, 390: Mtk. Cat. p. 114: Walk. '12, p. 165: '12a, p. 31: Davis 
13, p. 22: Kndy. '15, p. 344: Howe '19, p. 44: '23, p. 124: Ndm. '27, p. 19: 
Garm. '27 p. 191. 

Var: occidentalis Walk. 

Length 64 mm. Expanse 96 mm. Atlantic to Pacific Coast 

Face and occiput pale brownish. Labrum pale, margined above and below by 
a narrow black line. Lateral thoracic pale stripes darkly margined and with 
more or less parallel sides, although the first stripe is often widened and bulbous 
below. Abdominal segment 2 has a similarly conspicuous stripe with a sinuate 
anterior margin. Legs brown, paler externally. Wings hyaline with a slight violet 
tinge and touches of brown anteriorly and basally; costa brown, stigma tawny. 

Walker ('12a) says it is an exception to all other eastern species 
in that it frequents small woodland streams and ditches or small pools 
on the edges of woods, never being found associated with the other 
species in open marshes and shows a marked preference for more or 
less shady haunts while its near ally constricta is most often seen 



AESCHNA 143 

ranging over open fields or bushy pastures. It habitually flies till well 
after dusk. 

Kennedy ('15) reports that it is closely assodated with palmata 
both in season and habits. 

98. Aeschna walker! Kennedy 
Kndy. '17, p. 587. 
Length 65 mm. Expanse 94 mm. Calif. 

The following description is taken from that of Dr. Kennedy. Face bluish 
gray, labrum grayish white, occiput creamy. Lateral thoracic pale stripes 
usually with nearly straight parallel edges. Legs dark brown except tibiae and 
tarsi which are black. Wings hyaline, stigma brown. 

Dr. Kennedy says of it: 

It is a stream species with habits similar to those of palmata. It inhabits the 
warmer frost-free streams of the coast mountains, while palmata lives mostly 
in the colder streams of the Sierras 

Aeshna walkeri was most abundant on the stream flowing down at Fry's 
Harbor (Santa Cruz Island, Calif.). In several quarter mile stretches the course 
of the stream was so deep that its bed was a fairly smooth trough of rock, being 
too steep to retain the rocks and sand washed down from above. Such stretches 
frequently contained pools, mere rock bowls, 6 to 10 feet in diameter, filled with 
water, in which green clouds of filamentous algae floated over the black leaves and 
vegetable trash in the bottom. Such pools were alive with A. walkeri nymphs, 

tadpoles, and Archilestes nymphs At no place in the stream did aquatic 

vegetation occur and in only a few places did roots hang in the water. Because 
of this lack of vegetation in which Aeshna usually oviposits, the habits of this 
species were unusual. 

During the sunny part of the day the males are found coursing up and down 
the creek. As there is usually a morning fog on the island, which does not clear 
up until 9 o'clock, it is frequently 11 o'clock before the Aeshna males are on the 
creek. They then persist in flying up and down until the middle of the afternoon, 
when they leave the water one by one to hunt insects in the sunshine above on 
the hill tops. In the patrolling of the creek they combine feeding and hunting 
for females. A male will slowly fly along the rocky wall overhanging the water, 
inspecting every nook and cranny, and only give a hurried inspection to the open 
side of each pool. After being satisfied that he has not overlooked a female he 
will rise over the waterfall at the head of the pool and proceed to inspect, in the 
same manner, the stream above 

The females do not spend as much time on the creek as the males. Few 
were found on the creek before 3 o'clock, but when it had become almost twilight 
in the depths of the gorge they were nervously hurrying up and down the creek 
ovipositing. The method of this was so unusual that I did not recognize at first 
what they were doing. A female would alight on one of the rock walls over- 
hanging the pool and would try to insert her ovipositor in the rock. After an 
attempt or two she would fly a few inches or feet and make another attempt. 
As the rocks over the pools in the shadier spots were seamed with lines of green 
moss, she would soon locate each seam and drive her ovipositor into the vein of 



144 



DRAGON FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



moss. The eggs thus were laid in the thin seam of moist earth which supported 
the moss. Usually less than half a dozen stabs would be made in one seam when 
she would fly to another and repeat the laying. In two places where tree roots 
hung into the water, females were flushed that were probably ovipositing in 
these. Oviposition was going on as late as 5 o'clock when it was almost twilight 
in the shadier portions of the gorge. 




In copulation a male usually found a female while she was seated on a vertical 
wall of rock, and picking her off the two would fly away in copulation. This 
usually lasted some time while the pair hung to some live oak bush on the hill- 
side. Pairs did not fly in couple as does Anax. 

99. Aeschna arida Kennedy 
Kndy. '18, p. 298. 

Length 78 mm. Expanse 112 mm. Ariz. 

Face greenish with a narrow line on the fronto-clypeal suture and across the 
base of the labrum. Lateral thoracic pale stripes broad and straight, the first 
one slightly excavated on its anterior margin and narrower in its upper half. 
Each stripe bordered on both edges of its entire length with a wide dark brown 
band. Legs black with the bases of the femora dark brown. Wings hyaline. 
(From Kennedy.) 

100. Aeschna palmata Hagen 

Hag. '56, p. 369: Mtk. Cat. p. 113: Walk. '12, p. 157: Kndy. '15, p. 329: '17, 

p. 610. 
Length 57 mm. Expanse 89 mm. Pacific Coast 

A smaller species with black feet. Face yellow with a black stripe on the 
fronto-clypeal suture and a black border on the labrum which also has a median 
transverse strip on its upper half. Occiput brownish broadly bordered with 
black. Dorsal thoracic pale stripe rather narrow and separated above into a 
distinct spot. First lateral thoracic pale stripe parallel sided with but a slight 
excavation of the anterior margin. One or two spots between the 2 lateral pale 
stripes. Wings hyaline with black veins; costa brownish, stigma black. 



AESCHNA 145 

Kennedy ('15) reports it as occurring commonly on streams from 
August until September. He says of it : 

It was in company with A. umbrosa occidentalis and had apparently identical 
habits, as both patrolled the smaller, more stream-like sloughs, especially where 
they were surrounded by trees. Both seemed to prefer such sunny glades to 
the more open spaces. In both species the males were much more abundant than 
the females. 

He adds ('17) 

Several were easily netted, as they flew in short beats among the willow 
thickets to escape the wind. This species in such a situation is very easily 
victimized by the collector. They fly low and slowly and are very bull-headed 
about keeping to their short protected beat, two or three passes with the net 
sometimes failing to drive one away. 

101. Aeschna constricta Say 

Say'39, p. 11: Mtk. Cat. p. 109: Walk. '12, p. 176: Whed. '14, p. 95: Howe 

'19, p. 49: '23, p. 123: Garm. '27, p. 189. 
Length 58 mm. Expanse 93 mm. Atl. Coast to Dakotas 

Face yellowish; occiput yellow with black lateral angles; a fine pale line on 
the fronto-clypeal suture; labrum narrowly margined with black. Thorax 
brownish; lateral pale stripes wide, the first one with a sinuate anterior margin, 
narrowing a little above the middle and the giving off a posterior spur; the second 
broadly widened above by expansion on both margins. Legs black, femora paler 
basally. Abdominal segment 1 with a pale dorsal spot and sometimes with an 
apical annulus; 2 with a lateral pale spot and a large dorsal basal spot extending 
down lateral margins; 3-10 with all spots present. 

Whedon ('14) 

A pair in copulation was captured in an open, pastured woodland 

The insects hung quite motionless from the lower branches of oak trees, allowing 
the net to approach them without seeming to heed it. Three females were taken 
on a wooded roadside which skirts Lake Madison, most of them as they clung to 
the underside of trees or leaves, devouring their prey. All of the above females 
were heterochromatic. 

102. Aeschna interrupta Walker 

Walk. '08, p. 381, 387: '12, p. 100: Kndy. '15, p. 336: '17, p. 581: Howe '19, 
p. 45: '23, p. 122. 

Syn: propinqua Scud., Var: nevadensis 
Walk., lineata Walk., interna Walk. 
Length 58 mm. Expanse 95 mm. N. F. to Ont. and Mich. 

Occiput dull yellow. Face yellowish green, paler on sides and top of frons 
and vertex; vertex with a dark margin. A black or dark brown line on front- 
clypeal suture. T spot heavy, sides of stem straight or a little convex. Labrum 
green, margined narrowly above and broadly below with black. Thorax dark 
olive brown. Dorsal thoracic pale stripes reduced to small isolated spots, or 



146 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

wanting. Lateral pale stripes either straight and very slender or divided into 
an upper and lower spot. Abdominal spots well developed. 

103. Aeschna clepsydra Say 

The Time-keeper 

Say '39, p. 19: Mtk. Cat. p. 109: Walk. '12, p. 129: Howe '19, p. 45: '23 p. 124: 

Garm. '27 p. 184. 
Length 65 mm. Expanse 94 mm. Ont. and N. E. to Ind. 

Face brownish green with a heavy dark line on the fronto-clypeal suture 
usually not reaching the margin; occiput yellow. Anteclypeus darker. Labrum 
bordered below with black. Readily distinguished by the large pale spots be- 
tween the wide lateral thoracic pale stripes; these are sometimes confluent with 
sinuate stripe 1. Abdominal segments 1 and 2 (often 3 and 4) with large pale 
spots. Dorsum of 10 yellow with median posteriorly pointing black triangles. 
Legs brown, paler externally. Wings hyaline, stigma and costa tawny. 

Muttkowski ('08) reports this species as being common in the woods 
and about the lakes of Wisconsin from June to Sept. Walker ('12) 
observed it at Go Home Bay flying over shallow reed-grown bays and 
adjacent marshes, and on one occasion took two specimens from tree 
trunks on the edge of a wood, about half a mile from the nearest pos- 
sible breeding place. 

104. Aeschna eremita Scudder 

The Hermit 
Scud. '66, p. 213: Mtk. Cat. p. 110: Walk. '12, p. 119. 42: Howe '19, p. 46: 
'23, p. 122. 

Syn: hudsonica Selys. 
Length 65 mm. Expanse 100 mm. Labr., N. H. to Alaska and Wyo. 




eremita 



A large dark species. Face greenish with a dark stripe on the fronto-clypeal 
suture and on the upper and lower margin of the labrum, that of the upper margin 
running down into a median dark spot; clypeus brownish. Occiput yellow with 
black lateral angles. Dorsal thoracic pale stripe narrow, sometimes separated 
from a pale spot above. Lateral stripe 1 strongly constricted in the middle. 
Stripe 2 also very much constricted in the middle and much widened dorsally. 
One or more pale stripes between the two lateral stripes. Wings hyaline costa 
yellow, stigma brown. 



AESCHNA 147 

Mr. Walker ('12) describes oviposition of this species from several 
careful observations: 

The insect when first seen was clinging to the blade of a bur-reed (Spar- 
ganium) close to the surface of the water with about half the abdomen immersed 
(see initial figure page 00). She was watched for about 5 minutes at the end of 
which she suddenly flew away. During this time the end of the abdomen was 
thrust against the stem every 2 or 3 seconds and was gradually lowered until 
wholly under water. Soon after this depth was reached she flew away. 

I then examined the reed and found the punctures .... were confined to the 
2 narrow surfaces of the 3 cornered reed and the great majority were on one 
surface. They tended to be grouped in oblique rows, although the arrangement 
is by no means regular. They were found to lie a little beneath the surface and 
very obliquely placed, occupying more nearly a vertical position than a horizontal 
one. The pointed anterior ends were in all cases outermost. 

On the following day another ovipositing female of the same species was 
observed at closer range, in fact I was almost directly above the insect while 
watching her. She was supported on a collection of dead floating reeds among a 
thick growth of living ones and was thrusting the ovipositor, seemingly at 
random, into any piece of reed within reach. She did not remain more than a 
minute or so, but the lever-like thrusts of the ovipositor could be seen distinctly 
when the abdomen was turned sideways. In making these thrusts the terminal 
abdominal segment served as a fulcrum. 

105. Aeschna juncea Linnaeus 

Linne. 1758, p. 544: Mtk. Cat. p. Ill: Wlsn. '09, pp. 656, 665: Walk. '12, p. 83: 
Howe '19, p. 46: '23, p. 123. 

Syn: ocellata Mueller., rustica Zetterstedt, picia Charpentier, 

caucasica Kolenati, propinqua Scud. 

Length 55 mm. Expanse 92 mm. N. F. and N. H. to Alaska and Col. 

A stout medium sized species. Face yellowish with a heavy dark line on the 

fronto-clypeal suture; anteclypeus brownish with a yellowish upper margin. 




Labrum yellow bordered with black anteclypeus dark brown. Lateral thoracic 
pale stripes wide the first pair narrowed slightly above and the second pair 
narrowed below. Legs black, femora paler basally. Wings hyaline, costa 
and stigma brown. 

Walker ('12) says " .... it flies over the open marshes and shallow 
reed-grown waters which border the river The weather was 



148 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

dull and one was taken in flight during a light rain." Ris ('85) has given 
an interesting account of the habits of this holoarctic insect in Swit- 
zerland. 

106. Aeschna subarctica Walker 

Walk. '08, p. 385, 390: '12, p. 93. 

Length 57 mm. Expanse 90 mm. Manitoba to Atl. Coast 

Face yellow with a heavy black line on the fronto-clypeal suture, broadest 
in the middle; anteclypeus dark brown and labrum bordered narrowly above 
and broadly below with black; occiput yellow. Lateral thoracic pale stripes 
excavated by an obtuse angle; the first stripe bearing a posterior spur. Legs 
reddish brown, femora paler beneath. Wings hyaline, costa yellow, stigma 
brown. 

Mr. Walker says that Aeshna subarctica is closely related to Aeshna 
juncea .... and that he was unable to distinguish them in flight; nor 
could he detect any differences in habits. 

107. Aeschna tuberculifera Walker 
Walk. '08, p. 385, 387: '12, p. 152: Howe '19, p. 48: '23, p. 124: Garm. '27, p. 187. 
Length 58 mm. Expanse 98 mm. N. H. and Ont. to Wis. 

Face olivaceous with a fine brown line on the fronto-clypeal suture; labrum 
with very narrow upper and lower marginal black lines. Occiput pale bluish 
green, the anterolateral margins black. Legs dark brown. Wings hyaline, some- 
times slightly flavescent at the base; costa and stigma brown. 

108. Aeschna canadensis Walker 

Walk. '08, p. 382, 389: Mtk. Cat. p. 109: Walk. '12, p. 135: Howe '19, p. 48: 
'23, p. 123: Garm. '27, p. 182. 

Syn: clepsydia Selys, juncea Wmsn., verticalis Walk. 
Length 58 mm. Expanse 92 mm. N. E. U. S. to Wash. 

Occiput yellow margined on sides with black. Face bluish or yellowish green; 
frons olivaceous, darker above, paler near ocular band. Fine brown line on fronto- 




verticalls canadensis 



clypeal suture. Anteclypeus dark brown in center. T spot heavy, strongly convex 
in front; stem broad, sides straight. Dorsal thoracic pale stripes straight and 
broad. Lateral pale stripes broad, the first one deeply constricted on its anterior 
margin by a rectangulate excavation, and with a posteriorly projecting spur 



AESCHNA 149 

on the upper end; the second, broad, wider above. Legs brown, tarsi and under 
sides darker; first femora with an external, basal pale streak. Wings hyaline; 
stigma and costa brown. 

Walker ('12) says: "This species breeds among reeds and sedge in 
shallow sluggish creeks, lakes and bays. With the exception of Ae. 
californica and the multicolor group it is the earliest species to appear 
in the adult state. Individuals may sometimes be seen as early as the 
middle of June but the usual time of appearance in the Transition 
Zone in Ontario is during the last week of June and the first week of 
July. By the middle of July they are numerous and may sometimes 
occur in very large numbers about the sunny borders of woods, es- 
pecially conifers. Here they may be seen sunning themselves on the 
trunks of trees or hanging from the twigs. On hot sultry days they fly 
restlessly to and fro in small openings among the trees, on the lookout 
for their prey. In August they are less frequently seen in the woods. 
They appear to return to their breeding-grounds, where they may be 
observed in large numbers, gliding over the reeds or skirting the water's 
edge. Such individuals are all males and may often be observed to drop 
down among the reeds and then emerge with a female in copula. 
Apparently copulation does not take place far from the water as com- 
monly occurs in constricta and other species." 

109. Aeschna verticalis Hagen 

Hag. '61, p. 122: Mtk. Cat. p. 114: Walk. '12, p. 145: Howe '19, p. 47: Garm. 
'27, p. 188. 

Syn: propinqua Scud. 
Length 59 mm. Expanse 96 mm. Wis., III. to Atl. Coast 

Occiput and face greenish yellow, with a fine brown line on the fronto-clypeal 
suture; anteclypeus reddish brown. T-spot heavy; stem short with divergent 
sides. Labrum brownish green, margined narrowly above and broadly below with 
black. Dorsal thoracic pale stripes conspicuous; lateral ones fairly broad; the 
first with an obtuse angulate excavation on the anterior margin and the dorsal 
posterior projecting spur; the second narrower below and with a slight suggestion 
of a dorsal anterior spur. Legs brownish, tibiae and tarsi black. Wings hyaline; 
costa and stigma brownish. 

23. Gynacantha Rambur 

These are slender graceful darners with broad heads and very long 
eye seams. The venation is much as in Aeschna. The legs and abdomen 
are slenderer, and the apex of the abdomen in the female is variously 
spined. 

This is a large tropical genus, of which but three species have been 
found within our southern limits. 



150 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

The nymph is similar to that of Aeschna, but is readily distinguished 
from all other Aeschnine nymphs by the possession of a row of long 
strong raptorial setae upon the upper and inner edge of the lateral lobe 
of the labium. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES 

Adults 

1 Expanse less than 90 trifida, p. 150 

Expanse usually more than 100 2. 

2 Superior appendage of the male with a dorsal ridge 

nervosa, p. 150 

Superior appendage of the male without a dorsal ridge 

bifida, p. 151 

110. Gynacantha trifida Rambur 
The Vixen 
Ramb. '42, p. 210: Mtk. Cat. p. 108. 

Syn: needhami Mrtn. 
Length 65 mm. Expanse 84 mm. Fla. and Calif. 

A slender graceful species with greenish thorax and brown abdomen. Face 
obscure yellowish. Apex of frons above suffused with black. Vertex blackish 
and very narrow. Occiput brown. Thorax brown and green, thinly clad with 
short, pale pubescence. Front brown, with two broad, green, obscure stripes. 
Sides more green than brown with an ill-defined oblique brown stripe upon the 
middle (stripe 4) and touches of brown upon the other sutures. Legs brown 
with black tarsi. Wings hyaline with brown veins and tawny stigma. Abdomen 
brown with blackish carinae and obscure median and subapical pale rings; the 
median ones are dilated toward the middle line on segments 3-7. The swollen 
basal segments are greenish at the sides and obscurely lineate above along the 
sutures. Appendages brown. Female with 3 black downwardly directed spines 
on segment 10 beneath. 

111. Gynacantha nervosa Rambur 

Ramb. '42, p. 213: Mtk. Cat. p. 107. 

Length 75 mm. Expanse 106 mm. Fla. and Calif. 

A fine, big, brownish species with little differentiation of color pattern. The 
face is tawny; the frons above is diffusely blackish around the margin; the minute 
occiput is yellow. The thorax is wholly brown except for a blackish spot at the 
spiracle. The abdomen is brown with narrow black lines on the sutures encircling 
the segments. Segment 10 of the female has two black, decurved spines below. 

Williamson who has observed this species in the tropics says ('23, 
p. 40) that it 

seems essentially crepuscular in its flight. Where the species occurs abundantly 
the numbers on the wing and in sight at once, the mobile active flight, and the 



CORDULEGASTER 151 

rapidly coming darkness of the tropical night combine to form a scene to fire 
the imagination. They come from everywhere, the air is filled with them, some 
fly erratically, others patrol regular beats, apparent spots of greater density lure 
the collector from one point to another. As suddenly as they appeared, only a 
few are seen, and then they are gone, and the disappointed collector with 
possibly only two or three specimens in his bottle, realizes that the twenty or 
thirty minute flight is at its end, and that he will not see nervosa again for 
twenty-four hours. 

Dr. W. T. M. Forbes reports that the night-jars take their toll of 
Gynacanthas during this same half hour of evening flight. 

The brownish coloration of this species is of a type that seems to 
go with crepuscular habits of flight. Dusk-flying and shade-dwelling 
dragonflies run to somber browns. 

112. Gynacantha bifida Rambur 

Ramb. '42, p. 213: Mtk. Cat. p. 107. 

Length 74 mm. Expanse 104 mm. Fla. 

Face yellow. Top of frons with an ill-defined T-spot. Occiput yellow. Thorax 
brownish on a yellowish background. Feet yellowish. Wings hyaline, broad, 
with open venation; costa and stigma yellowish red; membranule whitish, very 
small; a brownish streak along the subcostal space extends beyond the nodus 
the length of the wing, and overlaps a little into the costal area before the nodus; 
anal triangle of three cells. Abdomen brown with streaks of black on the second 
segment and median streaks of yellow on the following segments. Appendages 
brown. 



Subfamily Cordulegasterinae 

Large black and yellow dragonflies, with eyes approximated or 
meeting at a single point on the top of the head. Labium with a 
median terminal cleft. Stigma with no brace vein at proximal end. 
Females with a rather crude ovipositor. 

The group is a small one, pertaining to the northern hemisphere and 
there is in our fauna but a single genus. 

24. CORDULEGASTER 

The Biddies 

These are clear-winged stout, hairy, dragonflies, of rather primitive 
aspect. The thorax is blackish, with a pair of oblique pale stripes on the 
front and two additional pairs on the sides. Legs black. Wings hyaline. 
Face mostly greenish or yellowish, but with the clypeus always fuscous. 
The occiput and the abdominal markings are very different in the 
different species. All the species frequent clear-flowing woodland 
streams, where their nymphs dwell in the bottom ooze of the settling 
basins. 

In terms of the stripings of the Gomphus thorax (fig. 30) the stripes 
of the 1st pair have fused to form a middorsal triangular spot, those of 
the 2nd and 3rd pairs have fused completely (except for a little rift in 
C. diastatops). Those of the 4th and 5th have hkewise fused and a 6th 
has developed behind, and all have become conjoined longitudinally 
by their ends. 

Nymphs of this genus agree in the following points: the body is 
stout, rough hairy, cylindric, tapering beyond the middle of the abdo- 
men to a pointed apex, the longitudinal axis upcurved at both ends, the 
tips of the eyes and the abdominal appendages being the highest points. 
The antennae are seven-jointed, slender. The eyes cap the angular 
antero lateral prominence of the head and extend a pair of sharp points 
internally on the vertex from their hind angles. Hind angles of the head 
rounded, the hind margin not obviously concave posteriorly. The 
labium is very large, extending posteriorly between the bases of the 
middle legs, its dilated, spoon-shaped anterior end covering the face up 
to the antennae, and meeting above a convex frontal prominence, whose 
margin is fringed with sensory hairs. The mentum is triangularly 
widened beyond the middle; its median lobe is produced in a median 
tooth which is bifid on the median fine; its lateral lobes are broad, 

152 



CORDULEGASTER 153 

triangular, concave, and bear a row of short raptorial setae just within 
the external margin, a stouter, but not longer movable hook at the end 
of this row, and a series of coarse, irregular interlocking teeth on the 
distal margin. 

Prothorax with a transverse dorsal flattened area, which is fringed 
with stiff hairs; legs slender and not very long, adapted for raking the 
sand aside; femora and tibiae with dorsal and ventral rows of long 
hairs, the ventral row on the tibiae graduating into spines at the tip, 
these becoming arranged in a double row on the ventral side of the 
tarsal segments; tarsi three-jointed; wings a little divergent on the two 
sides, when grown, reaching the fourth abdominal segment. 

Abdomen, subcylindric, arcuately upcurved toward the tip; no dorsal 
hooks; lateral appendages less than one fourth as long as superior and 
inferiors; the transverse apical rings on the abdominal segments are 
somewhat remote from the apices of the segments and bear rows of very 
stiff hairs, which are incurved at the tip and serve to hold a layer of 
sand, dirt, etc. about the body. 

The nymphs live on the bottom in shallow water, buried in clean 
sand or in silt. Though buried they do not burrow, but descend by 
raking the sand from beneath them by sweeping, lateral movements of 
the legs. When deep enough, they kick the sand up over the back till 
only the elevated tips of the eyes and the respiratory aperture at the 
tip of the abdomen are exposed. By placing a live nymph in a dish of 
sand and water and watching, its method may be observed in a very few 
minutes. The whole comical performance reminds one strongly of the 
descent of an old hen in a dustbath (whence the common name sug- 
gested for this group). 

Once adjusted in the sand, a nymph (unless food tempts) remains 
motionless a very long time, even for weeks. Let any little insect walk 
or swim near the nymph's head, and a hidden labium springs from the 
sand with a mightly sweep and clutches it. The nymphs will capture 
and eat young brook trout as long as themselves, when placed in their 
cage. So eager are they, they will rise partly from the sand on approach 
of a trout. Like the nymphs of the Aeschninae, they seem to have a 
decided preference for big game, if one may judge by the strenuous 
efforts they put forth when something at the limit of their capacity for 
capturing approaches. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES* 
Adults 

1 Abdomen with transverse yellow bands on the segments 2. 

Abdomen with yellow spots 4. 



154 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

2 Frons dark with a superior transverse oval yellow spot. Size large, 

(Length 73 mm.) diadema, p. 155 

Frons uniformly colored. Size smaller, (length 62 mm.) 3. 

3 Face yellow sayi, p. 155 

Face blackish erroneous, p. 155 

4 Abdomen with a mid dorsal Kne of spots 5. 

Abdomen with lateral spots 6. 

5 Spots bifid on middle segments dorsalis, p. 156 

Spots spear shaped on middle segments obliquus, p. 158 

6 Length of abdomen less than 60 mm 7. 

Length of abdomen 65 mm fasciatus, p. 158 

7 A single pair of lateral spots on each segment. Eyes not contiguous 

diastatops, p. 158 

A median and an apical pair of spots on the middle segments. 
Eyes contiguous maculatus, p. 159 

* By C. F. Byers. 

Nymphs* 

1 Segments 8 and 9 without lateral spines 2. 

Segments 8 and 9 with lateral spines 3. 

2 Each division of the bifid middle tooth of the mentum truncate on 

the end, and with a very shallow secondary intendation, followed 

by a straight row of small denticales. Lateral setae 6-7 

dorsalis. 

Mentum with each half of the middle tooth again strongly bifid, 
the lower half being smaller and almost hidden among the hairs 
at its base. No denticles. Lateral setae 5 diadema. 

3 Lateral spines on 8 and 9 stout, straight, and conspicuous. Teeth 

on the lateral lobes comparatively broad and blunt 4. 

Lateral spines on 8 and 9 small, cyhndric and hidden among scurfy 

hairs. Teeth of the lateral lobes long and sharp 

maculatus. 

4 Median tooth of the mentum secondarily bifid into two equal 

parts sayi. 

Median tooth of the mentum secondarily bifid into two unequal 
parts, the lower being the smaller 5. 

5 Lateral setae 5. Mental setae 10-11 diastatops. 

Lateral setae 6. Mental 13 obliquus. 

The nymphs of erroneous and fasciatus are still (1928) unknown. 

* By C. F. Byera. 







CORDULEGASTER 


155 






The Known Nymphs 




Species 


Length 


Lat. spines 
on8 &9 


Lat. Set. 


Ment. Set. 


Described by 


diadema 


35 


none 


5 


8-9 


Ndm. '04, p. 697 


diastatops 


40 


stout 


5 




Cabot '72, p. 13 


dorsalis 


35 


none 


6-7 


8-9 


Ndm. '04, p. 696 


maculatus 


41 


minute 


5 


10-11 


Ndm. '01, p. 477 


obliquus 


39 


stout 


6 


13 


Ndm. 06', p. 3 


sayi 


34 


stout 


5 


11 


Ndm. '03, p. 267 



113. Cordulegaster diadema Selys 

Selys '68, p. 68: Mtk. Cat. p. 76: Kndy. '17, p. 515 (figs.). 
Length 78 mm. Expanse 100 mm. Ariz. 

A fine big species of the southwest, its black body striped on the thorax and 
ringed on the abdomen with yellow. Face pale, with a blackish cross-stripe just 
below the ridge of the frons and a black clypeus and labral border. Occiput 
brown, low, hair-fringed. Pale stripes of the thorax pointed downward and 
strongly divergent. Those of the sides of the thorax broad and regular. Legs 
black. Wings hyaUne; costa yellow; stigma brown. Abdomen black, ringed with 
yellow. Segments 3 to 8 each with a single median ring that is angulated at the 
side and bent forward at its lower end; on 9, similar, but broader and nearly 
divided in the middle; on 10, broken into three small spots. Segment 2 mostly 
yellow. Appendages black. 

114. Cordulegaster sayi Selys 

Selys '54, p. 104: Mtk. Cat. p. 78. 

Length 62 mm. Expanse 78 mm. Me., Va., Wis., Ga. 

A fine eastern species. The face is pale, with clypeus and border of labrum 
brown. The occiput is pale with very narrow black edging next the eyes. The 
black of the thorax is a little more extensive, so that the pale stripes of the front 
are shortened and rounded below; those of the sides are broad, and the black that 
intervenes between these stripes is undivided. Legs black. Wings hyaline with 
yellow costa, and tawny stigma. Abdomen half-ringed above with yellow on 
segments 2 to 9, the rings on 2 to 6 being double, and on 7 to 9 single but broader. 
Segment 10 and appendages black. 

Muttkowski ('08, p. 79) reports that this species is found about Wis- 
consin lakes from June to August. 

115. Cordulegaster erroneus Hagen 
Hag. '54, p. 688: Mtk. Cat. p. 76: Garm. '27, p. 121. 

Length 78 mm. Expanse 102 mm. Pa., N. C. to Ey. 

A fine large species with cross-banded abdomen. Face yellowish, except for 

the clypeus and labral border, and the extreme side margins of the frons which 



156 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

are blackish. Occiput small, pale, clothed and fringed with tawny hairs. Stripes 
of the front of the thorax abbreviated and narrowed to a point below, and 
strongly divergent. Legs black. Wings hyaline; costa yellow; stigma black. 
The pale dorsal crossbands of the abdominal segments are dilated forward at the 
sides and incised by the black of the mid dorsal line on segments 2 to 6, and on 
2 to 4 there is an additional side spot below. The crossband on 7 is broader; on 
8, narrower and narrowly divided in the middle line; and on 9, reduced to a pair 
of widely separated pale dashes in the midst of the black; 10 and appendages 
black. 

116. Cordulegaster dorsalis Hagen 

Hag. '57, p. 347: Mtk. Cat. p. 76: Kndy. '17, p. 515 (figs.): Smn. '26, p. 26: 

Ckll. '19, p. 22. 
Length 76 mm. Expanse 94 mm. Pacific Coast, Alaska to Calif. 

A fine big black west-coast species with thorax conspicuously striped and 
abdomen dorsally spotted. Face yellow with a faint wash of brown above across 
the upper margin; clypeus and labral border brown. Occiput brown, with 
marginal fringe of tawny hairs. Pale stripes of the front of the thorax rather 
broad, regular, strongly divergent downward. Those of the sides broad and 
regular. Legs black, brownish at base. Wings hyaline with brown stigma. Pale 
spots of the abdomen more or less saddle-shaped on segments 2 to 9, diminishing 
in size to rearward, bilobed behind on most of the segments; 10 mostly black. 
Appendages black. 

Kennedy, who studied this species in the coast Mountains of Califor- 
nia, ('17, p. 516) observes, 

Cordulegasfer dorsalis is found usually on those swift mountain torrents which 
do not freeze in the winter time. It is found in the swift upper reaches of all the 
perennial streams. It does not occur on the lower reaches of these same streams 
after they have emerged onto the level floors of the valley, and have lost their 
swiftness to become warm and muddy. In the steep and narrow mountain gorges 
where the rushing torrents pour down through the shade of the redwoods and 
alders, this dragonfly adds a note of mystery to the scene; for the individuals 
with their strange ophidian coloration glide noiselessly up stream and down, 
never showing that curiosity towards strangers or unusual surroundings which 
is exhibited by the Libellulines of the sunny valleys, but always moving straight 
ahead as though drawn irresistibly onward. Only males are common on the 
streams, the females seldom resorting to the water except to oviposit. 

The males, as indicated above, fly on the longest beats I have observed for 
any dragonfly, for they fly continuously up stream and down, until they come 
to the head of the stream or to the slow water below, or until some unusual 
obstruction turns them aside, when they face about and fly as steadily in the 
opposite direction. The course is usually a foot or two above the surface of the 
stream and goes through dense shade and any loose brush or foliage which may 
hang over the water. Because of this habit of flying in long beats this dragonfly 
is not easily taken, as the collector has but a single chance at each individual. 

In the streams of the Coast Mountains of California, where I have had oppor- 
tunities to observe the habits of Cordulegaster most, it shows a marked upstream 
migration of the imagoes. The eggs are laid in the shallow water along the edges 



CORDULEGASTER 157 

of the stream and the nymphs wander aimlessly over the bed. Because the 
nymphs are free on the stream bottom each freshet during the three or four 
years of nymphal life serves to wash them farther downstream so that when they 
come to emerge they may be far downstream from the place where the eggs were 
deposited. 

I have never observed copulation in this species, but in the matter of ovi- 
position I was more fortunate. August 16, on Stevens Creek, I saw a female 
oviposit. She flew hurriedly up the creek and every few yards stopped and with 
a sudden backing or downward stroke, while hovering with the body in a per- 
pendicular position, stabbed her large ovipositor into the coarse sand along the 
stream edge, where the water was about an inch deep. She thus thrust her 
abdomen down through the inch of water driving her ovipositor into the sand 
beneath. Four to ten such perpendicular thrusts were made at each stop. Some 
stops were along the open beaches, but more were in quiet nooks between large 
rocks where she would have barely room enough for her wing expanse. She 
usually faced the center of the stream while ovipositing, though once she faced 
upstream and once she faced the bank. The peculiar perpendicular position 
with the up and down motion reminded me strongly of the manner of oviposition 
of some crane flies, except that the latter oviposit in damp soil and support 
themselves on their slender legs while making the vertical thrusts. Fig. 11 shows 
the position of the female while ovipositing. 

The nymphs are shortlegged, slow moving creatures and are usually abundant 
in the streams of the Coast Mountains. They occur with Octogomphus nymphs 
in the leafy trash of the eddies, but are also found crawling slowly about over the 
bed of the stream. Their very slow and apparently cautious movements do not 
betray them, and they carry with them further protection in the coat of long 
hairs which collects dirt and on which flourishes a thick growth of filamentous 
algae. Because of this covering of dirt and algae the nymph, though on an 
otherwise barren bottom, will usually escape the closest scrutiny of the collector, 
for it does not appear any different from a stick or a stone covered with dirt 
and aquatic growths. On Mission Creek, Santa Barbara, California, I found 
nymphs of dorsalis buried in flocculent silt, as described for the various eastern 
species of the genus. 

At emergence, which takes place in June, the nymphs crawl from 1 to 5 feet 
up the trunk of the nearest alder tree. This species spends 4 years in the egg 
and nymphal stage. 

The senior author kept nymphs of this species alive in a dish of 
water and sand for some weeks on his desk in California in order to 
observe their feeding habits. A half grown nymph, thrown out of the 
sand, chanced to wander in front of a grown nymph and was seized by 
the cannibal and wholly devoured in half an hour. Damselflies (mostly 
Enallagmas) were used for regular feeding. Several were eaten daily by 
each nymph. 

A large Enallagma nymph seized by its abdomen clung with its feet 
to the back of the head of the biddy nymph and would not let go until 
the latter compelled it by repeated forward thrusts of its tail spines 



158 DRAGON FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

turned forward over its head. A big nymph taken in the fingers will 
often use its tail spine defensively. 

The normal food of these nymphs in the streams of southern Califor- 
nia, as determined by stomach examinations, is mayfly nymphs and 
midge larvae. 

117. Cordulegaster obliquus Say 

Say '39, p. 15: Mtk. Cat. p. 77: Garm. '27, p. 123. 

Length 74 mm. Expanse 96 mm. Me., Pa., Wis., 111. 

A fine large species having a peaked occiput with a bald spot in the middle, 
and a Gomphus-like middorsal line of spots on the abdomen. Face pale, with 
the clypeus and labral border obscure brownish. Hind border of the yellow 
occiput hair fringed only at the sides. Pale stripes of the front of the thorax 
narrowed to a point below and strongly divergent, the pale side stripes strong 
and regular. Legs black, brownish at base. Wings hyaline, with costa and stigma 
brown. The middorsal line of pale spots on the abdomen is widened in the 
middle on each of segments 2 to 6; it is still more widened on 7 and 8; and 
reduced to a little basal transverse dash on 9; 10 and appendages wholly 
black. 

The senior author has published an extended account of the habits of 
this species in Entom. News, 16: 3-6, 1905. 

118. Cordulegaster fasciatus Rambur 

Ramb. '42, p. 178: Mtk. Cat. p. 77. 

Length 73 mm. Expanse 92 mm. S.E. States 

This is a fine, large, reddish brown species. Face yellowish, with brown 
bordered labrum and brown anteclypeus. There is a narrow brown line before 
the ocelli. The occiput is brownish black clothed with thin brown hairs. The 
two yellowish stripes on the front of the red brown thorax are cuneiform, pointed 
and divergent downward. The pale side stripes are broad and regular, and in 
the dark area between them there is a suggestion of an included narrow pale 
line. Legs black, reddish at base. Wings hyaline, a little tinged with yellow or 
brown in old specimens; stigma reddish. Abdomen blackish with two midlateral 
rows of yellow spots on segments 2 to 8; the spots are triangular on 7, and almost 
bifid on 8. Auricles of the male yellow. Appendages black. 

119. Cordulegaster diastatops Selys 

Selys '54, p. 101: Mtk. Cat. p. 76: Garm. '27, p. 119. 

Syn: lateralis Scud. 

Length 60 mm. Expanse 80 mm. Atlantic States Me. to N. C. 

A trim blackish species with greenish stripes on the thorax and a line of 

obscure pale spots along the sides of the abdomen. Face greenish except for the 

clypeus and a narrow front border to the labrum. Occiput yellowish, except for 



CORDULEGASTER 159 

a narrow line of black on the lateral margins next the eye, and a black hair 
fringe. Pale stripes of the front of the thorax rather broad, strongly divergent 
forward and pointed downward. The broad black shoulder stripe is divided above 
by a little greenish triangle (due to incomplete fusion of black stripes 2 and 3). 
Likewise, the two oblique pale stripes of the sides are broad and parallel, with 
the intervening black, paler in the middle (due to the incomplete fusion of black 
stripes 4 and 5). Legs black. Wings hyaline with a tawny stigma. The pale 
markings of the abdomen consist of a line of lateral triangles each side, con- 
tinuous on segments 2 and 3, abbreviated progressively on 4 to 8, reduced to a 
squarish spot on 9; 10 and appendages black. 

This is the common species in the northeastern states. In the glades 
of the woods the adult males course the streams in persistent flight 
during hours of sunshine in hot weather. Females are less in evidence, 
but are seen sometimes ovipositing by vertical thrusts in the sand in 
shoal riffles up-stream from the settling basins in the brooks. The cast 
skins left behind by the nymphs at transformation are found com- 
monly sticking to roots and logs at the edges of these basins. 

120. Cordulegaster maculatus Selys 

Selys '54, p. 105: Mtk. Cat. p. 77: Garm. '27, p. 122. 

Length 68 mm. Expanse 84 mm. Atlantic Coast, N. S. to N. C. 

A stout hairy species with attingent eyes, and a small brownish occiput that 
is clothed all over its upper and front surface with brown hairs. Face pale, with 
obscure brownish clypeus and labral border. Pale stripes of the front of the 
thorax abbreviated and pointed below and strongly divergent downward; those 
of the sides broad and regular. Legs blackish, brown at base. Wings hyaline 
with tawny stigma. Abdomen with pale spots in two rows on the abdomen well 
up toward the middorsal line, double on segment 2, single and diminishing in 
size to rearward on segments 3 to 8; 9, 10 and appendages black. 

Davis ('13, p. 18) reports this species as often found flying up and 
down brooks. Williamson ('07, p. 144) thus writes of its egg-laying 
habits : 

Two females were observed to fly down from trees alighting on algae 
covered rocks in the stream bed. On the portions of these rocks not covered 
by water they crawled about in an awkward manner thrusting the abdomen with 
much commotion into the algae beneath the water. Males alternated between 
the trees and short flights over the water. 



Family Libellulidae 
The Skimmers 

These are the commonest and best known of dragonflies. On shining, 
tremulous wings they hover over every pond and pool. They range in 
size from the little blue hell ( Nannothemis hello), less than an inch long, 
up to the big belted skimmers of the genus Macromia. 

These are mostly showy dragonflies. The body is stout and the abdo- 
men is generally less elongated than in the preceeding groups. The 
head is bulged laterally by the huge compound eyes which overspread 
its upper surface meeting in the median line above, in a short seam. 
The triangles are elongated in different directions; that of the fore 
wing cross-wise and that of the hind wing length-wise of the wing. 
They are situated much nearer the arculus in the hind than in the 
fore wing. The antenodal cross veins mostly matched in position 
across the subcostal vein. Some of the more proximal postnodals do 
not extend to the median vein. There is no brace vein to the stigma. 
The anal loop is generally well developed. The female generally lacks 
an ovipositor. 

The coloration of members of this family is often strikingly beautiful. 
Often there are wing patterns in brown, red and gold, and sometimes 
these are different in the two sexes. Often there is a development of 
pruinosity (Hke a hoary bluish white powder) with age, completely 
changing the appearance of the body by obscuring the original color 
pattern. 

KEY TO THE SUBFAMILIES 
Adults 

1 Anal loop compact, little longer than wide, the bordering basal 
portion of vein Cu2 straight, included cells not in two rows and 
not separated by a distinct bisector or mid rib; triangle of hind 
wing remote from the arculus; arculus with long stalked sectors; 

more than 2 cubito-anal cross veins present 

Macromiinae, p. 163 

Anal loop elongate, becoming foot-shaped, divided length-wise 
into 2 rows of cells by a bisector or mid rib; the bordering basal 
portion of vein Cua sinuous; triangle of hind wing close to the 

arculus; one or two cubito-anal cross veins present 2. 

161 



162 



DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



2 Anal loop somewhat foot-shaped but with little development of 
the toe; males with auricles on the sides of the second abdominal 
segment, and with the adjacent inner margin of the hind wing 

notched Corduliinae, p. 171 

Anal loop (in ours) generally distinctly foot-shaped with a well 
developed toe; males without auricles on 2, and inner margin 
of hind wing rounded Libellulinae, p. 201 

Nymphs 

1 Head with a prominent frontal horn; abdomen flat and subcircular; 

legs very long; teeth on lateral lobe of labium with very deep 

incisions between them Macromiinae, p. 163 

Head with no prominent frontal horn; abdomen more elongate and 
less depressed; teeth on lateral lobes of labium with only shallow 
incisions between them 2. 

2 Hind femora longer than the head is wide; when the lateral spines 

are long there is a full series of big dorsal hooks on the abdomen 

Corduliinae, p. 171 

Hind femora not longer than the head is wide; when lateral spines 
are long there is generally no full series of big dorsal hooks on the 
abdominal segments Libellulinae*, p. 203 

* These last alternatives are of uncertain application. When in doubt try 
both routes. 




Fig. 32a. Sexual differences in color pattern in Plathemis lydia. 



Subfamily Macromiinae 
The Belted Skimmers 

These are very large, strong flying, clear winged dragonflies, with 
robust bodies and long legs. In the hind wing the triangle is remote 
from the arculus (though nearer it than in the fore wing); the anal 
loop is never foot-shaped, but is short and compact, lacking a bisector. 
The distinctive feature of their coloration is a conspicuous band of 
yellow encircling the synthorax at the middle sutures, showing as a 
single oblique, middle yellow stripe upon the sides. 

These dragonflies are the monarchs of the upper air. They fly high 
and forage widely and are exceedingly difficult to capture. They go 
volplaning about the shores of lakes and large ponds and the more 
quiet places in the large streams. 

The nymphs are short and flat with widely sprawling legs. The eyes 
are very prominently elevated on the superolateral angles of the head, 
and between them is a conspicuous frontal horn. There is a row of 
strong, cultriform mid dorsal hooks running length-wise of the abdomen. 

These nymphs are not found in the weed beds, but on the bare areas 
of the bottom, amid the silt which spreads over them. 

The group is a small one, including in our limits but 2 genera, which 
may be distinguished as follows: 

KEY TO THE GENERA 
Adults 
1 Dorsal surface of the head with the occiput larger than the vertex; 
subtriangle of the fore wings usually divided by a cross vein; 

4 to 6 cross veins in the space above the bridge 

Didymops, p. 169 

Dorsal surface of the head with the occiput much smaller than the 
vertex; subtriangle of the fore wings generally open; 2 or 3 cross 
veins in the space above the bridge Macromia, p. 164 

Nymphs 

1 Head hardly as wide across the eyes as across the bulging hind 

angles; lateral spines not incurved, those of the ninth abdominal 

segment hardly surpassed by the tips of the appendages; dorsum 

of the tenth abdominal segment with no trace of a dorsal hook 

Didymops, p. 169 

Head widest across the eyes; spines of the ninth abdominal seg- 
ment shorter, not nearly reaching the level of the apices of the 
appendages; dorsum of the tenth segment with a very rudi- 
mentary dorsal hook Macromia, p. 165 

163 



164 



DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



25. Macromia Rambur 

These are fine clear-winged dragonflies of brownish color and very- 
robust form. The top of the vertex is a double cone, with the two 
apices rather sharply pointed. The legs are black. The wings are 
hyahne. A girdle of yellow encircles the thorax and there is a saddle of 
yellow upon the dorsum of the seventh abdominal segment more or less 
well defined. 

Most species seem to prefer the larger streams over which they sweep 
boldly and erratically here and there, betaking themselves often in 




Fig. 33. Wings of Macromia pacifica. 



high flights above the neighboring tree tops. Their season of greatest 
activity is midsummer and they are most in evidence on clear hot days. 
The females oviposit unattended by the males. 

Williamson has studied the species of this genus occurring in Indiana, 
and has this to say about their habitat and habits ('15, p. 386): "The 
Wabash River at Bluffton during recent years has been overrun at the 
ripples by willow herb, so the river in summer is reduced to a succession 
of pools of greater or less length. On the banks Hibiscus militaris has 
become throughly estabhshed at the water's edge. These pools seem 
to be an ideal home for the Macromias. 

"Individuals follow the same track over and over, crossing the river 
at a certain point, returning over a certain patch of willow herb, turning 
out from the shore line at a certain clump of Hibiscus, and going and 
commg over the same or nearly the same course, and not following the 
pools in a circular manner. Moreover, individuals of successive gener- 
ations have followed the same course as their predecessors, as I have 
observed at the pools where I have found individuals most numerous, 



MACROMIA 



165 



and where I have collected for several years. The configuration of 
vegetation and water is a positive factor in determining the course of 
flight." 

Their flat, long legged, freckled nymphs sprawl on the botton silt, 
which their colors match perfectly. They clamber far out away from 
the water to transform, leaving their empty skins often many meters 
distant from it, attached to tree trunks or walls. 

The nymphs of this genus differ from those of Didymops chiefly in 
that the head is widest across the eyes and slowly narrowed to rear- 
ward. They seem to prefer clayey bottom among the roots of trees 
where a net may hardly be used to get them. 

Nymphs of but three of our species have hitherto been described. 
Their chief characters may be tabulated as follows 







The Known 


Nymph 


s 




Species 


Length 


Tip of 
Horn 


Ment. 
Setae 


Lai. 

Setae 


Lat. sp.* 
on 9 


Described by 


illinoiensis 

magnifica 

taeniolata 


30 
31 
36 


acute 
acute 
obtuse 


5 + 1 
4 + 1 


6 
6 


straight 
straight 
incurved 


Cabot '90, p. 16 
Cabot '90, p. 18** 
Cabot '90, p. 19 



* Lateral spines. 

** Kennedy ('15, p. 313-322) has adequately described and illustrated this 
species, and has given a key to these nymphs. 

They are of wide distribution, especially in the northern hemisphere. 
About a third of the species occur within our limits. They may be 
distinguished as follows: 

KEY TO THE SPECIES 

Adults 

1 Pale stripe on front of thorax obsolete or nearly so 2. 

Pale stripe on front of thorax well developed reaching at least half 

way to the crest 4. 

2 Yellow ring on second abdominal segment divided dorsally 

australensis, p. 169 

Yellow ring on second abdominal segment entire 3. 

3 Yellow cross band of abdominal segment 7 in male, reaching lateral 

border alleghaniensis, p. 167 

Yellow cross band of seventh abdominal segment of male not 
reaching lateral border illinoiensis, p. 166 



166 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

4 Costa brown 5. 

Costa yellow 6. 

5 Expanse over 115 taeniolata, p. 167 

Expanse less than 100 mm georgiana, p. 169 

6 Pale stripe on front of thorax abbreviated and pointed above .... 

. waba§hensis, p. 167 

Pale stripe on front of thorax broader and reaching almost to 
carina 7. 

7 Pale spots of middle abdominal segments divided on median line 

pacifica, p. 168 

Pale spots of middle abdominal segments not divided on median 
line; vertex pale 8. 

8 Transverse pale spot on abdominal segment 2 entire; antenodals of 

fore wing 14 to 15 annulata, p. 168 

Transverse pale spot on abdominal segment 2 divided; antenodals 
of fore wing 11 to 12 magnifica, p. 168 

121. Macromia illinoiensis Walsh 

Walsh '62, p. 397: Mtk. Cat. p. 120: Wlsn. '12, p. 193: Howe '19, p. 52: Garm. 

'27, p. 204. 
Length 70 mm. Expanse 100 mm. N. Eng., N. Y., Pa., Del., N. C. 

Another darkly colored species, lacking pale stripes on the front of the thorax. 
Face brownish, paler on middle of labrum and on most of the postclypeus. 
Top of frons with four yellowish spots on a brown ground, two within and two 
without the median furrow. The single median side stripe of the thorax is well 
defined and there is another obscurer one on the hind margin below. Legs black. 
Wings hyaline, except for a tinge of brown in the membrane at the extreme base. 
Costa and stigma brown. Pale spots of abdomen of slight extent, divided by 
black on the middorsal line except on segment 7, where fused into the usual 
saddle mark, which does not extend down to the lateral margin of the segment. 
Segments 8, 9, and 10 and appendages black. 

Walker ('08, p. 17) says: 

This insects frequents woodland paths and glades in the neighbor- 
hood of large lakes and rapid streams, coursing swiftly back and 
forth over its chosen part with almost tireless energy. It appears about 
the end of June or first week in July, and remains until the latter part 
of August. 

This species frequents lakes as well as rivers. WilHamson ('09, p. 369) 
observes that 

At Sandusky, Ohio, where M. Illinoiensis has been taken in large numbers, many 
collect toward evening in the cedars on Cedar Point, several individuals fre- 



MACROMIA 167 

quently choosing the same twig for a resting place. It is probably that during 
the day these same individuals seek insect food at a considerable elevation, and 
hence escape observation. 

Williamson further says (I, c, p. 386) that when this dragonfly is in 
flight one gets the "impression of a black insect largely yellow at apex 
of the abdomen." 

122. Macromia allegheniensis Williamson 

Wmsn. '09, p. 376: Mtk. Cat. p. 120. 

Length 70 mm. Expanse 98 mm. Va., Pa., Ky. 

Differs but little from the preceding species, the pale markings of the ab- 
domen being a little more extensive, especially the cross stripes on abdominal 
segments 2 and 8; on 2 it is continuous across the middorsal hne, and on 8 it 
extends lower down on the sides, in the male, reaching the lateral margin. 

123. Macromia taeniolata Rambur 

Ramb. '42, p. 139: Mtk. Cat. p. 121: Wlsn. '12, p. 193: Garm. '27, p. 204. 
Length 90 mm.. Expanse 122 mm. N. Y. and Wis. to Kan. and Fla. 

This is the largest species of the genus. The face is brownish with the middle 
of the labrum and all of the clypeus pale. The vertex is metallic blue and hairy, 
double pointed and peaked. The two pale stripes of the front of the thorax are 
rather narrow and abbreviated and taper upward, reaching a little more than 
half way to the crest. The pair of yellow dashes on the crest a httle overspread 
its front margin. Legs black. Wings hyahne with brown costa and stigma. 
The pale markings of the dorsum of the abdomen are separated by black on the 
median line except on the 7th segment, where the narrow yellowish line is con- 
tinuous, its ends curving forward on the sides of the segment. Segments 9 and 10 
and the appendages are black. 

Wilson ('09) found it in late May and in July along streams in damp 
woods. It is a species of very swift and long sustained flight, and is very 
diflficult to capture. 

124. Macromia wabashensis Williamson 

Wmsn. '09, p. 374: Mtk. Cat. p. 121. 

Length 74 mm. Expanse 102 mm. Ind. 

"Very similar to taeniolata, but may be recognized by the following charac- 
ters: Costa (and antenodals and postnodals) yellow or yellowish as far as the 
tips of the wings; labrum less obscured, face paler and brighter colored; lateral 
spots on frons distinct; dorsal abdominal spot on 8 similar in shape and extent, 
relative to the transverse carina, to the spot on 7. Wings tinged with pale yellow- 
ish, or hyaline, the extreme apex frequently slightly fumose." — From Wmsn. '09, 
p. 374. 



168 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

125. Macromia pacifica Hagen 

Hag. '61, p. 134: Mtk. Cat. p. 121. 

Syn: flavipennis Walsh 
Length 70 mm. Expanse 94 mm. Wis., Ind., Tex., Calif. 

A fine western species, with yellow costal wing margin, and double row of 
spots on the abdomen. Face greenish yellow across the postclypeus and dull 
yellow on the labrum. Top of frons pale, scarcely showing the outline of the four 
usual spots. The pale stripes of the front of the thorax are well developed, 
parallel sided, and reach upward nearly to the crest. Side stripes broad and well 
defined, with an inferior pale stripe on the hind margin of the thorax. Legs 
black. Wings hyaline, with yellow costa, and blackish stigma. Pale markings 
of the top of the abdomen divided on the median line on segments 2 to 8; on 2, 
an elongate and rather wide transverse band; on the other segments spots, largest 
as usual on 7. Segments 9, 10 and appendages black. 

Williamson, who has observed this species at Bluffton, Indiana, says 
('09, p. 386) that it is readily recognized at some distance on the wing, 
and that "In flight one gets the impression of an insect largely yellow 
in color." 

126. Macromia annulata Hagen 

Hag. '61, p. 133: Mtk. Cat. p. 120. 

Length 68 mm. Expanse 95 mm. Carolina, Tex., III. 

A rather pale species with whitish face and yellow costa. The vertex is pale. 
The pale stripes of the front of the thorax are well developed, parallel sided, and 
reach upward nearly to the crest. The hind margin of the thorax also is yellow 
lined beneath. Legs black with bases of the femora paler. Wings hyaline with 
yellow costa and brown stigma. Pale markings of the abdomen continuous 
across the middorsal line, there is a narrow band across segment 2, a broad spot 
on 7 and shorter spots on 3 to 6 and on 8. Segments 9, 10 and appendages, 
blackish. 

127. Macromia magnifica McLachlan 

McL. '74, p. 22: Mtk. Cat. p. 121: Kndy. '15, p. 313. 

Length 70 mm. Expanse 96 mm. Calif., Ariz. 

A fine brownish western species rather brightly marked with yellow and with 
venation rather more open than in the other species. Face with the usual two 
pale cross bands and with the top of the frons and the vertex yellowish. Stripes 
on the front of the thorax broad, and reaching well up toward the crest. Legs 
blackish. Wings hyaline; costa yellow; stigma brown. Pale marks of the dorsum 
of the abdomen undivided except on the 2nd segment and rather broad on the 
succeeding segments; there are represented by narrow transverse basal lines 
on 9 and 10. Appendages brown. 

Kennedy ('15, p. 313) reports interesting observations on this spe- 
cies, made by him on Satus Creek, Umatilla flats, Oregon, from which 



DIDYMOPS 169 

we gather that he found the males patrolling the larger pools of the 
stream, most abundantly on calm clear forenoons. The females he saw 
ovipositing in the larger pools. They flew back and forth 40 to 50 feet, 
touching the water at 3 to 5 foot intervals to liberate eggs, and generally 
persisted at their task until seized and carried away by a male. He 
found the cast skins of the nymphs sticking to the trees whose bare 
roots dipped into the water on under-cut banks of the pools. 

128. Macromia georgina Selys 

Selys '78, p. 197: Mtk. Cat. p. 120. 

Length 71 mm. Expanse 96 mm. N. C, Ga., Tex. 

A pale-faced brownish species that has in addition to the usual paler areas 
on the middle of the labrum and on the postclypeus, a rather broad transverse 
band of the same color just beneath the ridge on the frons. There are the usual 
four obscure pale spots on the frons above. The vertex is peaked, bifid, bare and 
brown. The pale stripes of the front of the thorax are rather narrow, and taper 
upward and end far below the crest. Legs black. Wings hyaline; costa and 
etigma brown. The pale markings of the abdomen are continuous across the 
middorsal line on segments 2, 7 and 8, on 2 linear, on 7 saddle shaped, on 8 
smaller but similar, on 3 to 6 broken on the middle line to form pairs of spots. 
Segments 9, 10 and appendages black. 

129. Macromia australensis Williamson 
Wmsn. '09, p. 381: Mtk. Cat. p. 120. 
Length 75 mm. Expanse 104 mm. Okla., Tex. 

A large dark colored species with a minimum of pale markings for the genus. 
Face brownish, with the middle of the labrum and most of the postclypeus pale. 
Top of frons scarcely spotted. Peak of vertex, bifid, brown, bare. No stripe 
on front of thorax, the single median side stripe conspicuous. Legs black. Wings 
hyaUne, costa and stigma brown. Pale markings of the abdomen are continuous 
across the median dorsal Une on segments 2 (where transversely linear), and on 7 
(where a broad saddle mark), and on 8, and divided by black of the mid dorsum 
on 3 to 6. Appendage and segments 9, 10 and appendages black. 

26. DiDYMOPS Selys 

These large dragonflies differ from Macromia chiefly in the confor- 
mation of the top of the head, as indicated in the key, and in small 
details of venation. The subtriangle of the fore wing is generally divided 
by a cross vein, and the membranule is very broad. 

The flat, long-legged nymphs (Ndm. '01, p. 481) dwell in the silt in 
the beds of lakes and ponds and in settling basins of streams. They 
sprawl on the bottom, usually in the midst of trash, and are oftenest 
found where falhng silt has partly covered them, leaving only the tips 



170 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

of their eyes and the curious un-lifelike hooks and spines exposed. 
Thus situated, their concealment is perfect. They crawl a considerable 
distance from the water to transform, and leave their skins sticking to 
trees and posts often a good many meters distant from the margin of 
the water, and often as many meters above the ground. 

The adults are strong flying and rather widely ranging. They are 
fairly common in wooded districts flying along the margins of lakes and 
slow streams in the Eastern United States. 

This indigenous eastern genus includes but 2 species that may be 
separated as follows : 

KEY TO THE SPECIES 
Adults 

1 Wing expanse 77 mm. Basal antenodal cells of both wings tinged 

with brown transversa, p. 170 

Wing expanse 82 mm. Basal antenodal cells of both wings hyaline 
fioridensis, p. 170 

130. Didymops transversa Say 

Say 1839, p. 19: Mtk. Cat. p. 118: Howe '19, p. 51: Garm. '27, p. 202. 

Syn: cinnamonea Burm., servillei Ramb. 
Length 58 mm. Expanse 77 mm. Alta, Me., Mich., to S. C. and Ga. 

A large, hoary, brown species with rusty red tail. Face pale with the front 
edge of the labrum darker. On the top of the frons there is an 8-spot, dilated 
at the ends longitudinally. The conical vertex and the low occiput are pale 
olivaceous. The thorax is brown with a broad, oblique pale stripe on the middle 
of the sides. Legs brown, tarsi black, tibiae yellow externally. Wings hyaline, 
except for a short basal brown streak in front of the basal space and covering 
hardly more than the first antenodal cross vein. Stigma brown and costa tawny. 
Abdomen very obscurely half ringed with black above on the middle segments; 
the paler apical half of each segment being palest on segment 7, becoming more 
or less rusty red on the apical segments, whose extreme apical margins are en- 
circled with black. Appendages tawny. 

131. Didymops fioridensis Davis 
Davis '22, p. 110. 

Length 65 mm. Expanse 82 mm. Fla. 

This is similar to the preceding species but larger and it has the base of the 
wings less extensively tinged with brown. The venation is black except for a 
somewhat paler costa. The frons above is shining black, the occiput is lemon 
yellow and narrower than in D. transversa. Behind the eye there is a long, 
narrow, black, shining area, chiefly above the eye tubercle, extending to the occi- 
put, where transversa is dull yellow. Otherwise the two are quite similar. The 
nymph is unknown. 



Subfamily Cordulinae 

Strong-flying dragonflies of large size and often of brilliant metallic 
coloration. Eyes very large and broadly attingent, with an angulation 
or low tubercle on their hind margin at the side of the head. Sectors of 
the arculus separate at their origin. Triangle of hind wings retracted 
to the arculus. Anal loop somewhat foot-shaped (in ours), with well 
developed bisector, but with little development of the "toe." Males 
with auricles on the sides of the second abdominal segment, and corre- 
sponding notches in the inner margin of the hind wings. 

The nymphs are sprawlers upon the bottom. They are generally 
hairy, dark colored, and stout bodied, and the dorsal hooks when de- 
veloped are rather heavy and not spinelike. 

Our genera have a predominantly northward distribution. They may 
be separated as follows: 

KEY TO THE GENERA 
Adults 

1 Fore wing, veins M4 and Cui divergent to wing margin 2 . 

Fore wing, veins M4 and Cui convergent to wing margin 4 . 

2 Fore wing triangle equilateral. Size large (expanse 75) 3. 

Fore wing triangle long and narrow. Small size (expanse 46) .... 

Williamsonia, p. 199 

3 Ante- and post-nodal cross veins all blotched with brown 

Platycordulia, p. 172 

Only basal ante-nodal cross veins blotched with brown 

Neurocordulia, p. 173 

4 Wings with nodal and apical spots Epicordulia, p. 175 

Wings with only basal spots or with none 5. 

5 Basal brown spots large; basal ante-nodal cross veins spotted with 

brown except in {Teiragoneuria stella) 6. 

Basal brown spots small or wanting; basal ante-nodal cross veins 
not spotted with brown 7. 

6 Hind wing with 6 ante-nodal cross veins. . . . Helocordulia, p. 181 

Hind wing with 4 to 5 ante-nodal cross veins 

Tetragoneuria, p. 178 

7 Hind wing with two cubito-anal cross veins . . Somatochlora, p. 183 
Hind wing with one cubito-anal cross veins 8. 

171 



172 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

8 Fore wing triangle crossed cross veins Cordulia, p. 197 

Fore wing triangle free from Dorocordulia, p. 198 

Nymphs 

1 Lateral setae four or five; mentum about as long as wide 

Epicordulia, p. 175 

Lateral setae five or six: mentum longer. . Neurocordulia, p. 173 
Lateral setae seven; mentum of labium longer than wide 2. 

2 Abdomen with large, laterally flattened, generally cultriform dorsal 

hooks 3. 

Abdomen with no dorsal hooks, or with these rudimentary, not 
flattened laterally or cultriform, but small obtuse or pointed 
prominences 5. 

3 Lateral spines of the ninth segment longer than half the length of 

that segment; dorsal hooks on segments 3-9, highest on 6, cul- 
triform, and sharp Tetragoneuria, p. 179 

Lateral spines of the ninth segment shorter than half of that seg- 
ment; dorsal hooks less developed 4. 

4 Dorsal hooks on segments 4-9 laterally flattened, but obtuse at 

apices, and not cultriform Somatochlora, p. 184 

Dorsal hooks on segments 6-9, longest on 8 and cultriform 

Helocordulia, p. 182 

5 Hind angles of the head rounded; lateral spines of the ninth abdo- 

minal segment one-fifth as long as that segment 6. 

Hind angles of the head angulate superiorly; spines of the ninth 

abdominal segment one-third as long as that segment 

Dorocordulia, p. 198 

6 Teeth on lateral labial lobes deeply cut and separated by rather 

wide notches Somatochlora, p. 184 

Teeth low, separated only by shallow crenulations 

Cordulia, p. 197 

27. Platycordulia Williamson 

These are large yellowish cordulines with densely veined wings that 
are prettily spotted with yellow along the whole front margin. The anal 
loop is widened at the end, where there is some doubling of the in- 
cluded cell rows, and two rows of cells intervene between the loop and 
margin of the hind wing. The superior appendages of the male are 
armed with a tooth on the inner side beneath their arched basal portion. 

The nymph is unknown. 



PLATYCORDULIA 



173 



132. Platycordulia xanthosoma Williamson 

Wmsn. '08, p. 432: Mtk. Cat. p. 124. 

Length 46 mm. Expanse 75 mm. Okla. 

This is a yellowish dragonfly, with the abdomen darker than the thorax 
except at the ends. The eyes are contiguous for a distance about equal to the 
width of the vertex. The wing membrane is yellowish hyaline with diffuse, yellow 
spottings on most of the cross veins that lie in front of a line through triangles 
and subnodus, and around behind the stigma to the wing apex. The yellow 
overspreads the membrane of the interspaces at base, nodus and apex, spreading 
especially to rearward at base of hind wing. Membranule white, posterior third 
dark brown, this brown color in the hind wing broadly margining adjacent cross 
veins. 

Williamson obtained two male specimens (all that are as yet recorded 
for this species) at Wistar, Oklahoma, flushing one of them himself from 
some bushes which overhung the edge of the Pateau River. "Its flight 
and manner of alighting and its position at rest suggested a teneral 
Libellula." 

28. Neurocordulia Selys 

These are crepuscular dragonflies of non-metallic coloration. The 
wings have basal markings of brown. Both triangle and subtriangle of 
the fore wing are normally divided into three cells. There are two 
cubito-anal cross veins. Veins M4 and Cui diverge toward the wing 
margin. 

The nymphs are stocky, short legged and rather smooth. The head 
has a low rounded shelflike frontal ridge between the antennae and a 
pair of obsolescent tubercles on top. Its hind angles are obtusely 







The Known Nymphs 






Species 


Length 


Lateral 

spines 

of 9 


Dorsal 

hooks 
of 3 


Dorsal 

hooks 
of 8 


Described by 


obsoleta 
yamaskanensis 


20 
23 


surpass 
abd. app. 
not so 


erect 
curved 


low 
absent 


Ndm. '01, p. 486 
Walk. '13, p. 165 



angulate with the hind margin concave between them. The labium is 
short and wide, with 7 to 9 mental setae each side and 5 or 6 laterals. 
The teeth on the inner margin of the lateral lobes are semi-elliptic, and 
separated by deep incisions, almost as in the Macromiinae. The abdo- 
men is oval with sharp lateral margins. There is a row of prominent 



174 



DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



dorsal hooks, sharp and spinelike on basal segments, becoming thick 
and blunt and highest on the middle segments. There are lateral spines 
on segments 8 and 9. Segment 10 is short, annular and included. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES 

Adults 

1 Wings with a brown spot covering the nodus obsoleta, p. 174 

Wings with no brown spot covering the nodus 2. 

2 Wings with brown basal spots yamaskanensis, p. 175 

Wings with only faint yellow clouds on basal cross veins 

virginiensis, p. 175 



133. Neurocordulia obsoleta Say 

Say '39, p. 29: Mtk. Cat. p. 123: Mtk. '10, p. 174: Howe '19, p. 53: Garm. '27, 
p. 234. 

Syn: polysticta Burm. molesta Walsh, Var. clara Mtk. 
Length 43 mm. Expanse 6 mm. Mass. and III. to N. C. and La. 

This is a large brown species of rather dull coloration. Face olive with a 
yellow labrum. Thorax very hairy, brownish oUve, with a darker middorsal 
stripe that is divided by a yellow carina, and a little yellow spot at each side 
on the collar. There are cuneiform dark spots on the sides of the thorax near 
the base of the legs. Legs pale brown. Wings spotted with brown on the ante- 
nodal cross veins in the subcostal space with a larger spot on the nodus. Wing 
roots brown with this color confluent with the large brown spot at the hind angle 
which may reach to the triangle. Stigma yellow. Abdomen long, swollen at the 
base, narrowed on the third segment, then gradually enlarged to the apex. Olive 
brown, yellowish on sides of segments, especially each side of segment 2. Ap- 
pendages light brown, hairy. 




yaunaskarensia 



vlrglnlenala 



The senior author found numerous cast skins sticking to the swollen 
bases of cypress trees in Chipola Lake, Florida, in early April. Some 
were in the "moss" (Tillandsia) that draped the cypresses, several feet 
above the water. 



EPICORDULIA 175 

134. Neurocordulia yamaskanensis Provancher 

Prov. 75, p. 248: Mtk. Cat. p. 123: Walk. '13, p. 161: Howe '19, p. 53: Garm. 

'27, p. 236. 
Length 45 mm. Expanse 65 mm. Que. and Me. 

This northern species is similar to the preceding, a little larger in stature and 
differs in coloration of the wings by lacking the brown spots on the antenodals 
and nodus, and having less depth and extent of coloration at the wing bases. 
There are diffuse spots on several cross veins before the level of the triangle. The 
stigma is a little shorter than in obsoleta. 

Walker ('08) says that it frequents large lakes or rivers and is unique 
among our dragonflies in its habit of flying only after sunset, when the 
mayflies, on which it feeds, are abroad. 

135. Neurocordulia virginiensis Davis 

Davis '27, p. 155. 

Length 49 mm. Expanse 70 mm. Va. 

A yellowish brown species, similar to the preceding. Face pale greenish 
yellow. Thorax rather uniform yellowish brown. Legs pale, with black spines. 
Wings hyaline with faint isolated yellow clouds surrounding the basal cross 
veins as far out as the triangles. Cross veins fewer than in N. obsoleta, and with 
none in the (first median) space before the arculus, and with but two cell rows 
behind Cu2 in the fore wing. Abdomen, as in N. obsoleta. Appendage pale 
brown. 

Male imago and nymph unknown. 

29. Epicordulia Selys 

These are fine large free-ranging Cordulines with beautifully spotted 
wings. The head is wide, the thorax is hairy. The abdomen is long and 
slender. The triangles of both wings are divided by a single cross vein. 
The fore wing subtriangle is divided into 3 cells. The broad brown wing 
spots occur at base, middle and tip of both wings, and these are so 
conspicuous that members of this genus are readily distinguished even 
in flight. 

The nymphs are broad, flat, spiny, stiff-legged creatures that inhabit 
the beds of ponds and slow streams. They sprawl over loose trash or 
clamber on submerged logs. The head has a low frontal shelf projecting 
between the antennae, and a pair of obsolete tubercles on top. The 
hind angles are rounded. The legs are long and widely separated below. 
There are large, cultriform dorsal hooks on abdominal segments 3 to 9, 
and lateral spines on 8 and 9, on 8 short, incurved, and on 9 long and 
slightly outcurved. The female oviposits while flying alone. She de- 



176 



DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



scends to touch the water at points wide apart, far out from shore in 
open water. 








Fig. 34. 


Epicordulia nymph. 
Nymphs 




(Species 


Length 


H. fern. 


Width of 
abdomen 


Spine of 9 


Described by 


princeps 
regina 


23 

28 


8 
10 


10 mm. 
13 mm. 


nearly twice as 
long as segment 
equals 9 


Ndm. '01, p. 488 
Brtn. '28, p. 33 



The genus is indigenous to the eastern United States and includes 
two species distinguishable as follows : 



KEY TO THE SPECIES 



1 Expanse of wings 80 mm.; spots of wings light brown covering a 

fourth or less of the wing area princeps, p. 176 

Expanse 100 mm.; spots dark brown covering one half or more of 
the wing area regina, p. 177 



136. Epicordulia princeps Hagen 

Hag. '61, p. 134: Mtk. Cat. p. 122: Howe '19, p. 55: Garm. '27, p. 207: Bromley, 

'28, p. 69. 
Length 56 mm. Expanse 80 mm. Me. to N. D. and Tex. 

A fine large strong-flying species with long abdomen and conspicuously 
spotted wings. The face vertex and occiput are pale olivaceous. The thorax is 



EPICORDULIA 



177 



brownish, rather densely clad with tawny hairs, and with only a touch of blackish 
at the lower end of the two principal lateral sutures. The legs are olivaceous 
almost to the knees and thence brownish. Wings hyaline with large basal, nodal 
and apical spots as shown in the figure. Abdomen obscure olivaceous, or brown- 
ish, with only a very narrow pale line encircling the apical margin of the 2nd 
segment. Appendages fuscous. 

This species is much commoner in nature than it is in collections for 
it is difficult to catch. Its flight is swift and well nigh continuous from 
daylight until dark in midsummer. It flies out of reach of a net, high 
in the air and often far from water. Still oftener it flies far out from the 
shore over the open lake or river. Though strong of wing, it is not so 
agile nor so pugnacious as are some of its congeners. It is often chased 
all about by the Dog-tail (Tetragoneuria cynosura), a species a third 
smaller than itself. 

Its nymph sprawls on the trash of the bottom in shoal waters, and 
when ready to transform, climbs some distance up the bank, usually 
several feet from the water. 

It shows a marked preference for stumps and logs as a place for 
transformation. 




137. Epicordulia regina Hagen 

Hag. '71, p. 27: Mtk. Cat. p. 122. 

Length 71 mm. Expanse 106 mm. Fla., Ga. 

This is a very beautiful southern species that seems to differ from the pre- 
ceding only in much larger size and in the extent of the brown coloration of the 
wings. This is shown in the accompanying figures. 

On the lower Chipola River in Florida the senior author saw this 
species in flocks of hundreds in early April, They were sailing through 
the air over the river like miniature biplanes, soaring aloft higher than 
the great trees of the streamside, volplaning down into the green lane 
between but not coming very close to the water, and, alas, not at all 
within reach of the collector's net. Still their effortless, unending flight 



178 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

was beautiful to witness. They seem to be a bit social; for the air would 
be full of them for a few miles, and then there would be stretches of the 
river where none were to be seen. 

A dilatation of the river known as Chipola Lake was probably the 
source of these swarms. On the trunks of the cypress trees standing in 
the lake the cast skins of nymphs of this species were very common 
hanging to the bark or to the moss often as high as one could reach from 
a boat. 

30. Tetragoneuria Hagen 

Dog-tails: Wags 

These are dragonflies of rather large size. The coloration is brownish, 
non-metallic with scanty and rather obscure yellowish markings. The 
thorax is clothed with hoary hairs. The wings are hyaline except for 
basal subcostal streak and a basal post cubital spot on the hind ones, 
very variable in extent and in separatiness, according to species and 




Fig. 35. Wings of Tetragoneuria cynosura. 

variety. These markings are almost wanting in T. stella and they over- 
spread half the wing in T. cynosura. The venation is open, being re- 
duced to a minimum and perfected in adjustment, giving excellent 
powers of flight. The subgenital plate of the female is very long, often 
longer than the ninth segment, and cleft to the base in two divergent 
linear lobes. 

These dragonflies are very agile. Their flight is rarely straight ahead 
for any great, continued distance. It is rather a continual succession of 
dartings and dodgings from side to side. Though they are not shy and 
will allow one to approach rather near, they are not easy to capture. 
Hence they are not so common in collections as their great abundance 
in nature would lead one to expect. They are pugnacious and often 
pursue larger species about as a kingbird harasses a crow. 



TETRAGONEURIA 179 

The nymphs crawl over the bottom or clamber over loose trash and 
timbers. They are rather clean and hairless, and show when recently 
moulted a neat but rather obscure color pattern. The genus is widely 
distributed over North America. It is often very abundant about the 
wooded shores of lakes and ponds where cast skins of the transforming 
nymphs are sometimes found in almost incredible numbers 

The species are all about one size and one color pattern of body and 
are very variable in the markings of brown upon the wings. Many 
species have been named because of very slight differences. We can 
find no good use for all these names since our specimens seem to trans- 
gress all the boundaries that have been indicated. The last important 
paper on the genus is that of Muttkowski (1911) in which he endeavors 
to define eleven species. We recognize five, that are separable as fol- 
lows: 

KEY TO THE SPECIES 
Adults 

1 Wings with no brown markings Stella, p. 181 

Wings with brown markings 2. 

2 Frons with a T-spot above; triangle of the hind wings generally 

a cross vein spinigera, p. 181 

Frons generally with no T-spot above; 3. 

3 Abdominal appendages of the male straight cynosura, p. 180 

Abdominal appendages of the male angulated and bent downward 

at the tip 4. 

4 Male inferior appendage extends beyond the angulation of the 

superior spinosa, p. 181 

Male inferior appendage does not reach the angulation of the 
superior canis, p. 181 

Nymphs 

1 Lateral spines of the 9th abdominal segment divergent strongly 

spinigera. 

Lateral spines of the 9th abdominal segment very slightly or not at 
all divergent 2. 

2 These spines distinctly longer than the body of the segment .... 

cynosura. 

These spines distinctly shorter than the segment, and slightly in- 
curved at the tips canis. 



180 DRAGON FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

138. Tetragoneuria cynosura Say 

Say '39, p. 30: Mtk. Cat. p. 125: 11, p. 104: Davis '13, p. 23: Whed. '14, p. 97. 
Syn: lateralis Burm., var. basiguttata Selys, complanata Ramb., costalis Selys, 

Semiaquaea Burm., indistincta Morse. 
Length 38 mm. Expanse 58 mm. Me. and N. D. to Fla. and La. 

This is a brownish, hairy, non-metallic dragonfly of very great agility. Face 
yellowish; frons with a black band before the eye, and occasional traces of a 
T-spot before it on the frons. Thorax brownish, clothed with gray hair; sides 
with an obsolete yellow stripe. Legs blackish, the front ones darkest. Wings 
hyaline with brown bases, only the wing roots brown in the fore wing; hind 
wing brown as far as the triangle, and several droplets of brown at vein con- 
junctions beyond; the brown area generally fenestrate with hyaline before the 
arculus and behind the anal crossing. 

The aerial prowess of these insects had been noted by all observers: 

It is an insect of splendid aerial powers, and on sunny days is seldom seen to 
rest. (Walker '08, p. 19). 

These insects are extremely quick and tireless on the wing. They often dart 
back and forth across some glade or small clearing near the shores of the larger 
lakes, keeping at a height of 30 or 40 feet from the ground and at long intervals 
resting for a moment upon the boughs of a tree. When over the water they fly 
lower but dart with extreme rapidity along the reedy margins of some promon- 
tory (Whedon '14, p. 97). 



— ~1 »-. 




-, '> >^ 


"^ 


selyali 


iT^ 




splnlgera 


cynosura 


^ 


J) 

canls 



hovers over the water but rarely alights; very pugnacious, attacking 

and driving away Gomphus and even Aeschna. (Wilson '09, p. 656). 

On May 28 '10 there was a remarkable gathering of this species, together with 
an occasional spinigera and semiaquea, along the road leading from Newfound- 
land, N. J. to Cedar Pond. The air was full of these dragonflies and on one small 
dead bush we counted 22 individuals and there were other bushes and stettis of 
plants that also had a great many resting upon them. (Davis '13, p. 23.) 

Williamson ('05) has observed the egg laying habits. The female 
extrudes her eggs and carries them in a pellet underneath the abdomen. 
The egg mass is held during flight by the long and widely forked sub- 
genital plate. The female carries it for a long time "evidently not look- 
ing for a point for ovipositing." 

The flight of the female under observation became more deliberate and she 
approached nearer the surface. Suddenly the tip of the abdomen swept the 
water as rapidly as though the species were a Libellula or Tramea. Delay would 
be fatal here, for the pond is filled with hungry species of the bass family, which 



HELOCORDULIA 181 

all during the day were breaking the water in their efforts to catch Trameas, — 
always fruitless efforts, so far as I observed. I waded at once to the spot. The 
strand of eggs, possibly five inches in length, with a specific gravity slightly 
greater than water, was hung between two horizontal slightly submerged sedge 
leaves. 

139. Tetragoneuria stella Williamson 
Wmsn. in Mtk. '11, p. 96. 

Length 40 mm. Expanse 66 mm. Fla. 

Similar to the preceding but without brown markings on the wings. The 
thorax is yellowish clothed with pale hairs. Stripes 3 and 5 of the thorax are 
widened above and 3 is connected below with a blackish spot at the base of the 
middle legs. Legs reddish brown, paler at the base. 

140. Tetragoneuria spinigera Selys 

Selys'71, p. 269: Mtk. Cat.p.l26: Mtk. '11, p. 127: Walk. '13, p. 161 : Garm.'27, 
p. 211. 

Length 38 mm. Expanse 58 mm. B. C. and Wash, to Wis. and Ga. 

This species is similar to cynosura except that the frons always bears a black 
T-spot above, and the hair of the thorax is much mixed with brown, and the 
general coloration is a little darker. It is the most northern of the genus. 

141. Tetragoneuria canis McLachlan 

McL. '86, p. 104: Mtk. Cat. p. 125: Mtk. '11, p. 96: Garm. '27, p. 211. 
Length 40 mm. Expanse 64 mm. Ont., N. S., Wash. 

Similar to cynosura, lacking the T-spot on the frons. Hair of thorax grayish 
giving the body a rather light appearance. Color of wings confined to a few 
basal spots; membrane often flavescent. 

142. Tetragoneuria spinosa Hagen 

Hag. '78, p. 188: Mtk. Cat. p. 127: Mtk. '11 p. 96. 

Length 40 mm. Expanse 64 mm. Wis. to Ga. 

Similar to the preceding species, differing in the form of the male abdominal 
appendages as shown in figure. A doubtfully distinct species. 

31. Helocordulia Needham 

These are small cordulines, that have the antenodal cross veins of the 
wings prettily spotted with brown. The stigma is narrow and very 
oblique at its ends with two cross veins touching its rear border. There 
are six antenodal cross veins in the hind wing. There is a single cross 
vein in the triangle of the front wing but none in that of the hind wing. 
The anal loop is rather squarely truncate at the distal end and there are 
generally two cubito-anal cross veins present. 



182 



DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



The genus includes only two species of the eastern United States, 

The nymphs are stocky little fellows with a concentration of sharp 

dorsal hooks toward the blunt apex of the abdomen, the hooks being 

longest on segments 7 and 8 and absent from segments 1 to 4. The 

differences between the two species may be expressed as follows. 




Fig. 36. Wings of Helocordulia selysi. 
Nymphs 



Species 


Length 


Dorsal 
hooks 


Lateral 
setae 


Lateral 
spine of 8 


Described by 


selysii 
uhleri 


20 
20 


7-9 
6-9 


7 
6 


= 1 sp. of 9 
= sp. of 9 


Kndy '24, p. 12 
Ndm. '01, p. 498 



KEY TO THE SPECIES 
Adults 
1 With a golden fleck in the midst of the brown at base of hind wings 

., uhleri, p. 182 

No golden fleck only brown at base of hind wings . . .selysi, p. 183 

143. Helocordulia uhleri Selys 
Selys '71, p. 274: Mtk. Cat. p. 124: Howe '19, p. 56: Garm. '27, p. 208. 
Length 38 mm. Expanse 54 mm. Me., Ont., Pa., N. J. 

A pretty bog-loving species with daintily spotted wings. Face, vertex and 
occiput pale. Thorax brownish olivaceous, hoary, appearing somewhat blackish 



SOMATOCHLORA 183 

in the depths of the lateral sutures underneath the hairs. Legs blackish. Wings 
hyaline spotted with brown, and with a bright golden fleck in the midst of the 
brown on the base of the hind wings. Dorsum of the abdomen brownish black, 
except for the basal third of the second segment, which bears a pair of submediau 
reddish triangles. On the lower side margins of segments 2 to 8 are obscure yel 
lowish spots. Appendages black. 

This little species flies swiftly and dodges readily, but is not very 
hard to capture, for it shows little disposition to avoid the collector's 
net. It generally flies close in shore and low over the water. It flies in 
June. 

The nymph lives in the trashy places in the edges of the water of 
upland lakes and ponds and clambers only a few inches upward above 
the surface to transform. 

144. Helocordulia selysi Hagen 

Hag. 78, p. 189: Mtk. Cat. p. 124: Kndy. '24, p. 1. 

Length 38 mm. Expanse 54 mm. Ga., N. C. 

This species is very similar to H. uhleri, lacking the golden fleck in the midst 
of the black at the wing base, and having the brown more restricted to droplets 
enveloping cross veins, especially antenodal cross veins, and the cross vein in 
the anal triangle of the male. This species is southern, and that one is northern 
in range. This one seems to be much less common. 

It is an early spring species (March and April), to be met with in 
open sunny glades in the woods. Kennedy ('24, p. 1) found its cast 
skin on the side of a boat-house that stood on the bank of a mud- 
bottomed artificial pond, at Raleigh, N. C. 

32. SOMATOCHLORA SeLYS 

Ringtails 
By Elsie Broughton 

This is a genus of 36 described species, 21 of which are represented in 
North America. They are metallic green or blue in color, with or with- 
out lateral thoracic pale spots or stripes. Face is yellowish and the 
upper surface of the frons and vertex partly or wholly metallic. Legs 
usually black. Wings hyaline, sometimes with a varying amount of 
flavescence or even a basal brown tinge. Veins M4 and Cui of the fore 
wing are approximated towards the wing margin. The anal loop has a 
bisector and is asymetrically by truncate at its distal end. 

Although these dragonflies may be abundant locally they are not 
widespread, and not captured in great abundance. Walker '25 has dis- 
cussed their habits and their habitat quite fully in his outstanding work 



184 



DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



on that genus.* He has found that they inhabit rather out of the way- 
places in the wilder districts, preferring well aerated bogs in the uplands 
or near the sources of the cooler forest streams. The adults have a 
rather long life of a month and half or so, and are attracted by sunny 
sheltered spots in the woods, or edges of clearings and lumber roads. 
The tenerals of some species "commonly fly at a height of 30-50 feet 
or more and may be seen on sunny days traveling back and forth, but 
keeping as a rule within a quite limited area of only a few square yeards 
or so, for long periods." When in search of prey they doubtless fly 
lower. The flight of the adult at breeding time is quite different. 

They fly low, within a few feet or less of the water or bog. The males often fly 
back and forth over a bog or pond or skirt the shore of a stream or lake, travelling 
in a series of rapid forward movements, alternating with periods in which they 
hover almost motionless, except for the rapid vibration of their wings. 

Dr. Walker notes two main methods of oviposition. The first is 
characteristic of those which have a backwardly directed scoop-shaped 
ovipositor. These fly low over the water and strike it, or the wet moss, 
with the end of their abdomen, liberating a large number of eggs at 
each stroke. They sometimes hover over one place for 2 or 3 seconds, 
tapping the water at intervals. Those in which the ovipositor projects 
downward and is pointed, strongly compressed and spout-shaped, 
always oviposit in flight, in the wet sand, mud or moss near the water's 
edge, or in the stream bed. 

The Known Nymphs 



Species 


Length 


Lat. sp. 


Lat. sp. 


Dorsal hooks 


Merit. 


Lat. 


Described by 






of 8* 


ofQ* 




set. 


set. 




albicincta 


22 


1/5 


1/5 





11-12 


5-6 


Walk. '25, p. 170 


cingulata 


27 


1/6-1/5 


1/5 





10-13 


6/7 


Walk. '25, p. 185 


elongata 


23 


1/7 


1/6 


4-9 


11-12 


6-7 


Ndm. '03 p. 269 


forcipata 


20 





or r. 





12-15 


9-10 


Walk. '25, p. 138 


franklini 


18 





r. 





13 


7-8 


Walk. '25, p. 120 


hudsonica 


24 


1/12-1/9 


1/10-1/6 





10-14 


7-8 


Walk. '25. p. 179 


kennedyi 


21 





r. 





12-13 


9 


Walk. '25, p. 129 


linearis 


22 


1/5 


1/4-1/5 


mod. 5-9 
r. on 4 


11-12 


8 


Ndm. '03, p. 269 


minor 


22 


1/4 


1/3 


high 4-9 


11-13 


6-8 


Walk. '25, p. 65 


semicircularis 


22 





variable 





10-13 




Walk. '25, p. 149 


tenebrosa 


20 


1/6 


1/5 


strong 6-9 
r. on 4 & 5 


U-12 


8 


Walk. '25, p. 104 


whitehousi 


21 











9-10 


6-8 


Walk. '25, p. 156 


williamsoni 


24 


1/5 


1/4-1/3 


low 5 or 
6-9 


11-12 


8 


Ndm. '01, p. 500 
(as elongata) 



• As compared with length of segment bearing them. 

* The material incorporated under this genus has been taken almost exclu- 
sively from The North American Dragonflies of the Genus Somatochlora by E. M. 
Walker, University of Toronto Studies, Biological Series, No. 26. 1925. 



SOMATOCHLORA 185 

KEY TO THE SPECIES 

Adults 

1 Labrum yellowish brown or orange, usually with a black border. 2. 
Labrum bluish black or metallic green 7. 

2 Tibiae yellow externally; color hardly metallic; side stripes of 

thorax very long and broad. Southern georgiana, p. 186 

Tibiae black externally; metallic 3. 

3 Lateral thoracic pale stripes entirely wanting .... linearis, p. 186 
Lateral thoracic pale stripes present 4. 

4 Second lateral thoracic pale stripe abbreviated below 5. 

Second lateral thoracic pale stripe continuous 6. 

5 Lateral thoracic pale stripes bright yellow, sharply defined 

ensigera, p. 187 

Lateral stripes dull, ill-defined tenebrosa, p. 187 

6 Lateral thoracic pale stripes of equal breadth . . provocans, p. 188 
Anterior stripe narrower filosa, p. 188 

7 Middle abdominal segments narrowly ringed with white at apex . 8. 
Not so 9. 

8 First lateral thoracic pale stripe (at least a spot) present and 

yellow albicincta, p. 189 and hudsonica, p. 190 

First stripe obscure brownish cingulata, p. 190 

9 Both lateral thoracic stripes well developed 10. 

One or both stripes wanting 16. 

10 Lateral thoracic pale stripes represented by two round spots .... 

minor, p. 191 

Stripes not round, at least the first one more elongate 11. 

11 First stripe narrower than the second but longer .... walshi, p. 192 
First stripe not narrower than the second 12. 

12 Stripes bright yellow, sharply defined 13. 

Stripes dull yellow, ill-defined 14. 

13 Middle abdominal segments with pale spots, .forcipata, p. 192 
Middle abdominal segments with no pale spots . . . elongata, p. 193 

14 Stripes abbreviated below and roundish . . . semicircularis, p. 193 
Stripes long and parallel sided 15. 

15 Costa black williamsoni, p. 194 

Costa yellowish incurvata, p. 194 

16 With a dark brown spot covering anal triangle of hind wings . . 17. 
With no such spot 19. 



186 



DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



17 First side stripe wanting or obscure brownish; 10 to 22 cells 

between veins Mi and Mia 19. 

First side stripe yellow; 6 to 10 cells between veins Mi and Mia 
franklini, p. 195 

18 Rear of head with orange brown fringe; male with anal spot in 
fore wing septentrionalis, p. 197 

Rear of head with whitish fringe; male with no anal spot in fore 
wing whitehousi, p. 196 

19 First side stripe reduced to a mere dot; 20 to 24 cells between 

Ml and Mia sahlbergi, p. 195 

First side stripe wanting or obscure brownish; 11 to 19 cells 
between Mi and Mia kennedyi, p. 196 

145. Somatochlora georgiana Walker 
Root '24, p. 320: Walk. '25, p. 98. 

Length 49 mm. Expanse 69 mm. Ga. 

A small dull species only the female of which is known. Face dull yellow; 
labrum with a narrow black line on ^ower margin. Thorax dull brown; lateral 
pale stripes yellowish, broad, and similar in shape; the first one with its anterior 
margin nearly straight. Legs brown, paler basally, and externally. Abdomen 
dark brown with greenish reflections; basal segments dull yellowish. Appendages 
brownish. 

146. Somatochlora linearis Hagen 

Hag. '61, p. 137: Mtk. Cat. p. 131: Wmsn. '12, p. 155: Walk. '25, p. 91: Garm. 

'27, p. 226. 
Length 61 mm. Expanse 86 mm. Me. to Pa. and 111., Mo. 

An elongate slender species. Face and occiput brown. Top of frons and ver- 
tex metallic blue. Thorax brownish. Abdomen brown; segment 2 with apical 




enslgera 



annulus but with the median one very indistinct, though median lateral spot 
large and conspicuous; 3, pale basally; remaining segments with lateral margins 
yellowish. 



SOMATOCHLORA 187 

147. Somatochlora ensigera Martin 

Mrtn. '07, p. 298: Wmsn. '07, p. 5: '12, p. 153: Walk. '25, p. 86. 
Length 50 mm. Expanse 72 mm. Colo., Mont. 

Syn: charadriae Wmsn. 
Labrum orange with a black border and a black median spot. Postclypeus 
ochraceous. Frons metallic blue in middle, surrounded at side and in front with 
orange brown. Occiput red brown. Thorax red brown deepening to blue black 
above. Side stripes well defined, the first broad and parallel sided, the second 
shorter and convex behind. Legs black, paler basally. Wings hyaline; stigma 
brownish. Abdomen greenish black, spotted conspicuously with yellow on the 
three basal segments; middorsal spot on 1, large lateral spots on 2, 2 basal tri- 
angular spots on 3, one laterodorsal the other lateroventral. 

Williamson '07 quotes concerning this species : 

I took it at an altitude of about 8000 feet, July 31, 1898, in Bear Creek 
Canon, Jefiferson Co., Colo. At the place I took it there were 2, but on account 
of the wariness and the almost inaccessible character of its haunts (on willows 
overhanging the swift and breakneck dashing Bear Creek), I was unable to 
secure the other specimen. The one captured was taken with diflficulty, as it 
kept just out of the reach of the net. It appeared a weak flier however, and my 
opportunity came when an unusually strong gust of wind blew it towards me. 

148. Somatochlora tenebrosa Say- 
Say '39, p. 18: Mtk. Cat. p. 132: Wlsn. '12, p. 194: Walk. '25, p. 100: Garm. 27, 

p. 227. 
Length 48 mm. Expanse 76 mm. N. H., N. Y. and N. J. to 111. and Ey. 

A handsome species with brilliant thoracic coloration. Occiput brown. 
Face ochraceous; top of frons and vertex metallic; labrum yellow with median 
black spot and sometimes with a black border. Thorax brilliantly metallic 
bronze and green, the two lateral stripes pale yellow, the first dilated above, 
the second subovate and shorter. Legs black, femora paler externally. Wings 
hyaline with a faint basal tinge of amber; veins and stigma dark brown. Abdo- 
men blackish; segment 2 with large ventro-lateral yellow spots; accessory geni- 
talia pale; 3 pale basally with 2 pairs of lateral triangular spots. 

Walker ('25) says it is an inhabitant of the small forest streams, and 
that it seems to be partial to shady places. Other writers speak of it 
as being distinctly crepuscular and shade loving. Brimley '03 reports 
it "flying over fields and open ground by the side of small streams and 
marshes — flies high and is hard to catch." Wilson '12, says: 

Ten or a dozen specimens were patrolling back and forth just after sunset 
in one corner of an old pasture near a small brook at the foot of the mountains. 
They were strong and rapid fliers and extremely difficult to capture. They moved 
gracefully up and down and in and out, weaving together their paths of flight 
like the intricate mazes of an old fashioned dance. But never for an instant could 
they be caught off their guard. At the first attempt of the net they all retired 



188 



DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



precipitately, and it was a long time before they returned again. This is a 
northern species and its presence in Kentucky is probably explained by the high 
altitude of the region where it was found and the proximity of the mountains. 



149. Somatochlora provocans Calvert 

Calv. '03, p. 39: Mtk. Cat. p. 132: Mtk. '11, p. 176: Walk. '25, p. 109. 
Length 54 mm. Expanse 74 mm. N. J. and Pa. 

A large slender species conspicuously marked with yellow. Face yellowish 
below with metallic violet reflections above. Labrum yellow with a black border; 
postclypeus yellow with two impressed brown dots. Thorax metallic green with 
violet reflections and rather thin pubescence. Lateral spots well developed, 




provocans 



yellow, long, straight edged in front with a small additional and intervening pale 
streak through spiracle. Wings hyaline, costa yellow, stigma brown. Legs black, 
paler basally. Abdominal segment 1 with posterior lateral edge yellow; 2 with 
three diverging inferior vertical yellow streaks on side of the segment, the middle 
one the broadest; 3 with basal dorsal and ventral triangles pointing rearward on 
sides above and below the midlateral margin. Remainder of abdomen greenish 
black. Appendages blackish. 

Apparently little is known concerning the habits and breeding place 
of this species. Calvert '03 states that it usually keeps at a considerable 
distance above one's head, both when in flight and at rest. 

150. Somatochlora filosa Hagen 

Hag. '61, p. 136: Mtk. Cat. p. 130: Walk. '25, p. 112. 

Length 68 mm. Expanse 84 mm. N. J. and Md. to Fla. 

A fine big southern species. Occiput, top of frons and vertex blue. Face 
brownish; labrum bordered below with black. Thorax metallic green with the 
usual 2 lateral stripes and an intervening one, abbreviated above. Legs black, 
front femora brown. Wings hyaline, stigma tinged with amber. Abdomen black; 
segments 1 and 2 with apical annuli; 2 with a median one also, dilated to form 
paired ventral spots; 3 with elongated paired ventral spots, triangularly pointed 
to rearward. 



SOMATOCHLORA 



189 




fllosa 



albl'cincta 



151. Somatochlora albicincta Burmeister 

Burm. '39, p. 847: Mtk. Cat. p. 129: Kndy. '17, p. 229: Walk. '25, p. 167: Garm 
'27, p. 231. 

Length 48 mm. Expanse 64 mm. Labr. to N. H., Alaska 

Labrum shining black. Frons black with greenish reflections, sides yellow. 
Occiput brown. Thorax green, metallic, clothed with a thick coat of pale brown- 
ish hairs. Pale spot near crest before humeral suture and another behind it. 
Legs black, paler basally. Wings hyaline, unspotted; stigma brownish. Abdomen 
bronze black with a metallic luster. Segment 2 with pale spots below and behind 
the auricles; segment 3-8 with basal lateral duU yellow spots; 10 with a pair 
of dorsal duU yellowish spots. Appendages blackish. 

Walker ('25, p. 175) says: 

S. albicincta develops in quiet waters in both sunny and partly shady situa- 
tions. In Newfoundland and eastern Canada I have found it about slow streams 




190 



DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



in boggy places, particularly at the mouth of small tributaries. We found it 
about ponds and puddles in the Godbout River flats, which were refilled at each 
tide and were therefore ecologically different from stagnant ponds. 

Adult life probably begins in June throughout the greater part of its range, 
probably July in Labrador. 

With the exception of a male — I have never seen this species away from the 
immediate vicinity of water, nor have I ever observed it hawking at any great 
height. The males fly in sunshine within a foot or so of the water, patrolling 
small areas in the usual way. The female oviposits by tapping the surface of the 
water with the abdomen. 

152. Somatochlora hudsonica Hagen 

Hag. 71, p. 301: Mtk. Cat. p. 131: Walk. '25, p. 176. 

Length 52 mm. Expanse 69 mm. Hudson Bay, V. F. 

Labrum shining black. Frons black, lateral part ochraceous. Thorax green, 
metallic, with dense pale brown pubescence. First lateral spot small, ill defined 
and nearly vertical in position. Wings hyaline, stigma brown. Legs black, paler 




oirviulata 



basally. Abdominal segment 2 black yellowish below and behind the auricles; 
segment 3 with pale triangles pointing backward above and below the mid 
lateral hne; 4r-7 with small basal lateral yellow spots; apical transverse white 
rings on segments 1-9; 10 wholly black. 

Walk. ('25, p. 182) says that this species is similar to alhicincta in 
habits and haunts. 

153. Somatochlora cingulata Selys 

Selys '71, p. 302: Mtk. Cat. p. 129: Kndy '17, p. 229: Walk. '25, p. 182: Garm. 

'27, p. 233. 
Length 59 mm. Expanse 76 mm. Labr. to N. H., Mass. 

A large species with white ringed abdomen. Labrum, frons and occiput shining 
black, dull yellow spot each side of frons. Thorax dark bronze, bluish along la- 
teral sutures, clothed with brownish hairs. Obscure yellowish spot near crest 
before humeral suture; sometimes obsolete. Wings hyaline, extreme base yellow- 



SOMATOCHLORA 



191 



ish, veins black, stigma tawny. Legs black. Abdominal segments 3 or 4-8 with 
small dark yellow lateral basal spots. 

"This large robust species is mainly an inhabitant of lakes rather 
than ponds or streams. — Males were flying here and there over the 
water, pursuing a rather irregular course, now following the shore line, 
now wandering out over the water in a manner suggestive of Epicor- 
dulia or Tetragoneuria. They were not observed to hover over one spot 
on the usual manner of Cordulines. Several times males were seen to 
attempt to capture the females during flight. One or two of these 
attempts resulted in copulation, the pair immediately flying off into 
the trees. A pair in copula was also taken on July 24 in the pine barrens 
a mile or so from any of the lakes." Walk. ('25, p. 189). 



1S4. Somatochlora minor Calvert 

Calv. '98, p. 97: Mtk. Cat. p. 131: Walk. '25, p. 62: Garm. '27, p. 222. 

Length 46 mm. Expanse 68 mm. N. H., Me., Ont., Wyo. 

A small slender species. Face blue black except sides of frons and anteclypeus. 
Thorax steel blue, and reddish brown, obscured by yellowish brown hairs. 
Lateral stripes reduced to roundish lemon yellow spots. Wings hyaline, slightly 
flavescent; stigma brown. Legs black, paler basally. Abdomen dull greenish 
black; segment 2 and 3 each with a small dorsal and a larger ventral lateral spot. 

Walk. '25 says: 

.... They are usually found flying back and forth in small, sheltered, shady 
opening in woods or along their partly shaded borders. Their flight is generally 
about shoulder high on an average and I have never seen them flying at a height 
beyond reach of an ordinary net. 




They are characteristic dragonflies of small clear streams, with a gentle cur- 
rent, and do not occur where pond conditions, indicated by the presence of water 
lihes, Myriophyllum or cat-tails obtain. They seldom occur where the stream 
flows through dense shade nor are they often seen in open bogs, but are most at 



192 



DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



home in brooks flowing through the bushy open woods or through deep woods, 
provided the stream is wide enough to admit the sunlight. 

They fly over the brook and alight in the grass occasionally, but are usually 
balanced over the pools, as wary as hawks, requiring a very swift swing of the 
net and a sure aim. 

155. Somatochlora walshi Scudder 
Scud. '66, p. 217: Mtk. Cat. p. 133: Walk. '25, p. 55: Garm. '27, p. 223. 
Length 47 mm. Expanse 66 mm. Alta. and Mich, to Que., Me. and N. Y. 

Face brownish yellow with black labrum and black markings on the post- 
clypeus and front of frons. Vertex black. Occiput brownish or black. Thorax 
brassy green. Lateral pale stripes sometimes obscured; the first long and straight, 
the second rather ovoid. Legs streaked with reddish brown. Wings hyaline with 
an amber tinge, darker about the bases. Second abdominal segment yellow on 
sides, the paired lateral spots sometimes confluent and continuous with the apical 
annulus; segment 3 with dorsal and ventral lateral spots anteriorly, and pos- 
teriorly with lateral pale streaks; 5, 6 and 7 with small lateral spots; 8 and 9 
sometimes with incomplete apical annuli; 10 black, sometimes with a dorsal 
yellowish spot. 

This species inhabits the small quiet streams of boggy places. Walker 
reports it flying very actively in all parts of the marsh but particularly 
on the main channel. They flew on the average about waist high, 
poising frequently in the air with the abdomen slightly flexed, but dart- 
ing back and forth very rapidly and dodging the net well. 



156. Somatochlora forcipata Scudder 

Scud. '66, p. 216: Mtk. Cat. p. 130: Walk. '18, p. 370; '25, p. 134: Garm. '27, p. 

228. 
Length 48 mm. Expanse 66 mm. N. F. and Ont. to N. H. 




forcipata 



elongeta 



SOMATOCHLORA 



193 



A fine medium sized species. Face brownish; labrum, top of frons, vertex 
and occiput dark brownish with metallic reflections. Thorax metallic; lateral 
yellow stripes wide and straight. Legs black, first femora paler externally. 
Abdomen dark brown; segment 2 with apical and median annuli and pale lateral 
spot; 3 paler basally with paired dorso- and ventro-lateral triangles (in 9 con- 
tinued to segment 7, decreasing in size); 9, 10 and appendages yellow beneath. 



157. Somatochlora elongata Scudder 



Garm. '27, p. 220. 
N. B. to Mass. and Md. 
Face metallic. Anteclypeus 



Scud. '66, p. 218: Mtk. Cat. p. 130: Walk. '25, p. 70 
Length 57 mm. Expanse 65 mm. 

A slender, dull greenish, clearwinged species 
and sides of frons yellowish. Thorax dark metallic with a thick coat of whitish 
brown hairs. Lateral thoracic pale spots light yellow, clearly defined; the first 
slender and straightish, the second half as long and ovoid. Legs brownish. 
Wings hyaline with a faint basal yellowish tinge; stigma black. Abdomen brown. 
Segment 2 with three pairs of lateral pale spots, sometimes more or less confluent, 
and with an apical annulus; 3 with a pair of small basal dorsal spots; remaining 
segments greenish black. 



158. Somatochlora semicircularis Selys 
Selys '71, p. 295. Mtk. Cat. p. 132: Walk. '25, p. 145. 

Syn: nasalis Selys 
Length 49 mm. Expanse 63 mm. B. C. to Calif, and Colo, 

Frons above and in front black with metallic reflections; vertex the same. 
Labrum and postclypeus black; anteclypeus yellowish. Occiput dark brown. 
Thorax metalUc green with two lateral yellow spots, becoming obscure with age. 




semicircularis 



nllllaneonl 



Legs black. Wings hyaline, hind pair with a sUght basal flavescent tinge. Ab- 
domen greenish black; segment 2 with two pairs of lateral spots and an inter- 
rupted apical annulus; 3 with a pair of basal dorsal spots and a ventral lateral 
streak; 5 to 8 sometimes with a small lateral spot. 



194 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

159. Somatochlora williamsoni Walker 

Walk. '06, p. 151: Mtk. Cat. p. 133: Walk. '25, p. 78: Garm. '27, p. 224. 
Length 56 mm. Expanse 80 mm. Me. and Pa. to Ont. and Minn. 

This is a slender, dark colored species with a yellowish face. Anteclypeus 
and median part of postclypeus darker. Upper part of frons and vertex metallic 
blue. Labrum greenish black. Thorax dark metallic green and brown with 
violet reflections. Lateral stripes obscured; the first long and straight; the second 
ovoid. Legs black, front femora brownish beneath. Wings hyaline, sometimes 
yellowish at base. Abdomen dark brown; segment 2 with three pairs of lateral 
yellowish spots, sometimes more or less confluent; 3 with a pair of dorso- and 
of ventro-lateral yellow spots; 5 to 8 often with small lateral spots. 

Walker '25 says: 

During the first two or three weeks of adult life it may be seen about the 
edges of woods or on openings in them, hawking at a height of 30 to 60 feet, or 
even higher, and usually keeping within an area of only a few square yards for 
long periods at a time. Sometimes half a dozen may be seen flying together in 
the same area. From the middle of June to the end of their season though still 
frequenting the woods, they are more often seen about the watercourses where 
they breed. They frequent sluggish streams, usually shady but sometimes 
open and bordered with a zone of standing aquatic plants. Here the males patrol 
the margins, flying in rapid movements, interrupted by periods of almost motion- 
less suspension in the air. In the sunlight they commonly fly two or three feet 
or more above the water, while in the dense shade they are generally only a few 
inches' above the surface. Sometimes they may be seen hovering in a dark 
recess under an overhanging bank, and at such times they may be scarcely visible 
except for the brilliant green eyes. Frequently they will remain suspended in the 
air for many minutes, occasionally darting away a few yards and then returning to 
the same spot. 

160. Somatochlora incurvata Walker 
Walk. '18, p. 367: '25, p. 142. 
Length 49-55 mm. Expanse 66-69 mm. Mich. 

Labrum black, anteclypeus yellow, postclypeus black in middle. Sides of 
frons ochraceous or brownish yellow, top of frons, vertex and occiput metallic 
blue. Thorax metalhc blue or greenish. Side stripes yellow, rather short and 
wide, obscurely rounded at ends. Legs black. Wings hyaline, stigma tawny. 
Abdominal segment 2 with two pale spots above and below the auricle, some- 
times connected; 3 with short basal triangular yellow spots below and above the 
midlateral line; 5-8 with small basal yellow spots, largest on 6, minute on 8. 

Walk. '25 reports that they 

Were taken along the shore of Lake Superior, flying low over the beach, and in 
a clearing some quarter of a mile away from the lake, in both cases flying with 

swarms of Aeshna They were found swarming on the beach during the 

day, when the wind was off shore, and in a clearing at the close of a warm day 
from about 5 o'clock until sundown or later. If the day were cold they would be 
entirely absent. 



SOMATOCHLORA 



195 




incurvata 



161. Somatochlora sahlbergi Try bom 

Trybom '89, p. 7: Mrtn. '06, p. 27: Kndy. '17, p. 229: Whts. '18, p. 2, 9, 13- 

Walk. '25, p. 163. 

Length 48 mm. Expanse 68 mm. Alaska 

A small robust, dark colored hairy species. Face metallic greenish black 
except anteclypeus and sides of frons, which are yellow. Occiput black. Thorax 
metallic green with long brownish white hairs. Side stripes obsolete except for 
a minute spot superiorly, the remains of the first stripe. Wings hyaline; stigma 
tawny. Legs black. Abdomen black with a dull greenish luster. Segment 2 with 
an apical white ring interrupted middorsally and at sides; 3, with a pale area 
beneath each side. Appendages black and hairy. 



162. Somatochlora franklini Selys 

Selys '78, p. 195: Mtk. Cat. p. 131: Walk. '18, p. 374: Walk. '25, p. 117. 

Syn: macrotona Wmsn. 
Length 44-54 mm. Expanse 53-62 mm. Hudson Bay, Sask. 




franklinil 



whltehoust 



196 



DRAGON FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



Face and frons black with greenish luster except for anteclypeus and spot 
each side of frons which are yellowish. Occiput black. Thorax metallic green 
varied with brown, densely clothed with brownish black hairs. Side stripesnearly 
obsolete, anterior one orate in terminals. Wings hyaline with dark brown spot 
at base of hind wings covering the anal triangle; stigma brown. Abdominal seg- 
ment 2 with obscure ochraceous spots above and below; remaining segments 
greenish black with a dull luster. 

Walk. '25 found them: 

Flying over mossy bogs at the foot of the mountain Several males were 

seen pursuing their course over the bog at height of 2 or 3 feet. 

163. Somatochlora whitehousi Walker 

Kndy. '17, p. 234: Walk. '25, p. 154. 

Length 47 mm. Expansfe 55-61 mm. Labr., Hudson Bay to B. C. 

Face black except anteclypeus and sides of frons which are yellowish. Thorax 
greenish metallic, marked with brown. Side stripes of thorax obsolete, anterior 
one represented by a pale brownish vertical streak. Hair of thorax brownish, 
thick and long. Wings hyaline tinged with yellow and with a brown spot on the 
anal triangle of the hind wing of the male; stigma tawny. Legs black, paler 
basally. Abdominal segment 2 with apical whitish annulus barely interrupted 
mid dorsally and laterally, and with obscure yellowish side spots before and 
behind the auricles; 3, whitish along the ventral margins. Remainder of ab- 
domen metalUc blackish green. Appendages black. 

Walker' 25 reports this species hawking in the usual manner, over 
warm, stagnant puddles in a mossy bog, following no definite route 
and as a rule keeping within 2 or 3 feet of the surface of the bog. 



164. Somatochlora kennedyi Walker 

Walk. 18, p. 371; '25, p. 125: Garm. '27, p. 230. 

Length 51-55 mm. Expanse 61-69 mm. N. B., Man. to Mass., Mich. 




kennedeyl 



septentrlonallB 



CORDULIA 197 

A species with dull coloration and very heavy thorax. Face blackish with 
pale yellowish anteclypeus and sides of frons. Vertex black with greenish re- 
flections. Occiput dark brown. Thorax metallic green varied with reddish brown 
Side spots obsolete, brownish. Wings hyaline, costa yellow, stigma tawny. Legs 
black, paler basally. Abdominal segment 2 with large inferior yellow spots be- 
fore and behind the auricle; 3 with basal spots indistinct; 4-10 greenish black, 
unspotted; 1-2 densely hairy. 

Walker '25 says: 

This species .... is one of the earliest to appear in the spring an 

inhabitant of cool bogs or shallow bog ponds .... kept most of the time a little 
over 2 feet above the water, just above the tops of the sedges, hovering for a time 
in one spot but changing their orientation frequently and not remaining long in 
any one place. 

165. Somatochlora septentrionalis Hagen 
Hag. '61, p. 139: Mtk. Cat. p. 132: Walk. '25, p. 160. 
Length 45 mm. Expanse 59 mm. N. F. and Que. 

A small somewhat slender species with dark metallic face and vertex. Ante- 
clypeus and sides of frons yellowish. Occiput brown. Thorax bronzy green; 
lateral stripes obscured, reddish brown. Legs black, front femora brownish be- 
neath. Wings hyaline or slightly flavescent. Basal abdominal segments dull 
brown; hind lateral margin of 1 yellowish; 2 with a whitish apical annulus; 3 
with a pair of obscure yellowish dorsal spots; remaining segments dark metallic 
green. 

33. CoRDULiA Leach 

These are blackish dragonflies of medium size, clear-winged and with 
touches of bronzy green color showing on the thorax through a rather 
heavy coat of gray hair. The triangle of the hind wing is not divided 
by a cross vein. The inferior appendage of the abdomen in the male is 
deeply bifurcated, and the arms of the fork are again notched at their 
tips. 

There is one northern species in our fauna, and there is another at 
similar latitudes in the old world. 

The nymphs are thick set and hairy, with no vertical tubercles on the 
head and no dorsal hooks on the abdomen. The lateral spines of seg- 
ments 8 and 9 are very short. The nymph of C. shurtleffi, has been 
described Ndm. ('01, p. 503). 

166. Cordulia shurtleffi Scudder 
Scud. '66, p. 217: Mtk. Cat. p. 128: Howe '19, p. 61: Garm. '27, p. 214. 
Length 46 mm. Expanse 64 mm. Alaska, B. C, N. J., Pa. and N. Y. 

A fine greenish, bog-loving, northern species with thorax rather densely 
covered with whitish hairs. Face olivaceous, tending to a waxy yellowish, over- 



198 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

cast above and with a whitish clypeus. Two minute yellowish spots sometimes 
are apparent toward the apical margin of the dark labrum. Frons above, vertex 
and occiput metallic green. Thorax of the same color, shining underneath the 
hoary hairs, only the depths of the lateral sutures appearing blackish. Legs 
black. Wings hyaline with stigma and costa black. Abdomen blackish green, 
with only a streak of yellowish on the sides of segments 2 and 3 beneath. Ap- 
pendages black. 

This species frequents the boggy edges of cold upland lakes and 
ponds. It flies swiftly, a few feet above the water, with occasional 
baitings, "marking time" in the air. These baitings give the best 
opportunity for capture with a net. The flight is free and graceful, as 
the coloration is beautiful. Occasionally one will leave its accustomed 
beat along the shore and sweep out far away from the water and dis- 
appear among the trees. 

The nymph (Ndm. '01, p. 503) lives sprawling amid the trash at the 
edges of the water, and climbs a little way up projecting roots or sticks 
to transform. June is the time of transformation. Adults fly through 
July. 

34. DoROCORDULiA Needham 

These are elegant little dragonflies with hairy thorax and smooth 
shiny bronzy green abdomen. The abdomen is constricted in th,e middle 
and notably widened toward the tip. These are bog loving species of 
our Northeastern States and Canada. 

The nymphs are similar to those of Cordulia except for the characters 
stated in the key. Only the nymph of D. lepida has been made known 
(Ndm. '01, p. 505). 

KEY TO THE SPECIES 
Adults 

1 Abdomen with segments 7 to 10 spatuktely widened 

libera, p. 198 

Abdomen with segments very moderately widened, .lepida, p. T99 

167. Dorocordulia libera Selys 
Selys '71, p. 263: Mtk. Cat. p. 127: Howe '19, p. 54: Garm. '27, p. 238. 
Length 42 mm. Expanse 64 mm. Me., N. Y., Wis. and Ind. 

A charming little bronzy green species, with spatulately dilated abdomen. 
Face greenish with yellowish clypeus. Sides of frons obscurely marked with yel- 
lowish, top of frons, vertex and occiput metallic green. Thorax green, darkened 
only in the depths of the lateral stutures, densely clothed with tawny hairs. 
Legs black. Wings hyaline, with a golden tinge at the extreme base, costa and 



WILLIAMSONIA 199 

stigma black; membranule dark gray. Abdomen greenish above, becoming 
blackish posteriorly; segment 2 yellow at the sides, the pale area being diagonally 
divided by fuscous 3 yellow at base of sides and along the infero-lateral margin. 

This species is common about the boggy borders of small upland 
lakes, where it flies in midsummer during sunshine, gaily in and out of 
the little bays and over the shallows. The nymphs inhabit the edges, 
commonly under the overhanging turf, and clamber up projecting roots 
and stumps to transform. They usually leave their cast skins less than 
a foot above the water. 

168. Dorocordulia lepida Hagen 
Hag. '71, p. 264: Mtk. Cat. p. 127: Howe '19, p. 54: Garm. '27, p. 238. 
Length 38 mm. Expanse 62 mm. N. Eng., N. Y., N. J. and Pa. 

A small greenish species, similar to the preceding, but with abdomen less 
spatulate, more nearly cylindric. The face is green but the clypeus is whiter 
and the yellow spots on the lateral aspect of the frons are larger. The vertex 
is yellowish at the summit, and the occiput, in the middle. The thorax is green 
underneath its hoary haircoat, with only the depths of the lateral sutures 
blackish. Legs black. Wings hyaline, stigma black, costa obscure. Abdomen 
with yellow basal side spots on the middle segments, and double yellow larger 
areas on the sides of segments 2 and 3. Segments 8, 9 and 10 and appendages 
black. 




35. WiLLiAMSoNiA Davis 
(Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 8: 93, 1913) 
Very small Cordulines and very slender. All the triangles are without 
cross veins. The anal loop is scarcely widened at the tip. The lateral 
margins of the second abdominal segment in the male are produced 
backward in a long hairy genital lobe; the auricles are minute, and the 
inner margin of the hind wing is scarcely notched. 
The nymph is unknown. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES 
Adults 

1 Abdomen with segments 2 to 9 ringed with yellow at apex 

lintneri, p. 200 

Abdomen with segments 2 to 9 not with yellow at apex 

fletcheri, p. 200 



200 



DRAGON FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



169. Williamsonia lintneri Hagen 

Hag. '78, p. 187: Mtk. Cat. p. 128: Dav. '13, p. 93: Howe '19, p. 53: Wmsn. 

'23, p. 97: Howe '23, p. 222. 
Length 30 mm. Expanse 47 mm. N. Y., N. J., Mass. 

A dainty little slender Corduline, the smallest member of the subfamily in 
our fauna. Face greenish. Labrum yellow. Anteclypeus brown in the middle. 
Thorax brown, hairy, with some blackish lines on the lateral suture. Abdomen 
short, narrow, cylindric, swollen at the base, blackish. Segments 2 to 9 ringed 
with yellow at the apex, and 3 also at the base. 

This is an early season (April to June), species concerning which 
Howe ('23, p. 222) writes: 

I always find it a woodland species inhabiting the neighborhood of cold bogs 
and brook runs, and it alights generally on stones. The orange ring on each 
abdominal segment makes the insect particularly easy of identification in the 
field. 

170. Williamsonia fletcheri WilUamson 
Wmsn. '23, p. 96: Howe '23, p. 222. 



Length 30. Expanse 47 mm. 



Can. 




Face blackish; frons above with metallic green reflections. Thorax blackish. 
Legs black. Wings hyaline with a tinge of yellow at the extreme base. Mem- 
branule whitish. Costa yellowish to the nodus. Stigma brown. Abdomen with 
only obscure paler markings on the sides of segments 2 to 5. 



Subfamily Libellulinae 
The Common Skimmers 

Dragonflies mostly of moderate or large size, generally non-metallic 
though often of brilliant coloration. Colors in many forms obscured 
by pruinosity with age. Anal loop generally well developed and foot- 
shaped, and with a distinct bisector. Triangle of hind wing retracted 



M>» 




Figs. 37. Wings of Orthemis ferruginea, labelled to illustrate Libelluline 
venation. Principal veins labelled only at the outer margin. R^, radius; R,, 
radial sector. Mi, M^, M3, and Mi, Cu\ and Cu^, the branches of media and cubi- 
tus respectively. St, stigma; n, nodus; an and pn, ante- and post-nodal cross 
veins; hr, bridge; 0, oblique vein; r, reverse vein; Mu, apical sector; Ap. 'pl, 
apical planate; R.pl. radial planate; M.pl, median planate; ar, arculus; ac, anal 
crossing; t, triangle; i', subtriangle; 1+3, number of cells in row subtending 
subtriangle; p, patella; b, bisector of anal loop. (From Trans. Amer, Ent. Soc.) 

to the arculus. Males with no auricle on the sides of the second abdo- 
minal segment, and the adjacent inner margin of hind wings rounded. 

KEY TO THE GENERA 

Adults 
1 Fore wing triangle four sided; anal loop open below 



Nannothemis, p. 204 

Fore wing triangle three sided; anal loop closed below and more or 
less foot shaped 2. 

201 



202 DRAGON FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

2 Bisector of anal loop nearly straight ; wings often highly colored . 3 . 
Bisector of anal loop strongly angulated at level of heel 4. 

3 Fore wing triangle with front side as long as inner side 

Perithemis, p. 205 

Fore wing triangle with front side half as long as inner side 

Celithemis, p. 207 

Fore wing triangle with front side one third as long as inner side 

Pseudoleon, p. 213 






Celithemis Sympetrua lythral* 

Fig. 38. Diagram illustrating angulation of bisector of anal loop. 

4 Ends of stigma parallel 5. 

Ends of stigma convergent backward, front side much longer; A2 

straight at base with large cells behind it 18. 

5 Bisector of anal loop deflected beyond ankle moderately (30-50) . 6. 
Bisector of anal loop deflected beyond ankle strongly (50-60); 

spines of legs flattened 16. 

6 Hind wing Cu2 rising from hind angle of triangle 7. 

Hind wing Cu2 rising from outer side of triangle 14. 

7 Base of A2 distal to Ac Erythrodiplax, p. 214 

Base of A2 opposite Ac 8. 

8 Vein M2 strongly undulate; stigma long, bordered behind by 3 to 6 

cells 9. 

Vein M2 smoothly curved; stigma short, bordered behind by 1 or 2 
cells 12. 

9 Veins Mi_3 and M4 separate almost from the arculus 10. 

Veins Mi_3 and M4 stalked beyond the arculus. . Orthemis, p. 216 

10 Vein Mia rising under proximal fourth of stigma. .Ladona, p. 217 
Vein Mia rising under middle third or beyond 11. 

1 1 Wings alike in the two sexes ; male with no ventral hooks on seg- 

ment 1 Libellula, p. 119 

Wings unlike in the two sexes; male with a pair of ventral hooks 
on 1 Plathemis, p. 228 



SUBFAMILY LIBELLULINAE 203 

12 Fore wing generally with 10 or more antenodals. . Cannacria, p. 230 
Fore wing generally with 9 or fewer antenodals 13. 

13 Last antenodal before the nodus unmatched; heel of the anal loop 

shorter than the toe Sympetrum, p. 231 

Last antenodal matched; heel equal to toe. . Leucorrhinia, p. 240 

14 Stigma with one or more cross veins under it, preceeding which 

is a long space Pachydiplax, p. 244 

Stigma subtending two cross veins with normal interspaces .... 15. 

15 Radial planate subtending one cell row; tibial spines normal. . . 

Mesothemis, p. 246 

Radial planate subtending 2 cell rows; tibial spines few and very 
large Lepthemis, p. 248 

16 Bisector twice as far from Ai as from A2 Dythemis, p. 248 

Bisector three times as far from Ai as from A2 17. 

17 Radial planate subtending 1 cell row. . . . Brechmorhoga, p. 250 
Radial planate subtending 2 cell rows Paltothemis, p. 250 

18 Vein M2 gently curved 19. 

Vein M2 undulate Pantala, p. 251 

19 Radial planate subtending 1 cell row Macrodiplax, p. 252 

Radial planate subtending 2 cell rows Tramea, p. 253 

Nymphs 

1 Abdominal appendages strongly decurved; lateral spines wanting 

Mesothemis, p. 246 

Abdominal appendages straight or but very little declined; lateral 
spines on 8 and 9 2. 

2 Eyes at sides of head, more lateral than frontal 3. 

Eyes capping anterolateral angles of head, more frontal than 

lateral 13. 

3 With a dorsal hook on the ninth abdominal segment 

Perithemis, p. 205 

With no dorsal hook on the ninth abdominal segment 4. 

4 Dorsal hooks present 5. 

Dorsal hooks absent 8. 

5 Spines of segment 9 very long Celithemis, p. 208 

Spines of segment 9 short or moderate 6. 

6 Dorsal hooks as long as the segments which bear them 7. 

Dorsal hooks shorter than the segments which bear them 

Sympetrum, p. 231 



204 DRAGON FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

7 Length not more than 18 mm Leucorrhinia, p. 241 

Length more than 18 mm Dythemis, p. 248 

8 Abdomen, smooth 9. 

Abdomen hairy 12 

9 Lateral spines very short Paltothemis, p. 250 

Lateral spines long 10. 

10 Spines of 8 short; of 9 long Pachydiplax, p. 244 

Spines of 8 and 9 both long and similar 11. 

11 Teeth on inner edge of lateral lobe of labium deeply cut 

Pantala, p. 251 

Teeth obsolete Tramea, p. 253 

12 Lateral setae 6 Nannothemis, p. 204 

Lateral setae 8-10 Erythrodiplax, p. 214 

Lateral setae more than 10 Sympetrum, p. 231 

13 Lateral setae 0-3 Ladona, p. 217 

Lateral setae 5-10 14. 

14 Median lobe of labium evenly contoured Libellula, p. 219 

Median lobe of labium crenulate on front border 15. 

15 Lateral setae 8 Orthemis, p. 216 

Lateral setae 10 Plathemis, p. 229 

36. Nannothemis Brauer 

These are the smallest of our dragonflies; dumpy Httle fellows about 
an inch long; clear-winged, and with a shape of triangle and of anal 
loop that at once distinguishes them from everything else in our fauna. 
There is a single species of local occurrence in the eastern United States. 

The nymph (Ndm. '01*, p. 254) is short, thick set, hairy on legs and 
rear blunt abdomen. It is an inhabitant of little stagnant pools in 
marshy places. 

Dr. Calvert writes us that he has reared three nymphs from egg 
to imago; two of them in 23 months with 11 and 12 larval instars 
respectively, the third in 34 months and 19 days with 11 larval in- 
stars. 

171. Nannothemis bella Uhler 
The Blue Bell 

Uhler '57, p. 87: Mtk. Cat. p. 147: Howe '20, p. 75: Ris. '11, p. 388: Garm. '27, 
p. 260. 

Length 19 mm. Expanse 32 mm. Me. and Ga. to Ind. and Ont. 



PERITHEMIS 205 

Our smallest skimmer. Face white with a black labrum and a big blackish 
median spot lying across the front-clypeal stuture. Vertex metallic blue. A 
broad black transverse stripe includes the middle ocellus. Thorax at first yellow, 
striped with black, later pruinose blue. Stripes on front of thorax very broad, 
covering most of area, leaving 2 oblique isolated yellow lines. On the sides the 
first stripe (2 and 3 fused) is broad and continuous, the 2 other stripes (4 and 5) 
are interrupted above and irregular, and tend to be confluent with each other 
at 2 points. Behind the last one there is an additional inferior brown streak. 
Legs black, Wings hyaline, sometimes broadly tinged with yellow at base, es- 
pecially in the 9 . Stigma brown, whitish at ends. Abdomen black, broadly 
cross barred with yellow on the basal segments, becoming wholly pruinose blue 
with age. Appendage yellow. 

Weith ('01) was the first to work on the life history of this species. 
He says: 

Unlike most other Odonata, the imagos do not fly higher than a few feet 
above the ground, preferring to alight on the marsh grass and bask in the sun- 
shine, where numerous small Deptera suitable for food hover over the little 
stagnant pools. 

On June 22nd I found a number of females ovipositing in the shallow places 
where I had found the nymphs, in temporary water one to two inches in depth 
and very warm. The female dips her abdomen to the surface, after the manner 
of all Libellulines, but only about 3 or 4 times, then rests on the grass a few 
minutes and then repeats. 

37. Perithemis Hagen 
Amber-wings 

Small dragonflies that lack the usual swelling on the basal abdominal 
segments and have the middle segments widest. The eyes are large, 
and for a distance confluent. Prothorax bilobed dorsally, the lobes 
fringed with long hairs. Thorax densely clothed with short brown hairs. 
Wings are short and broad with unique venation, the triangle of fore 
wing being as broad as long, and the bisector of the anal loop in the 
hind wing being almost straight. Sexes differently colored, wing of the 
female being very prettily marked with a pattern of brown. 

Though a number of names have been applied to the different color 
forms of this species, we are not able to define them and therefore treat 
them here as representing a single variable species. 

The nymph (Ndm. '01, p. 513) of this genus is rather unique among 
our Libellulines in possessing a full series of flat, cultriform dorsal hooks 
the last being on segment 9. 

172. Perithemis domitia Drury 

Drury 1773: Mtk. Cat. p. 145. Whed. '14. p. 101: Howe '20, p. 75: Ria. '10, 
p. 331: Garm. 27, p. 258. 



206 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

Syn: metella Selys, tenuicinta Say, Mora Rambur, Var: mooma Kirby, 

Seminole Calv., tenera Say. 
Length 22 mm. Expanse 38 mm. Mass. and Wis. to Fla., Tex. and Ariz. 

A small brownish species with amber tinted and brown spotted wings. Face 
yellowish, darker above, greenish across the clypeus, brownish at sides and on 
top of frons. Vertex and occiput brown. Thorax brown, densely clothed with 
soft brown hairs beneath which appear obscure stripes of yellow, the pair on the 
front parallel with the carina and wide apart; the 2 on the sides interrupted in 
the middle portion, the lower ends appearing as roundish spots of considerable 
size. Legs yellowish with black spines. Wings tinted all over with amber yellow; 
stigma reddish; a touch of brown at the extreme base and another at the outer 
angle of the triangles in both wings. In the 9 there is additional brown spreading 
forward from the triangle and backward from the nodus, as indicated in the 
accompanying figure. Abdomen short, stout, a little compressed at base, de- 
pressed towards the middle and tapered towards the end; obscure brownish in 
color, paler laterally and beneath. Appendages yellow, superiorly. 

A southern form, doubtfully distinct, having a little more yellow on 
the thorax where the side stripes are continuous, and much more brown 
color on the wings, where in the male distinct brown spots surmount the 
triangles, and in the females, the cross bands of brown are much more 
extensive, described by Calvert as subsp. seminole, has been ranked by 
Dr. Ris as a separate species; but in a large series of specimens we can 
find no constant differences. 

P. domitia is a "timid, weak species, loving the sunshine." (Mtk. '08, 
p. 106.) 

Tenerals fly in upland fields often resting on the flowers of the ox-eye daisies; 
adults fly over the pools of standing water. (Brimley '03, p. 154). 

On Lake Madison (Wis.) it was present in great numbers about the beds of 
yellow water lillies and Potamogeton in the quieter bays, now flitting over and 
now resting upon the lily pads and never far above the surface. (Whed. '14, 
p. 101.) 

Mr. F. G. Schaupp observed this species at Double Horn Creek near 
Shovel Mount, Texas, perched on sticks fixed in the middle of the 
creek. They would return repeatedly to the same place after a long, 
low roundabout flight, often of ten minutes duration. 

Our own observations are that this species flies low over the surface 
of the water, and rests frequently on the tops of low stems and twigs 
near the shore. It perches horizontally with fore and hind wings often 
unequally lifted. The female oviposits unattended by the male often on 
floating masses of partly dead blanket algae, dipping her abdomen to 
the surface a dozen or more times in rapid succession at points only a 
few inches distant. 



CELITHEMIS 207 

The nymph stands up well on its slender legs and crawls rather 
actively, and is clean and smooth of body surface. It seems to prefer 
emergent stumps as a place of transformation. The senior author 
found one lone oak stump in Benmar Lake near Brewster, N, Y., fairly 
sprinkled with cast skins, while there were none on the emergent weeds 
round about. 

It appears on the wing about the end of May, and flies through June. 
Its flight is rather weak, and a bit clumsy and slow. When over water 
it habitually avoids the altitude of the larger and stronger species, 
keeping down nearer the surface. It is very sensitive to cloudiness and 
moisture, being seldom seen in flight except when the sun is shining. 

The female is sometimes held by the male while ovipositing, but I 
have seen her oftener unattended, dropping her eggs on bits of floating 
dead pond scum by many successive dips made at very nearly the same 
spot. When a female was taken in hand and "dipped" to the surface 
of water in a tumbler, 10 to 20 eggs were liberated by her at each de- 
scent. 

The egg (fig. 8, p. 000) is oblong oval, at first white, turning brownish 
gray after a few hours; its surface is closely beset with minute tubercu- 
late granulations. The gelatinous envelop is scanty. 

The nymphs (Ndm. '01, p. 513) clamber about over trashy sub- 
merged vegetation; they climb well, but swim very poorly. They are 
cleaner and less sprawling than the Libellulas. The nymph goes no 
farther from the edge of the water to transform than is necessary to 
find a suitable place — generally but a few inches. 

It will be readily distinguished from the other Libellulinae by the 
possession of a dorsal hook on the 9th abdominal segment. The pre- 
ceeding dorsal hooks are large, flat and cultriform. 

38. Celithemis Hagen 

This genus contains a large number of very beautiful species, the 
wings being richly tinted with brown and gold, and sometimes veined 
with red. The body is slender, the abdomen being little swollen at the 
base. The legs are slender. There is considerable variation in the vena- 
tion of the wings, but the bisector of the anal loop is always nearly 
straight. 

All the species belong to our fauna, and are restricted to the eastern 
United States. They are common pond and marsh species. Their 
flight is more fluttering and butterfly-like than that of most dragonflies. 

The nymphs are climbers among submerged vegetation. They are 
rather smooth and usually clean, with slender legs and rather sharp, 



208 



DRAGON FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



spine-like dorsal hooks on segments 4 to 7, and long, straight and 
slender, lateral spines on the end of the abdomen. 

The Known Nymphs 



Species 


Length 


Eyes 


Lat. 
Set. 


Lat. sp. 
of 8 


Lat. sp. 
of 9 


Described by 












reaches be- 




eponina 


20 


rounded 


8-9 


Hof 
8 


yond tip of 
inferiors 


Ndm. '01, p. 515 


elisa 


17 


rounded 


7-8 


Mof 
8 


reaches tip 
of superiors 
reaches be- 


Ndm. '01, p. 515 


fasciata 


18 


pointed 


8-9 


of 8 


yond tip of 
inferiors 


Brtn. '28, p. 34 


ornata 


16 


rounded 


8-9 


Mof 
8 


as long as 
inferiors 


Brtn. '28, p. 34 



KEY TO THE SPECIES 

Adults 
Based on Wilhamson '22 

Wings with postnodal markings 2. 

Wings with no postnodal markings; radial planate subtending one 

cell row 5. 

Wing membrane yellow; no brown band beyond stigma 

eponina, p. 209 

Wing membrane hyaline; a brown band beyond stigma 3. 

Fore wing between nodus and stigma, a rounded spot hardly 

reaching costa elisa, p. 210 

Fore wing between nodus and stigma, a brown band spreading 

along the costa 4. 

Fore wing antenodal brown band barely reaching Cui; H. W. 

pale area in the spot hyaline monomelaena, p. 211 

pale area in the spot yellowish fasciata, p. 211 

Fore wing antenodal brown band reaching well beyond Cui; H. W. 

Fore wing 2 cell rows beyond the triangle 6. 

Fore wing 3 cell rows beyond the triangle 7. 

Hind wing two parallel streaks of brown border the basal space, 

(cell Ml), the rear one covering the triangle martha, p. 212 

Hind wing. The anterior of these basal streaks omitted and the 

posterior interrupted in its middle portion. . . .amanda, p. 212 



CELITHEMIS 



209 



7 Hind wing. Two parallel streaks of brown border the basal space, 

the rear one generally covering the triangle ornata, p. 212 

Hind wing. Anterior of these omitted and the posterior broken or 
discontinuous bertha, p. 213 




173. Cellthemis eponina Drury 

Eponina Skimmer 

Drury 1773: Mtk. Cat. p. 168: Howe '20, p. 86: Ris. '12, p. 724: Garm. '27, p. 287. 

Syn: Camilla Ramb, lucilla Ramb. 
Length 40 mm. Expanse 70 mm. Mass. and N. D. to Fla. and Tez 



210 DRAGON FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

This is a very pretty slender agile species with yellow tinted wings that bear 
a pattern of brown bars and spots. Face yellow including top of vertical tubercle. 
There is a transverse line of black surrounding the middle ocellus in the fur- 
row between the vertex and the frons. Occiput brown. Thorax brown in 
front, clothed with brownish hairs. Sides with blackish stripes upon the three 
lateral sutures (stripes 3, 4, 5). Middle stripe incomplete above. Wings tinted 
throughout with amber yellow and marked with a pattern of brown as indicated 
in accompanying figure. Stigma yellowish. Legs blackish, the basal segments 
yellow. Abdomen black with 2 yellow longitudinal streaks, the middorsal one 
on segment 3-7, narrowly interrupted at apex of each of these segments; one 
lateral on segment 1-4 composed of double spots diminishing posteriorly. Ap- 
pendages yellow dorsally. 

This beautiful skimmer is abroad from June to early September. It 
frequents the borders of ponds and neighboring grassy slopes, and some- 
times when foraging, it is carried far from water by the winds, Whedon 
('14) writes: 

A few were taken .... along a bay filled with cat tails, bulrushes and 
sedges .... they were present in great numbers on the gravel flats, notwith- 
standing that the day was very dull and a steady drizzle of cold rain falling. They 
were covered with glistening rain drops which were shaken from their wings as 
they fluttered from perch to perch. 

In bright weather they were much more agile and quite difficult to capture. 
When in copulation they would ascend 50 or 60 feet and dart off over the lake 
for a time. During windy days, and it was very windy when it was bright, they 
seemed to delight in battling with the gale and in clinging like weather-vanes to 
tallest weed stalks, their wings half set. 

Their flight is not the swiftest or the most continuous, and there is 
a flutter to it suggestive of the flight of a butterfly. The female in 
ovipositing is held by the male, and both are apt to be seen on windy 
days when other species are in shelter, dipping to the crests of foaming 
waves, far out from the shore. The eggs are better distributed than 
in most related species, and they seem to be somewhat fewer, and of 
larger size. Each egg is rotund oblong, whitish at first, soon turning 
yellowish. 

Transformation occurs in the early morning, preferably on stumps 
about a foot above the surface of the water. 

174. Celithemis elisa Hagen 

Hag. '61, p. 182: Mtk. Cat. p. 167: Howe '20, p. 86: Ris. '12, p. 725: Garm, '27, 

p. 285. 

Length 35 mm. Expanse 62 mm. Me., Wis. to N. C. and Mo. 

A handsome reddish brown species with prettily brown spotted wings. Face 

red including vertical tubercle, except for a black stripe through the middle 

ocellus. Occiput brown. Thorax brown, paler at sides and clothed with thin 



CELITHEMIS 211 

whitish hairs; three black stripes upon the sides follow the sutures (stripes 3, 4, 
and 5). The middle one incomplete both above and below; the rear one narrowly 
interrupted below. Legs black, two basal segments paler. Wings yellowish, 
hyaline basally, clear beyond and marked with brownish spots as indicated in 
accompanying figure; stigma rufous. Abdomen blackish with segments 3-7 
mostly rufous above (black across apical border); this red color spreading for- 
ward on the sides of segments 1 and 2. Appendages rufous above. 

This species is found on the wing from the last of June to early- 
September. Williamson ('00) wrote of it as follows: 

This species may often be found resting on the inflorescence of some of the 
rushes, preferably the bulrush, Scirpus lacustris, growing in the shallow waters 
of our lakes. So perched on a swinging rush, they have a wide view of what is 
going on about them and at the same time are inconspicuous, harmonizing well 
with the dingy brown of the over ripe flowers to which they cling. From this 
vantage ground they make sudden dashes at passing Diptera and smaller 
dragonflies, often returning to the identical sedge time and again. Each is the 
proprietor of a particular locality. When one encroaches on the hunting terri- 
tory of another, he is quickly hustled away by the rightful and irate owner 

The females are more retired, and are usually found among the sedges back 
from the water's edge. 

175. Celithemis monomelaena Williamson 

Wmsn. '11, p. 155: Davis '13, p. 28: Howe '20, p. 87- Ris '12, p. 726: Garm. '27, 
p. 286. 

Length 34 mm. Expanse 60 mm. Ont., Wis. to Mass. 

A slender blackish species with brown spotted wings. Face metallic bluish 
or dull yellowish, paler on transverse sutures darker and more metallic on vertex. 
Occiput brown. Thorax brown, densely clothed with soft brownish hairs. Sides 
of thorax paler with rather broad irregular stripes on the three sutures (stripes 
3, 4, 5) complete and confluent at ends. Legs blackish. Wings hyaline with 
brownish stigma and a somewhat variable color pattern of the sort shown in 
the accompanying figure. Abdomen blackish. Young specimens show mid-dorsal 
diffuse pale spots on segments 2-7 and on infero-lateral margin of segments 3-5. 
Appendages black. 

176. Celithemis fasciata Kirby 
Kirby '89, p. 326: Mtk. Cat. p. 168: Ris '12, p. 726. 

Length 35 mm. Expanse 64 mm. N. J. and Wis. to Fla. 

A slender blackish species with wings heavily banded with brown. Face 
obscure brownish, paler at sides, on the anteclypeus and across postclypeal 
suture, becoming metallic blue above to match vertex. Occiput brown. Thorax 
brown becoming blackish with age, thinly clothed with whitish hairs. Teneral 
specimens show 2 narrow pale stripes on front and sides mostly, yellowish with 
3 blackish bands on sutures (stripes 3, 4, 5), the foremost very broad, the middle 
one unconnected above, the rear one incomplete but narrow below. Legs black- 
ish. Wings tinged with yellowish before the nodus and hyaline beyond except 



212 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

for brown spots shown in accompanying figure. Abdomen in old specimens 
wholly black. Teneral specimens show diminishing middorsal yellow triangular 
spots on segments 3-7, and sides of 2-5 yellowish beneath. Appendages black. 

177. Celithemis martha Williamson 

Wmsn. '22, p. 8: Garm. '27, p. 288. 

Length 31 mm. Expanse 57 mm. N. Eng. 

Face yellowish, darker above and clothed, especially on the darker portion, 
with stiff short dark hairs. Edge of labrum and 2 oblique areas within, blackish, 
an arcuate streak across the postclypeus blackish. Vertex wholly blackish. 
Occiput very dark brown. Thorax wholly brownish, densely clothed with tawny 
brown hairs; stripes of thorax similar to those of amanda but soon obscured. 
Legs blackish with paler coxae. Wings hyaline, yellowish at base, with brown 
spot on hind wings as shown on accompanying figure; stigma tawny. Abdomen 
black with obscure paler middorsal triangles on middle segments; broad areas 
below on sides of basal segments. Superior appendages yellowish, inferior blacky 

178. Celithemis amanda 

Hag. '61, p. 183: Mtk. Cat. p. 167: Ris '12, p. 728: Wmsn. '22, p. 108. 

Syn: pulchella Burm. 
Length 31 mm. Expanse 52 mm. Ga., Fla. 

A dainty little dragonfly with a large basal brown spot on the hind wing. 
Face pale, becoming rufous on labrum and on top of frons and vertex. A black 
transverse stripe includes the middle ocellus. Occiput brownish. Thorax brown- 
ish in front, yellowish on sides, thinly clothed with pale tawny hairs. The usual 
black stripes of sides are replaced by diffuse spots in deepest portions only of 
lateral sutures. Legs blackish, 2 basal joints pale. Wings hyaline except at base; 
stigma yellowish. Color pattern as shown in accompanying figure. Abdomen 
yellow basally and blackish towards the tip; the yellow overspreads the segments 
3 and 4, extends forward on sides of 1 and 2, and backward in dorsal spots on 
5, 6 and 7. Appendages yellow above. 

179. Celithemis ornata Rambur 

Ramb. '42. p. 96: Mtk. Cat. p. 168: Root '24, p. 321: Howe '20, p. 87: Ris '12, 

p. 727. 
Length 32 mm. Expanse 54 mm. Atl. Coast, Me. to Fla. 

A very dainty little dragonfly streaked with brown and yellow. Face yellow- 
ish. Labrum bordered with brown and with 3 little brown spots in a row along 
the basal suture. A broad black cross stripe surrounds the middle ocellus. Vertex 
yellow. Occiput yellowish. Thorax yellow striped with brown. A very broad 
median stripe covers most of the front but is notched at sides just below the 
collar; confluent along the collar with the stripes of the sides: three side stripes 
(2+3, 4 and 5); the foremost, broad, complete; the middle one narrower, in- 
complete above or confluent rearward at its upper end with the rearmost stripe. 
Legs blackish with paler coxae. Wings hrahne with a basal tinge of yellow and 



PSEUDOLEON 213 

streaks of brown as indicated in the accompanying figure; stigma tawny. Ab- 
domen blackish, marked with yellow basally in a line of diminishing middorsal 
triangular spots on 3-7. Sides of 1 and 2 yellow below. Appendages black. 

A charming little species that flits about the edges of ponds gaily 
from one leaf tip of arrowhead or bulrush to another. The clean and 
light colored nymph climbs among the water weeds. 

180. Celithemis bertha WilHamson 
Wmsn. '22, p. 10. 

Length 32 mm. Expanse 53 mm, Fla. 

A pretty little reddish brown species with red veined wings. Face yellowish, 
becoming rufous with age including the vertical tubercle, and with the usual 
black cross stripe through the middle ocellus. Occiput brown. Thorax yellowish 
becoming brown with age, heavily striped with black. A very broad middle stripe 
widened below at collar and 3 unequal black stripes upon the lateral sutures, 
the middle one incomplete above but dilated in its middle portion. Legs blackish 
with paler coxae. Wings hyaline; stigma tawny. Veins reddish, especially before 
the nodus, and a little area of yellowish brown as shown in accompanying figure. 
Abdomen blackish with the base yellowish, becoming rufous with age. Segments 
3 and 4 mainly yellowish, which color extends rearward in obscure dorsal spots 
on 5-7 and basalward on sides of 2 and 3. Appendages obscurely paler above. 

39. PsEUDOLEON Kirby 

These are Sonoran dragonflies of singularly beautiful coloration. The 
dark thorax is covered with vermiculate lines of dull yellow, and the 
dorsum of the abdomen bears on its segments a series of V's of the 
same color. The wings are heavily clouded with brown. The triangle 
of the front wing is very long and narrow and followed by four or more 
rows of cells. The post nodal cross veins near the front of the stigma are 
strongly aslant, simulating brace veins. Vein M^, is strongly undulate. 
The heel of the anal loop is very large with a spur vein running out 
into it. The nymph is unknown. 

181. Pseudoleon superbus Hagen 

Hag. '61, p. 148: Mtk. Cat. p. 155: Ris '11, p. 528. 

Length 42 mm. Expanse 74 mm. Ariz, and Calif. 

A very strikingly colored species with a heavy pattern of brown upon the 
wings and extensive striping upon the body. Face brown, paler above. Occiput 
yellow. Eyes with about 8 alternating light and dark stripes of equal width 
extending vertically across their surface. Prothorax brownish. Wings heavily 
marked with brown, as shown in accompanying figure; stigmas brown, some- 
times bicolored, inner half brown, outer half pale. Legs brownish, darker at the 
joints and at the spines. Abdomen brownish with paired oblique pale streaks 
diverging backward on segments 2-7- These form a series of "V's" opening 



214 



DRAGON FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



backward; smaller paired pale streaks occur within and without the "V's" on 
these same segments. Pleural margins of segments strongly serrate, the posterior 
lateral angles very prominent. Segments 6-9 strongly carinate on middorsal line. 
Appendages brown. 

40. Erythrodiplax Brauer 

These are slender dragonflies of obscure brownish coloration tending 
to become bluish pruinose with age. The face and frons take on metal- 
lic colors above; the thorax, more or less zebra striped in the beginning, 
becomes wholly obscure. The abdomen is but little swollen at the base. 
The wings are hyaline with only basal flavescent touches. The base 
of vein A2 is situated just a little beyond the anal crossing. 

The nymphs are rather thick set and dark colored with no dorsal 
hooks and with rather sharp, lateral spines. They are known for three 
of our four species. 

The Known Nymphs 



Species 


Length 


Lat. Set. 


Ment. Set. 


Described by 


berenice 

minuscula 

umbrata 


14 
12 

18 


9-10 

8 
10-11 


10-11 

12 

13-14 


Calv. '04, p. 174 
Ndm. '04 p. 709 
Calv. '28, p. 25 



This genus is mainly tropical American. One species ranges far up 
the Atlantic Coast; three others just enter our borders. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES* 

Adults 

1 Radial planate subtends two rows of cells 2. 

Radial planate subtends one cell row 3. 

2 Median planate subtends two rows of cells funerea, p. 215 

Median planate subtends one cell row umbrata, p. 215 

3 Expanse less than 45 mm minuscula, p. 215 

Expanse more than 50 mm berenice, p. 215 

♦This key does not include the E. (Nannophya) maculosa of Hagen ('61, 
p. 187) doubtfully recorded from Georgia; a little species (expanse 33 mm.) 
with a big round, blackish spot covering the base of the hind wing, enveloping 
the triangle and nearly all the anal loop. In the fore wing the point of the triangle 
inclines outward, and the subtriangle is divided by a single cross vein (see Ris: 
de Selys CoU., pp. 526 and 1160). 



ERYTHRODIPLAX 215 

182. Erythrodiplax funerea Hagen 

Hag. '61, p. 158: Mtk. Cat. p. 153: Ris '11, p. 483. 

Syn: tyleri Kirby 
Length 50 mm. Expanse 70 mm. Calif. 

Adult male black; face brassy black. Legs black except the middle and hind 
tibiae which are pale externally. Wings blackish, apex and base of front ones 
hyaline. Abdomen slender, black with yellow appendages. Younger specimens 
have the thorax yellowish with the front infuscated. The abdomen has the 
sides washed with brown. 

183. Erythrodiplax umbrata Linneus 

Linne. 1758, p. 545: Mtk. Cat. p. Ris. '11, p. 484: Calv. '28, p. 25. 

Syn: fallax Burm., flavicans Ramb., ruralis Burm., subfasciata Burm., 
tripartita Burm., unifasciata De Geer. 
Length 40 mm. Expanse 62 mm. Ga., Fla. to Tex. 

Face yellowish becoming brownish with age. Top of frons and vertex lustrous 
brown, and occiput the same. Thorax brown, scantily pilose with only a sugges- 
tion of darker brown lines; 2 narrow straight ones on the front, each side, and 3 
irregular ones following the lateral sutures. Legs blackish with most of the 
femora paler. Wings hyaline with a very variable amount of brown disposed in 
a broad cross band beyond the nodus and a wash across the apex beyond the 
stigma, all of which brown color may be entirely lacking. Base of hind wings 
faintly tinged with yellow out to anal loop. Abdomen obscure brown becoming 
blackish towards apex. All carinae of middle segments edged with blackish. 
Appendages yellowish. 

184. Erythrodiplax minuscula Rambur 

Ramb. '42, p. 115: Mtk. Cat. p. 153: Ris '11, p. 524. 

Length 25 mm. Expanse 42 mm. Ky. and N. C. to Fla. and Tex. 

Face yellow, becoming brownish with age especially on labrum and frons 
above. Vertex darker, becoming metallic blue. Occiput brown. Thorax yellow, 
becoming pruinose blue with age. Front brownish with a narrow yellowish streak 
each side the brown carina. Sides paler with only a suggestion of brown lines 
on the lateral sutures. Legs blackish with paler coxae. Wings hyaline with 
brownish stigma and a little brown spot at anal triangle of male. Abdomen 
black with yellow appendages, and in young specimens a double line of yellow 
spots bordering the middorsal brown streak on segments 3-7, and other yellow 
spots on sides of 2 and 3 below. 

Common about ponds in the south eastern states, where it flits 
from leaf to leaf about the shores. It is easily taken with a net. 

185. Erythrodiplax berenice Drury 

Drury 1773: Mtk. Cat. p. 150: Howe '20, p. 77: Ris '11, p. 522: Garm. '27, p. 262. 

Syn: lustria Burm., naeva Hag. 
Length 34 mm. Expanse 54 mm. Mass. and Pa. to N. C, Fla. and Tex. 



216 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

A slender clear winged species with a body that shows very great differences 
in appearance according to age. Face yellow, cross striped with black, or when 
mature wholly metallic blue. Stripes traverse border of labrum, entire ante- 
clypeus and the fronto-clypeal suture. Tip of vertex at first, yellow. Occiput 
black. Thorax yellow traversed by numerous sinuous vertical stripes of brown, 
later becoming wholly dark pruinose blue. Front of thorax more brown than 
yellow, a rather wide stripe of which borders the carina and an interrupted one 
lies in the blue on either side. On the sides are 5 brown stripes of nearly equal 
width, confluent above and below except on the middle suture. Legs black, 
coxae paler. Wings hyaline with only a yellowish tinge at base; stigma tawny. 
Abdomen marked with yellow becoming wholly black with age; the yellow covers 
the basal segments except for narrow transverse lines of black, and is restricted 
apically and laterally on segments 5-8; 9 and 10 black. Appendages yellowish 
at first. Wings of an old female often show a diffuse brownish cloud covering 
half their breadth at the nodus. 

The nymph is an inhabitant of brackish waters. 

41. Orthemis Hagen 

These are rather large, stout bodied dragonflies of pale brownish 
color, that assume plumbeous tints with age. The wings are hyaline 
with very long stigma and with the cross veins behind it elongated 
crosswise of the wings. The abdomen is parallel sided almost to the tip. 

The sections of the arculus are distinctly stalked; the bridge sub- 
tends but one cross vein; the cells bordering vein Mi are transversely 
elongated before the stigma. 

Us nymph (Ndm '92, p. 702) is thick-set, hairy, plathemis-Uke in 
the bulging hind angles of the head and in the crenate front border of 
the median lobe of the labium. 

A single representative of this neotropical genus is found on our 
southern border. 

186. Orthemis ferruginea Fabricius 

Fabr. 1775, p. 423: Mtk. Cat. p. 143: Ris '10. p. 282: Calv. '28, p. 19. 

Syn: discolor Burm., macrostigma Ramb. 
Length 54 mm. Expanse 88 mm. Fla., Miss., Tex. and Ariz. 

This is a large stout bodied species with hyaline wings and a long stigma. 
Face pale, becoming darker with age on edge of labrum, top of frons and vertex. 
Occiput shining black. Thorax nearly bare with no long fringe on collar; with 
no color pattern but only a darker shade in the depths of the sutures; greenish 
olivaceous when young, becoming plum colored with age. Legs blackish with 
black spines and claws. Wings hyaline with brown veins and stigma that become 
rufous with age. Abdomen nearly uniform in color, darkened only narrowly 
along the carinae. Appendages pale. 



LA DON A 



217 



According to the observations of Mr. F. G. Schaupp in Texas, this 
species perches on bushes and stems a httle way off from the water 
and is very shy. It is quicker than a Libellula, and when it is flushed, 
seldom returns to the same perch. A specimen reared by him trans- 
formed September 3d at 5 a.m. 



42. Ladona Needham 

These are slender dragonflies of moderate size, with stout thorax, 
tapering abdomen and hyaline wings that have a triangular brown 
patch across their bases. The colors are obscure brownish, very white 
pruinosity developing with age upon the front of the thorax and base 
of abdomen. The apical sector originates under the proximal end of 
the stigma. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES 

Adults 

1 Expanse less than 60 mm deplanata, p. 217 

Expanse more than 60 mm 2. 

2 Dorsum of the thorax pale with a black stripe each side on the 

humeral suture, no antehumeral stripe of white; the fuscous 
spot on the base of the hind wing not enveloping the triangle 

Julia, p. 218 

Dorsum of the thorax blackish brown, with a white antehumeral 
stripe each side; the fuscous spot of the hind wing envelops the 
triangle exusta, p. 218 

The nymphs of this genus are of rather slender form with a long, 
tapering abdomen, the tenth segment of which is ridged along the 
side. The setae of the middle lobe of the labium are usually few in 
number (0-3). 

The Known Nymphs 



Species 


Length 


Lateral 
setae 


Mental 
setae 


Dorsal 
hooks 


Described by 


deplanata 
Julia 


20? 
24 


6 
6 


O-O 
3-4 


4-8? 
4-8 


Ndm. '97, p. 146 
Ndm. '01, p. 530 



187. Ladona deplanata Rambur 
Ramb. '42, p. 75: Mtk. Cat. p. 134: Ris '10, p. 259. 
Length 30 mm. Expanse 56 mm. 



Fla., Ga. 



218 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

A little brownish clearwinged species having some streaks of black at the 
wing base. Face tawny yellowish; labrum a little darker; frons, and the streak 
through ocelli brown. Thorax brownish, darker in front with a broad blackish 
stripe upon the humeral suture (stripes 2 and 3 fused) and a narrow whitish 
stripe before it. Sides obscure, olivaceous without stripes. Legs pale brown. 
Wings hyaline with brown streaks in the basal subcostal spaces and with a 
triangular patch of brown, before the triangle, resting on the hind margin. 
Membranule white. Stigma brown. Abdomen with a middorsal brown stripe, 
slowly widened apically and with narrow black lines on all the carinae. Ap- 
pendages brown. 

This little skimmer frequents the borders of ponds and flies about 
their edges a very little over the open water, flitting mainly from one 
resting place to another in rather slow, irregular flight. It is quite easy 
to capture. 

188. Ladona exusta Say 

Say '39, p. 29: Mtk. Cat. p. 134: Wlsn. '09, p. 656: Howe '20, p. 71: Ris '10, 

p. 257: Garm. '27, p. 246. 
Length 37 mm. Expanse 66 mm. N. Eng. and Pa. 

A rather small brownish clear winged species having coloration that varies 
greatly with age. Face and vertex obscure yellowish brown, with a black stripe 
between. Thorax whitish in front except for the carina, becoming pruinose 
(almost snowy white) with age, as do also the basal segments of the abdomen. 
Sides with a broad stripe of brown, mostly before the humeral stripe; behind 
this, obscure pale brown. Legs brown, blackening with age. Wings hyaline 
with brown stigma and with brown streaks in both subcostal and cubital spaces. 
These more or less confluent basally, the latter in the hind wing spreading 
rearward in a long point adjacent to the white membranule. Abdomen with 
ill defined middorsal stripe of black that widens to rearward, and with narrow 
black lines on all carinae. Appendages brownish. 

Muttkowski ('08) reports this species flying over lakes and ponds 
during June and July. Wilson ('09) writes interestingly of it as follows: 

Abundant everywhere with quadrimaculata in the undergrowth close to the 
shore. When it alights it squats like a Gomphus on the rocks, stumps and even 
on the ground. It is gregarious, as many as 15 or 20 alighting on the same spot; 
it is also inquisitive and many were caught that actually alighted inside the net 
as it was being carried. The males are predominant and even pruinose thus 
early, even the 2 antehumeral stripes showing clear white. 

189. Ladona julia Uhler 

Uhler '57, p. 88: Mtk. Cat. p. 134: Ris '10, p. 258: Garm. '27, p. 246. 
Length 37 mm. Expanse 66 mm. N. Y. to Md. 

This species differs from exusta in the thoracic stripes as stated in the key. 
The fuscous spots on the base of the hind wing are smaller, not enveloping the 
triangle; the eighth abdominal segment of the male is narrower than the seventh; 
the apex of the inner branch of the genital hamule of the male is directed laterally. 



LIBELLULA 



219 



43. LiBELLULA Linnaeus 
The Skimmers 

The&e are among the best known of our larger dragonflies for they 
are famihar figures in the air above every pond in the summer time. 
The body is stout and more or less pubescent. The abdomen gradually 
tapers to rearward from somewhat swollen base. The wings exhibit a 
great variety of color pattern in the different species. The stigma is 
always rather large, surmounting a number of cells in the first radial 
space. The sectors of the arculus are not stalked; the bridge subtends 
several cross veins; vein M2 is strongly undulate; the anal loop is 
rather narrow and with a sigmoid curvature. 

The nymphs are squat, hairy creatures that sprawl amid the bottom 
silt. The eyes are very prominent capping the front angles of the head. 
The border of the middle lobe of the labrum is smooth. Dorsal hooks 
and lateral spines are small or wanting or well nigh lost in tufts of 
coarse hairs. 

The Known Nymphs 







Dorsal 


Lat. 


Ment. 




Species 


Length 


hooks 


Set. 


Set. 


Described by 


auripennis 


27 


3 or 4-5 


5 


8-10 


Ndm. '01, p. 533 


azillena 


22 


4-8 


5 


12-13 


Ndm. '03, p. 273 


cyanea 


20 


4-8 


6 


8-9 


Ndm. '01, p. 534 


flavida 


17(?) 


4-8 


8 


12-13 


Ndm. '03, p. 224 


forensis 


24 


weak 3-7 


6 


8 


Ndm. '04, p. 706 


incesta 


21 


4-8 


5 


9 


Byers '27, p. 113 


luctuosa 


25 


4-8 


10-11 


7 


Ndm. '01, p. 534 


pulchella 


26 


orr 


8-9 


12-13 


Ndm. '01, p. 536 


quardimaculata 


26 


obscure 
3-8 r on 8 


7 


13 


Ndm. '01, p. 535 


saturata 


26 





9-10 


11-12 


Ndm. '04, p. 705 



This large genus is mainly holarctic with its center of distribution 
in the United States. Our species may be separated as follows: 

KEY TO THE SPECIES 
Adults 

1 Wings reddish without brown markings (except stigma) 2. 

Wings golden without brown markings (except stigma) 3. 

Wings with broad blackish band covering basal third 

luctuosa, p. 221 

Wings hyaline, or spotted, or streaked with brown 4. 



220 



DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



10 



11. 



The reddish color extends to the stigma saturata, p. 222 

The reddish color extends to the nodus croceipennis, p. 222 

The golden color deepest along costal margin, .auripennis, p. 222 

The golden color deepest behind vein R jesseana, p. 223 

Stigma bicolored 5. 

Stigma uniformly colored 7. 

Base of wings hyaline comanche, p. 223 

Base of wings with a brown streak 6. 




Stigma white, dark brown along the front cyanea, p. 223 

Stigma yellow, dark brown on outer side flavida, p. 224 

Wings with a spot or stripe at the nodus 8. 

Wings with no spot or stripe at the nodus 12. 

Wing tips brown 9. 

Wing tips hyaline 10. 

Wing spots yellowish semifasciata, p. 224 

Wing spots blackish pulchella, p. 224 

Wings with a broad nodal band or blotch forensis, p. 226 

Wings with a small nodal spot 11. 

Hind wing with triangular basal brown spot veined with yellow 

quadrimaculata, p. 226 

Hind wing with diffuse broad basal spot nodisticta, p. 226 



LIBELLULA 221 

12 Costa white; face white composita, p. 227 

Costa not white; face not white 13. 

13 Hind wing with basal brown streak reaching at least the third 

antenodal 14. 

Brown streak wanting, or nearly so incesta, p. 227 

14 Frons white above; post nodal area hyaline vibrans, p. 228 

Frons metallic blue above, post nodal area streaked with black 

axillena, p. 220 8 

190. Libellula luctuosa Burmeister 
The Widow 

Burm. '39, p. 861: Mtk. Cat. p. 138: Ris '10, p. 263: Wlsn. '12, p. 194: Howe. 
'20, p. 71: Garm. '27, p. 248. 

Syn: basalts Say, odiosa Hagen 
Length 47 mm. Expanse 84 mm. Me. and N. D. to N. Mex. and Fla. 

A blackish species of moderate size easily recognized by the broad basal bands 
of the wings. Face obscure yellowish becoming blackish with age. Top of frons 
and vertex becoming metallic purplish with age. Body brown striped with yellow 
becoming pruinose blue on dorsal side. Hair fringes on occiput and on collar, 
yellow. Front of thorax brown with a rather broad middle pale stripe; sides 
with 2 broad oblique streaks of yellow separated by brown crossing the sutures. 
Legs blackish, paler at bases and beneath the front femora. Wings marked with 
brown, as shown in figure; stigma black. Abdomen blackish striped with yellow; 
stripes broad, the dorsal pair confluent on segment 1 and more widely separated 
to rearward by the deepening middorsal black stripe; inferior stripes visible 
at sides of segments 1-3. Appendages blackish. 




The Widow, Libellula luctuosa. 



This is a common pond species in the Mississippi valley. It flies 
rather steadily over the ponds resting occasionally on reed tips. It is 
not very hard to capture. In the cool of the evening adults may be 
found hanging by their feet to the sloping twigs of nearby shrubbery. 



222 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

The female usually oviposits unattended. At transformation the cast 
skins are left most commonly sticking to clustered grass stems a few 
yards from the pond. Ants kill many of the teneral adults by first 
biting holes in their newly released wings, preventing their expansion. 

191. Libellula saturata Uhler 

The Big Red Skimmer 

Uhler '57, p. 88: Mtk. Cat. p. 140: Mtk. '10, p. 140: Ris '10, p. 274: Kndy. 

'17, p. 609: Ndm. '23, p. 129: Smn. '26, p. 34. 
Length 55 mm. Expanse 90 mm. Mont, to N. Mez. and Calif. 

A large stout-bodied, reddish, southwestern species. Face red, including 
vertex. Eyes and occiput brown. Thorax reddish brown, clothed with short 
pubescence of same color, and without stripes. Legs reddish with black spines. 
Wings broad, dark, flavescent as far as nodus, with a deeper streak out to the 
triangles, as shown in figure; veins and stigma reddish. Abdomen red, brighter 
towards apex. Appendages red. 

This is a very showy pond species. Its flight is rather heavy and 
lumbering but well sustained. 

The hairy nymph squats amid the black ooze in stagnant ponds 
and climbs only a Httle way out of the water to transform. 

192. Libellula croceipennis Selys 

Selys '68, p. 67: Mtk. Cat. p. 140: Ris' 10, p. 276. 

Length 53 mm. Expanse 85 mm. Tex. 

Similar to the preceeding species, differing mainly in the following characters: 
the yellowish brown of the base of the wings does not extend beyond the nodus 
and is rather uniform in depth of color throughout; there are two cubito-anal 
cross veins; and there is usually one row of cells subtended by the median planate. 

193. Libellula auripennis Burmeister 

Golden Wings 

Burm. '39, p. 861: MtK. Cat. p. 135: Ris '10, p. 273: Howe '20, p. 69: Garm. '27 
243. 

Syn: costalis Ramb. 
Length 54 mm. Expanse 86 mm. Atl. Coast and Ohio to Fla. and Tex. 

A fine, big species with golden wings and yellow or reddish stigma. Face 
yellow, becoming reddish with age. Vertex yellowish at tip with a black cross 
stripe surrounding the ocelli. Occiput yellow, fringed with tawny hairs. Thorax 
yellow with thin golden pubescence; without stripes save for a suggestion of 
brown in the hindmost lateral suture (stripe 5). Legs brown, paler to near the 
knees, front femora reddish below. Wings tinged with yellow or red, more deeply 
along the radius and at the stigma, without brown markings though there is a 



LIBELLULA 223 

shadow of brown sometimes on the extreme tip. Abdomen yellowish, becoming 
reddish, with the middorsal carina narrowly bordered with black. Appendages 
rufous. 

194. Libellula jesseana Williamson 

Wmsn. '22, p. 13. 

Length 54 mm. Expanse 86 mm. Fla. 

This is very similar to auripennis differing by the darker metallic coloration 
of face above and vertex, and by the redder hue of stigma and adjacent veins. 
Perhaps it is hardly more than a variety of that species. 

195. Libellula comanche Calvert 

Calv. '07, p. 201: Mtk. Cat. p. 135: Ris '10, p. 272. 

Length 50 mm. Expanse 80 mm. Mont., Wyo. to Tex., Mex. and Calif. 

A large western species, similar to cyanea, having the same bicolored stigma 
(three quarters yellow) and a less development of the basal brown streaks on 
the wing. Body pattern wholly obscured by pruinosity, with age, as in that 
species. Face wholly yellow. 

According to F. G. Schaupp, dragonflies of this species sit mostly 
on green bushes at the banks, and fly, mostly over the surface of the 
water, hunting, and chasing each other, and (to the disappointment of 
the collector) disturbing other species that might easily be taken but 
for their continual interference. 

196. Libellula cyanea Fabricius 

Fabr. '75, p. 424: Mtk. Cat. p. 136: Howe '20, p. 70: Ris '10, p. 272: Garm. '27, 
p. 244. 

Syn: bistigma Uhler, quadrupla Say 
Length 43 mm. Expanse 74 mm. N. H. and Ind. to 6a. 

A slender species with bicolored stigma. Face yellowish becoming shining 
metallic brown on labrum top of frons and vertex, with age. Thorax thinly 
clothed with short brownish pubescence; at first pale brownish and yellow, with 
age becoming pruinose blue all over thorax and abdomen. Front of thorax brown 
with yellow middorsal stripe, furcate at crest. Sides yellow, except around leg 
and wing bases, with a single brown stripe on the last lateral suture (stripe 5). 
Legs blackish, paler at base. Wings hyaline except for short basal subcostal 
streaks, as shown in figure; stigma yellow over more than basal half, beyond 
blackish. Abdomen at first pale brown yellowish below on the swollen basal 
segments; above with a continuous broad line of yellowish that begins high up 
on dorsum of segment 2 and ends low down on sides of 9 and 10. Appendages 
brownish, becoming black. 

Brimley ('03) found the tenerals occuring "mostly among broom- 
straw in woods and fields, the adults fly over marshes and standing 
water." 



224 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

197. Libellula flavida Rambur 

Ramb. '42, p. 58: Mtk. Cat. p. 137: Howe '20, p. 70: Ris '10, p. 271. 

Syn: plumbea Uhler 
Length 48 mm. Expanse 78 mm. Atl. Coast, Pa. and N. J. to Fla. 

Face yellowish in the 9 , black in the cf and shining, with yellow fronto- 
clypeal suture and anteclypeus. Occiput brownish with a black cross stripe 
before it through the ocelli. Thorax brown with middorsal stripe of yellow; 
becoming wholly pruinose blue above with age. Sides yellow, brown at wing 
and leg roots and with a single brown stripe (stripe 5) on last lateral suture. 
Legs blackish, paler to near the knees. Wings broadly tinged with yellow and 
with diflfuse basal brown streaks in subcostal and cubital spaces; stigma tawny. 
Abdomen brown, becoming black with age; sometimes showing obscure mid- 
dorsal stripe and a black line on the lateral carina. Appendages brown becoming 
black with age. 

198. Libellula semifasciata Burmeister 

Burm. '39, p. 862: Mtk. Cat. p. 141: Ris '10, p. 266: Howe '20, p. 73: Garm. 
'27, p. 252. 

Syn: maculata Ramb., ternaria Say 
Length 42 mm. Expanse 74 mm. Me., Minn, to Fla. and Tex. 

This is a fine pale brownish species with prettily spotted and amber tinted 
wings. Face pale, waxy yellow, shining, paler across the middle. Vertex oliv- 
aceous with a narrow black cross stripe through the ocelli, before it. Thorax 
pale brown in front and yellowish upon the sides with 2 stripes (stripes 4 and 5) 
upon the sutures. Legs brown, yellowish at base, and with blackish tarsi. Wings 
spotted as shown in figure; venation richly tinged with yellow as far as triangle 
and along the region of the radius out to the wing tip; stigma rufous, bordered 
with black veins, ends pale. 

The senior author ('01) has found this species the earliest of the 
genus to be abroad in the spring, making its appearance in the north 
before the middle of May. "I have oftenest found the imago about 
woodland brooks, rarely about ponds." It flies in swift dashes, and in 
long sweeping curves. 

199. Libellula pulchella Drury 
The Tenspot 
Drury 1773: Mtk. Cat. p. 139: Ris '10, p. 265: Whed. '14, p. 99: Howe '20. 
p. 73: Smn. '26, p. 33: Garm. '27, p. 249. 

Syn: bifasciata Fabr., confusa Uhler, versicolor Fabr. 
Length 52 mm. Expanse 90 mm. Me. and N. D. to Tex. and Fla. 

A fine, large, strong-flying species. Face obscure brownish, paler in middle 
and yellowish on top of frons. Vertex brown with a black cross stripe before it, 
through the middle ocelli. Occiput yellow with brown outer angles. Thorax 
brown clothed with a thin white pubescence; sides with 2 yellowish stripes 
well defined inferiorly, very oblique, first crossing the middle suture above the 



LIBELLULA 226 

spiracle, the second nearly horizontal and seeming to be continued to rearward 
by yellow spots underneath the swollen base of the abdomen. Legs blackish, 
paler at base. Wings spotted with brown as shown in accompanying figure; 
costa, arculus, and nodal cross veins yellowish; stigma blackish; 10 chalky white 
spots develop with age, 2 on each fore wing between the brown spots, and 3 on 
each hind wing, one at anal angle. Abdomen brown with 2 pale stripes upon the 
sides running the entire length, and a narrow pale streak bordering the middorsal 
carina on the middle segments. The abdomen of the female tapers all the way 
to the tip, less strongly than in the male. Appendages brownish, becoming black 
with age. 

This is a beautiful, wide ranging species, a lover of the ponds but a frequent 
visitor along the "rivers, creeks and roadsides, in woods, fields and open places," 




Fig. 40. The Tenspot, Libellula pulchella. 

(Muttkowski '08). "Common not merely along the lake but far inland over the 

potato and corn fields; too wary to be caught easily Several individuals 

.... were observed going to roost for the night in the tall iron weed along a 
dried up overflow bottom. When roosting they flatten back against the vertical 
stem of the weed instead of holding their bodies horizontal as is done when they 
alight in the daytime, possibly as a protection against the rain" (Wilson '09). 

This is a very familiar dragonfly and a typical skimmer. Wherever 
it occurs it is sure to be in evidence, flying much and resting little 
during hours of sunshine. It flies horizontally several feet above the 
water. The female oviposits unattended, usually over submerged green 
vegetation in bays and shoals. Striking the water at points wide apart 
and striking it with a vigor that often sweeps a drop from the surface 
to fall back with a splash a foot farther ahead. The cast skins are left 
at transformation several feet from the shore and usually in grass or 
weeds. 



226 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

200. Libellula forensis Hagen 

Hag. '61, p. 154: Mtk. Cat. p. 137: Ris '10, p. 265: Smn. '26, p. 33. 

Length 50 mm. Expanse 89 mm. B. C. to Calif., Mont, to Ariz. 

The western equivalent of L. pulchella, differing from that species most 
markedly in lacking the brown color on the tips of the wings. 

201. Libellula quadrimaculata Linne 

Linne. 1758, p. 543: Mtk. Cat. p. 139: Wlsn. '09, p. 657: Ris '10, p. 251: Whths. 
'17, p. 101: Howe '20, p. 72: Garm. '27, p. 251. 
Syn: maculata Harris, Var: praenubila Newman, quadripunctata Fabr., 

ternaria Say 
Length 45 mm. Expanse 74 mm. N. Am. 

A handsome slender brownish species of wide holarctic distribution. Face 
yellow, labrum bordered and traversed with black. Vertex yellow, with black 
cross stripe, through the ocelli, before it. Occiput yellow with brown outer 
angles. Thorax tawny, yellow with dense pubescence of same color. Narrow 
black lines follow the sinuous lateral sutures (stripes 3 and 5), abbreviated below 
on middle one and confluent beneath 2 obscure yellowish spots. Legs blackish, 
paler basally. Wings spotted, as shown in figure, the basal triangular brown spot 
of hind wing traversed by whitish veins; stigma brown. Abdomen hairy at base, 
olive brown on swollen basal segments; mostly blackish on strongly tapering 
apical segments, with a narrow streak of yellow running lengthwise just above 
the lateral margin. Appendages blackish. 

This gregarious, typical holoarctic Libellula has been well charac- 
terized by many writers in the group. Wilson ('09) reported it, 

Everywhere in company with exusta; when it alights it does not squat, but 
perches on a twig, holding its body horizontal even if the twig is vertical. It is 
gregarious, from 12 to 15 or 20 alighting on the same stalk or twig. It is not wary 

but neither is it inquisitive like L. exusta Found by the hundreds in an 

old lumber yard, .... every stick, stub and bush alive with them. They were 
very tame, alighting not merely on the net but also on the hand and arm and 
all over the clothing. 

The senior author, on the contrary, has found them ('01) somewhat 
shy and difficult to capture. 

They are common about lakes, rivers, moist woods from May to 
August, (Muttkowski '08). Of their ovipositing, Whitehouse ('17) 
writes: "I once observed a female ovipositing with a mate hovering 
by. Twice they went into copula for short periods between spells of 
ovipositing — which however she performed alone." 

202. Libellula nodisticta Hagen 

Hag. '61, p. 151: Mtk. Cat. p. 138: Ris '10, p. 264: Kndy. '17, p. 608. 
Length 48 mm. Expanse 82 mm. Mont, and Wash, to Calif, and Nev. 

A stout heavy western species. Face obscure yellowish, darkened on border 



LIBELLULA 227 

of labrum and top of frong. Thorax brownish, becoming whitish on front with 
age, except carina. Sides with 2 lines of yellowish streaks (equivalent to stripes 
of other species), the foremost, a row of spots rather widely separated at the 
middle suture, the second, a horizontal streak low down on the sides, seeming 
to be continued by the line of spots beneath the swollen base of the abdomen. 
Legs black. Wings spotted, as shown in figure, with a chalky white area, in old 
specimens, around the basal brown spots on both wings in the males externally. 
Abdomen with a line of large ill-defined pale spots upon each side. Appendages 
blackish. 

Kennedy ('17) found this species, 

Common on the town drain. In the morning the indi\'idualg .... were easily 
captured while seated on brush and weeds in the sunny openings along the 

stream A female observed ovipositing flew about 2 feet above the water 

and made several quick swings downward, tapping the water with her abdomen 
just once for each swing. 

203. Libellula composita Hagen 

Hag. '73, p. 728: Mtk. Cat. p. 136: Ris '10. p. 267: Kndy. '17, p. 625. 
Length 42 mm. Expanse 78 mm. Yellowstone, Utah, Nev., Calif. 

Face, frons and vertex white, a small black line across the base of the frons 
and up to the middle of the ocelli. Thorax in front a clear, violet brown, with a 
yellowish band across the middle, bordered by a whitish one; antehumeral and 
humeral stripes well defined (stripes 2 and 3); stripe 4 abbreviated below, and 
5 complete but smaller. Legs blackish, the base of the femora yellowish. Wings 
hyaline; costa as far as stigma white, beyond black; stigma dark reddish brown; 
base of hind wing yellowish. Abdomen fairly broad, depressed; black with whitish 
yellow pattern. Wedge shaped lateral spots on 3-7; 8-10 wholly dark. 

204. Libellula incesta Hagen 

Hag. '61, p. 155: Mtk. Cat. p. 137: Ris '10, p. 270: Davis '12, p. 68: Brim. '20, 

p. 138: Howe '20, p. 69: Byers '27a, p. 113. 
Length 54 mm. Expanse 90 mm. Me, and Wis. to Mo. and N. C. 

A slender clear-winged species with dull yellow thoracic and abdominal striplngs 
that entirely disappear, becoming dark pruinose blue with age. Face obscure 
yellowish, becoming metallic, shining, on labrum and on top of frons. Frontal 
tubercle acutely double pointed, dark colored. Occiput brown. Thorax clothed 
with very short, dark pubescence, when young showing narrow median pale 
spots on the brown front; 2 blackish spots below the j'ellowish sides and very 
diffuse discolorations along the lateral sutures, especially the hindmost (stripe 5). 
Legs blackish, paler at base. Wings hyaline except for brown tips of variable 
extent, generally restricted to margin beyond stigma; stigma blackish. Some- 
times there is a brownish streak in the base of the subcostal space. Abdomen 
very slender in both sexes, blackish with a broad yellow stripe each side, becoming 
wholly purplish black with age. Appendages blackish. 

Found about the shores of lakes from June to September (Mutt- 
kowski '08). 



228 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

205. Libellula vibrans Fabricius 

Fabr. 1793, p. 380: Mtk. Cat. p. 141: Ris '10, p. 268: Howe '20, p. 70: Garm. '27, 
p. 253. 

Syn: leda Say- 
Length 60 mm. Expanse 100 mm. Me. and Mass. to Mo. and N. C. 
A very large species with long slender wings and abdomen. Vertex brown 
or purple. Face yellow. Occiput fringed behind with white hairs. A longer 
fringe of white hairs encircles the collar. Body brown and yellow, becoming 
wholly pruinose blue with age. Front of thorax brown with narrow middorsal 
yellow stripe; sides yellow with an interrupted brown stripe (stripe 5) on last 
suture and the rudiment of another one (stripe 4) just before the spiracle beneath. 
Legs yellowish to middle of femur, thereafter blackish. Wings marked with 
brown, as shown in figure, with black stigma. Abdomen yellowish on the slightly 
swollen basal segments, brownish beyond with broad lateral yellow obscure 
stripes; these extend forward dorsally on segments 2 and 3 and beneath the 
brown of the sides there are confluent yellow spots below on these same segments. 
Appendages blackish. 

Called by the senior author ('01) "Another handsome, graceful, well 
proportioned insect of very swift flight," and reported by Brimley ('03) 
as "... . flying over marshes and standing water, the largest and most 
sluggish of the Libellulas." Found about lakes and ponds from June 
to September (Muttkowski '08). 

206. Libellula axillena Westwood 
Wstwd. '37, p. 47, fig. 1: Mtk. Cat. p. 136. 
Length 57 mm. Expanse 90 mm. Pa. to Fla. and La. 

A fine large species with slender abdomen. Face obscure yellowish, darkening 
with age (except at sides) and becoming rich metallic purple on labrum and top 
of frons. Bilobed tip of vertex yellow. Occiput olivaceous. Thorax brown and 
yellow, becoming pruinose blue above with age; front, brown with median yellow 
stripe; sides brown rather extensively above the legs and below the wing roots; 
with yellow extending along the middle from the collar to and upon the abdomen. 
There is a half stripe of brown (stripe 5) on the last lateral suture above. Legs 
black with yellow bases. Wings spotted with brown, as shown in figure; stigma 
black. Basal abdominal segments with middorsal, midlateral and midventral 
stripes of brown, the 2 former narrowly connected by brown lines on the carinae. 
Segments 4-8 or 9 with a broad pale stripe above, bordering the lateral margin. 
Appendages blackish. 

44. Plathemis Hagen 

White-tails 

In this genus the sexes are very differently colored. The males having 
but two, the females three brown patches on the wings, and these differ- 
ently proportioned. The male has a pair of hooks on the ventral side of 



PLAT HE MIS 



229 



the first abdominal segment. There are three yellow spots in a vertical 
row on the occipt behind the eyes. The genus is otherwise similar to 
Libellula. 

The nymph (Ndm. '01, p. 536) is like that of Libellula except that 
the head is widest behind the eyes, and the front border of the median 
lobe of the labium is crenulate. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES 
Adults 

Male with a median cross band on the wings of a uniform brown 

color lydia, p. 229 

Male with a median cross band on the wings divided by a paler 
area subornata, p. 230 



i 




207. Plathemis lydia Drury 

Drury 1773: Mtk. Cat. p. 142: Ris '10, p. 261: Howe '20, p. 74: Garm. '27, p. 255. 
Syn: trimaculata De Geer. 

Length 47 mm. Expanse 68 mm. N. F. and B. C. to Ark., N. C. and Calif. 

A very common and widely distributed species in which the wings of the two 

sexes differ markedly in coloration. Face and vertex yellowish brown, shining, 
with a broad black stripe between. Occiput brownish. 
Thorax obecure brownish, clothed with short pubescence; 
sides blackish inferiorly and marked by two very oblique 
yellowish white streaks that are very variable in distinct- 
ness and some times interrupted where they cross the 
suture, best defined at their lower end and tapering up- 
ward. Legs brownish, darkening with age; tarsi and spines 
blackish. Wings with a conspicuous pattern of brown, dif- 
fering in the two sexes, as shown in the figures on p. 200. 
Behind the broad basal spot of the hind wing of the male, a 
large chalky white triangle develops with age. Abdomen 
brown, slowly tapering beyond segment 3 in the male, 
parallel sided to 8 in the female, showing a row of oblique 
pale spots low down on sides of segments 3-9. These are 
less distinct in the male and become wholly obscured with 
age by pruinosity. 

"Common from April to October, having the longest 
seasonal range of any of our dragonflies" (Brimley '03, p. 
157). 
Plathemis "This species is a constant companion of L. pulchella. 

Often they have a definite beat along some bend in the 
shore or around beds of bulrushes where they race up and 

down the banks, now and then meeting with a rustle of wings" (Whed. '14, p. 

100). 







Fig 
nymph 
White-tail 



mer, 

lydia 



230 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

This is a most familiar skimmer. It divides its time between hovering 
over the water surface and perching on shore. The males are much in 
evidence. They rest with head low and tail elevated, and move the 
wings forward and downward into a drooping position by a succession 
of jerks. When old and pruinose they seem to prefer whitish perches, 
and will sometimes settle upon the rim of a collector's white net or 
on his shirt sleeve or straw hat. They search ordinarily for the females 
and fly after them with great swiftness when discovered. 

The females slip in and out of sheltered places along shore, finding 
with difl&culty a little freedom from molestation while laying their eggs. 
They hover low over the water, marking time, dipping down to the 
surface many times in nearly the same place, liberating 25 to 50 eggs 
at each descent. 

208. Plathemis subornata Hagen 

Hag. '61, p. 149: Mtk. Cat. p. 142: Ris '10, p. 263: Ndm. '23, p. 130: Smn. 

'26, p. 35. 
Length 45 mm. Expanse 70 mm. Kans. and Utah to Tex. and Calif. 

Face obscure brownish. Labrum, vertex, and cross stripe through ocelli, 
black. Thorax brownish with pale pubescence; the dark sides bear yellowish 
oblique stripes that are composed each of rows of 2 or 3 yellowish spots. Legs 
black. Wings as shown in accompanying figure; entire area before broad brown 
cross bands becoming pruinose around basal spots; stigma black. Abdomen 
blackish with lateral yellowish spots both above and below on swollen basal 
segments. These pale spots narrow and disappear to rearward. Apical segments 
and appendages black. 

45. Cannacria Kirby 

Slender and elongate dragonflies with abdomen laterally compressed 
on the three basal segments, scarcely widened as seen from above. 
Legs slender, hind femora spineless and thinly fringed with soft white 
hairs. Venation as indicated in key to the genera. Radial and median 
planate unusually well defined at outer end where strongly attached to 
veins; the upper of the 2 rows of subtended cells twice the width of the 
lower. 

Includes one South American species and the one described below. 
Habits and nymph unknown. 

209. Cannacria gravida Calvert 

Calv. '90. p. 35: Mtk. Cat. p. 170 (as Brachymesia) : Ris '12, p. 736. 
Length 50 mm. Expanse 82 mm. Md. to Fla. and Tex. 

A slender brownish species having usually a brownish spot on the middle 
of the wing. Face black and white. Labrum and frons black; sides of postclypeus 
white; intervening area variable, more or less spread over with brownish. Vertex 



SYMPETRUM 



231 



and occiput blackish clothed with thin brown hairs. Thorax and the swollen 
base of the abdomen rusty brownish, darker about the bases of the appendages 
and in the depths of the lateral sutures, but without stripes. Legs brown, paler 
basally. Wings hyaline, shining, slender, tinged with amber yellow beyond the 
nodus and generally bearing a large brownish spot of very variable extent which 
extends from the nodus well out towards the stigma and fades out towards the 
edges. The costal strip, amber yellow when stripe not developed; stigma whitish 
or pale yellow; veins brown. Abdomen long and slender, the paler basal segments 
compressed; 2 and 3 carinate; middorsal band of black on 3 to 9, dilated at 
apex of each segment. In old specimens these segments appear entirely black; 
10 and appendages paler. 



46. Sympetrum Newman 

Syn: Diplax; Brachymesia 

Topers 
These are rather small, autumnal dragonflies of 
brilliant red, mature coloration. The teneral color is 
usually olivaceous. Stripes of white (reduced some- 
times to inferior spots) often appear upon the sides of 
the thorax, and sometimes, narrower ones upon the 
front, in teneral specimens; but these are apt to wholly 
disappear with age, the entire thorax becoming reddish 
brown. Only in S. danae (of our species) is it con- 
spicuously striped with black. The sides of abdominal 
segments 3 to 9 bear a line of black triangles which 
tend to overspread the dorsum with black, most 
widely on segment 8. The wings are hyaline, with 
flavescent tinge at the base, of very variable extent. 

The Known Nymphs 




Fig. 42. Nymph 
of Sympetrum 
rubicundulum. 



Species 


Length 


Lat. sp. 


Lat. sp. 


Dorsal 


Lat. 


Ment. 


Described by 






0/8 


0/9 


hooks 


set. 


set. 




assimilatiun 


16 




1/3 of 9 


4-8 


9 


12 


Ndm. '01, p. 524 


comiptum 


19 





rud. 





13-14 


17 


Ndm. '03. p. 271 


coBtifenmi 


14 1/2 


1/2 of 8 


2/3 of 9 


sharp 6-8 


10-12 


13-18 


Ndm. '01, p. 520 




14 






low r or 
on 8 


11-12 


13-15 


Walk. '17, p. 417 


illotum 


18 





rud. 





9 


13 


Ndm. in Byers '27, p. 71 


madidum 


14 1/2 




equals 9 


low 5-8 
r on 8 


12 


12 


Ndm. '04, p. 707 


obstruBum 


16 


1/5 of 8 


1/3 of 9 


moderate 

4-8 
sharp 4-8 


9 


12 


Ndm. '01. p. 524 


paUipes 


16-18 


1/4 of 8 


2/5 of 9 


10-11 


12-15 


Walk. '14, p. 373 


rubicundulum 


17 


1/6 of 8 


1/3-1/5 
of 9 


low 4-8 r 
or on 8 


9 


12 


Ndm. '01, p. 525 


semicinctum 


14 1/2 


1/3 of 8 


exceeds 9 


large 6-8 


9 


12 


Ndm. '01, p. 524 


vicinum 


13 


2/3 of 8 


equals 9 


large 6-8 


9 


12-13 


Ndm. '01, p. 523 



232 DRAGON FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

varying from almost none at all to half the wing extent, and the veins 
are often red. 

These are the latest of our dragonflies in season. One of our species 
S. corruptum is sometimes taken in early spring, having hibernated as 
an adult. They are pond species and the swales adjacent to the shoals 
are the best places to find them. They fly moderately and rest fre- 
quently on the low vegetation and are not very hard to capture. 

The females of some species lay their eggs upon floating masses of 
"blanket algae" where, exposed more or less to the air, they become 
infested with minute Hymenopterous parasites. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES 
Adults 

1 Fourth abdominal segment with a median encircHng ridge (in 

addition to the apical ridge) 2. 

Fourth abdominal segment with only the apical ridge 3. 

2 Fore wing, antenodals 7; sides of thorax with two white stripes 

corruptum, p. 233 

Fore wing, antenodals 8 to 10; sides of thorax with two white 
spots illotum, p. 233 

3 The radial planate subtends two rows of cells. . .madidum, p. 234 
The radial planate subtends but a single row of cells 4. 

4 Expanse more than 70 mm furcatum, p. 234 

Expanse less than 60 mm 5. 

5 Male superior appendages with a prominent median inferior tooth; 

female subgenital plate bifid 8. 

Male superior appendages with no prominent inferior tooth (with 
only denticles); female subgenital plate entire or only a little 
emarginate 6. 

6 Tibiae yellow externally 7. 

Tibiae black externally 10. 

7 Abdomen with black markings ambiguum, p. 235 

Abdomen with yellowish brown markings pallipes, p. 235 

8 Male bifid for a third of its length, the outer branch twice as stout 

as the inner 9. 

Male hamule bifid for not more than a fourth of its length, the 
outer branch four times as stout as the inner, .obtrusum, p. 236 

9 Wings yellow only at the roots rubicundulum, p. 236 

Wings with basal half yellow assimilatum, p. 237 



SYMPETRUM 



233 



10 Wings yellow only at the roots 11. 

Wings yellow to the nodus semicinctum, p. 237 

11 Legs more or less yellow 12. 

Legs black 13. 

12 Tibiae entirely yellow vicinum, p. 238 

Tibiae striped with black on the sides costiferum, p. 239 

13 Male superior abdominal appendages black danae, p. 239 

Male superior appendages yellow or red atripes, p. 240 

210. Sympetrum corruptum Hagen 

Hag. '61, p. 171: Mtk. Cat. p. 160: Ris '11, p. 678: Whed. '14, p. 101: Bethel 

'15, p. 119: Kndy. '17. p. 620: Garm. '27, p. 270. 

Length 41 mm. Expanse 65 mm. B. C, N. Y. to La. and Tex. 

Face and vertex yellow with a black stripe between. Occiput tawny. Thorax 

tawny, with whitish pubescence; front with 2 parallel whitish stripes, and sides 

with 2 very much broader oblique stripes behind the 2 principle sutures, both 




corruptum 



lllotum 




bordered with blackish at their lower ends. Legs blackish, lined externally with 
yellow, and with the 2 basal segments yellow; tarsi black. Wings hyaline with 
reddish veins and tawny stigma, darker in the middle. Abdomen olivaceous 
with the spots on the sides of segments 3-9 forming a diffuse blackish line, and 
with middorsal black spots on segments 8 and 9. Appendages black. 

It squats on the bare earth of path or roadway much of the time, 
often with the abdomen elevated and the drooping wing tips touching 
the ground. 

"It is one of the first dragonflies to appear in the spring, having been re- 
peatedly taken in April" (Whed. '14, p. 101). 



211. Sympetrum illotum Hagen 

Hag. '61, p. 172: Mtk. Cat. p. 161: Ris '11, p. 676: Kndy. '17, p. 609: Ndm. '23, 
p. 130 (as onustum by error): Smn. '26, p. 37: Byers '27, p. 71. 



234 DRAGONFLIES OF NOTRH AMERICA 

Var: giluum Selys 
Length 38 mm. Expanse 62 mm. Pac. Coast, Nev. 

Face and vertex yellowish, becoming rufous above with black cross line 
between. Occiput tawny. Thorax reddish, clothed with tawny hairs; sides with 
2 oval white spots (lower end of stripes behind the 2 principle sutures). Legs 
rufous with black tarsi. Wings hyaline with red veins and stigma; fuscous stripes 
in the base of subcostal (in the hind wing) and cubital spaces. The golden tint 
extends to or beyond the nodus and rearward; on the hind wing it envelopes most 
of the anal loop. Abdomen red, only the apical carinae of the middle segments 
darker. Appendages rufous. 

"Usually the female of this species oviposits unaccompanied by the 
male but here I observed a pair working together. These copulated on 
the wing, then rested half a minute in copulation on a branch, when 
they flew about over the water, the male holding the female by the 
prothorax, the pair making tentative dives from an elevation of about 
2 feet. After a half a minute they dropped 2 inches above the water 
when with a swinging motion the female dipped her abdomen in the 
water about 30 times, after which they made a sudden upward flight 
and separated, each to seat itself on a twig." (Kndy. '17, p. 609.) 

212. Sympetrum madidum Hagen 

Hag. '61, p. 174: Mtk. Cat. p. 162: Ris '11, p. 679: Kndy. '15, pp. 337, 345. 

Syn: fiavicostum Hag., chrysoptera Selys 
Length 42 mm. Expanse 62 mm. B. C. to Calif., Mont., Wyo. and Colo. 

A fine reddish species, both wings streaked with flavescent along the radial 
vein. Face and vertex red with the usual black stripe, enclosing the middle 
ocellus and widened at the ends to enclose also the lateral ocelli. Occiput red. 
Thorax reddish to olive brown, with 2 whitish side stripes behind the 2 principle 
lateral sutures, distinct below and obsolete above. Legs black beyond the ex- 
treme base of the femora. Wings hyaline traversed lengthwise by a yellowish 
streak that leaves the basal costal interspaces clear, and in the hind wing spreads 
rearward beyond the anal triangle; stigma rufous. Abdomen rufous, paler 
basally, and with all carinae narrowly lined with black. Appendages reddish. 

Kennedy ('15, p. 337, 345) has observed that the male and female 
of this species are practically never found associated together. 

213. Sympetrum furcatum Hagen 

Hag. '61, p. 169: Mtk. Cat. p. 170: Ris '12, p. 737 (as Brachymeaia furcata). 

Syn: australis Kirby, smithii Kirby 
Length 45 mm. Expanse 78 mm. Fla., Mo. 

A tawny brownish species with red abdomen. Face red with margin of 
labrum, sides of frons, extreme apices of notched vertex, and occiput, all yellow- 
ish. Thorax obscure pale brownish, densely clothed with soft hair of same color; 



SYMPETRUM 



235 



without stripe. Legs blackish, paler basally. Wings hyaline, extreme base of 
fore wings and a slightly broader area of the hind wing (extending out to anal 
crossing). Costal and basal antenodals yellow; stigma tawny, between black 
hairs. Abdomen reddish more deeply red on the middle segments, only the 
extreme apices of the middle segments transversely lined with black. Appendages 
reddish, yellowish within, tips of forked inferiors black, thinly clothed with 
blackish hairs. 



madidum 




furcatum 



amblguura 



214. Sympetrum ambiguum Rambur 

Ramb. '42. p. 106: Mtk. Cat. p. 160: Ris '11, p. 689: Howe '20, p. 83. 

Syn: albifrons Charp. 
Length 37 mm. Expanse 58 mm. Mass. and 111. to Mo., Tex. and Ga. 

Face and vertex yellowish with a narrow black stripe between. Thorax 
olivaceous at the sides, rufous above, bright red on the wing roots; lateral sutures 
and carina in teneral specimens obscurely striped with brown (interruptedly 
on the sides). Legs pale to knees, brownish beyond, claws blackish. Wings 
hyaline with brown stigma, paler at ends, with scarcely any basal flavescence. 
Abdomen rufous, the side spots on segments 3-9 increase in extent and over- 
spread the dorsum on the last 2 segments. Appendages yellowish. 



215. Sympetrum pallipes Hagen 

Hag. '74, p. 589: Mtk. Cat. p. 163: Ris '11, p. 688: Walk '14, p. 373: Byera 

'27, p. 71. 
Length 37 mm. Expanse 61 mm. B. C. to Colo. 

Face and vertex yellow with a narrow black cross stripe between. Occiput 
and thorax tawny to rufous brown, scantily pubescent, darker in the depths of 



236 



DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



the sutures and on the crest, and with broad, pale oblique stripes more or less 
evident on the sides behind the 2 principle sutures. Legs olivaceous, becoming 
blackish at the joints and on the tarsi. Abdomen olivaceous to rufous with the 
apical carinae of the middle segments narrowly blackish. Appendages pale. 



^.^ 



palllpea 




obtrusVim 





216. Sympetrum obtrusum Hagen 

Hag. '67, p. 95: Mtk. Cat. p. 162: Ris '11, p. 685: Wmsn. '14, p. 456: Howe '20, 

p. 80: Garm. '27, p. 275. 
Length 31 mm. Expanse 50 mm. N. H. to B. C. 

Like rubicundulum in all respects except as shown in the figures, but smaller 
and with the abdominal appendages tending to be black on the apical half. 
Found about "lakes and rivers June to October" (Mtk. '08, p. 110). 



217. Sympetrum rubicundulum Say 

Say '39, p. 26: Mtk. Cat. p. 163: Ris '11, p. 682: Wmsn. '20, p. 103: Howe '20, 

p. 79: Ndm. '27, p. 20: Garm. '27, p. 272. 
Length 33 mm. Expanse 54 mm. Me. and Pa. to N. D. and Wyo. 

A dainty reddish species of wide distribution. Face reddish yellow. Vertex 
darker, with a conspicuous black cross stripe that includes the middle ocellus. 




xniblcundulum 



^^■^^ 



asslmllatum 





Occiput rufous. Thorax reddish brown clothed with tawny pubescence; un- 
marked, paler beneath. Legs black beyond base. Wings hyaline with a tinge 



SYMPETRUM 237 

of yellow at the extreme base (or sometimes throughout the membrane) and 
with a brown stigma. Abdomen reddish with a row of lateral black triangles on 
segments 4-9 forming a marginal stripe. Appendages reddish yellow. 

Pale teneral yellowish specimens of this species begin fluttering up 
out of the grasses that fill the shallow waters in the upper reaches of 
most ponds about the latter part of June. A month later when they have 
assumed their brilliant red and black coloration and have become more 
numerous, we find them scattered everywhere. They seem most nu- 
merous however about wet meadows, where they delight to go foraging. 

The female in ovipositing is accompanied by the male. He seems to 
direct the course and to assist in the flight. Together they descend to 
touch the water many times in rapid succession in nearly the same 
place; then a short flight, and many more descents together in a new 
place. 

218. Sympetrum assimilatum Uhler 

Uhler '57, p. 88: Mtk. Cat. p. 160: Ris '11, p. 682. 

Length 40 mm. Expanse 62 mm. N. Y. to B. C. and Neb. 

A rather large species with hyaline wings flavescent at base. Face and 
vertex yellowish with a black cross stripe through the middle ocellus. Occiput 
brown. Thorax olive brown clothed with a thin brown pubescence and some- 
times obscurely striped, in which case a narrow pair on the front, and 2 broad 
stripes behind the principle lateral sutures all abbreviated above, appear. Legs 
fuscous, paler basally and beneath the front femora. Wings hyaline, flavescent 
to a very variable degree over the basal half; stigma brown, paler at ends. 
Abdomen reddish with lateral black triangles on middle segments, widened 
toward the apices of these segments and forming a continuous black lateral line. 
Appendages obscure reddish yellow. 

The senior author (Ndm. '01, p. 524) found that this species at Old 
Forge, N. Y. "could be seen any clear morning climbing up the Spar- 
ganiums tems and transforming." 

"July to September in marshes and woods." (Mtk. '08, p. 110.) 

219. Sympetrum semicinctum Say 

Say '39, p. 27: Mtk. Cat. p. 164: Ris '11, p. 690: Kndy. '17, p. 623: Howe '20 

p. 82: Garm. '27, p. 274. 
Length 31 mm. Expanse 52 mm. Me. and Pa. to B. C. 

A very pretty reddish brown species with broad flavescent bands of variable 
depth of color covering more or less of the basal half of the wings. Face yellow, 
reddish above, narrowly cross striped with black through the middle ocellus. 
Thorax reddish brown clothed with brown pubescence, usually without pattern 
but sometimes showing narrow black lines on sutures below. Legs black beyond 
basal femora. Wings hyaline beyond the very broad flavescent cross band which 



238 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

varies in tint, especially towards the outer margin from pale yellow to brown. 
Abdomen reddish brown, paler basally; black at sides of apical segments, the 
black spreading upward on segment 8, blackest middorsally. Appendages 
rufous. 




semlclnctum 






Whedon ('14, p. 101) says it is "Usually found among the low shrubs 
and brushes at the margins of woods near streams and ponds." 

Kennedy ('17, p. 623) says it is "Common in the fields along the 
river. The males of this species sometimes go to sleep while seated in 
the sunshine, when they can be picked up by hand." 

220. Sympetrum vicinum Hagen 

Hag. '61, p. 175: Mtk. Cat. p. 164: Ris '11, p. 693: Davis '13, p. 27: Howe '20, 
p. 82: Garm. '27, p. 275. 

Length 32 mm. Expanse 52 mm. Me. and N. C. to B. C. 

This late season species is at first yellow but later it becomes bright red. 
Face reddish yellow or brown with pale, short pubescence, and without color 
pattern. Legs pale brown with yellow tibiae. Wings hyaline with extreme base 
flavescent, stigma rufous. Abdomen rufous obscured with blackish at sides of 
middle segments. These sometimes become wholly black, but not in a distinct 
pattern. Appendages pale. 

Davis '13 says, "We have seen them in copulation on Staten Island 
on Nov. 8. They are much attracted to anything bright colored, like 
a newspaper lying on the ground, and several may often be seen sun- 
ning themselves on such a situation. They will light on your hat if you 
keep quiet, and will show no inclination to fly away provided you walk 
about quietly." 

This pretty little yellow legged autumnal species is likely to be found 
about every marsh-bordered pond within its range. It flits about the 
shore vegetation and is not at all difficult to capture with a net. The 
female oviposits on wet mats of club rush and blanket algae, sometimes 
alone, but more often held by the male. The male seems to direct the 
course. The pair descends swiftly and the female is swung downward, 
the tip of her abdomen striking the surface like a whiplash, to brush 



SYMPETRUM 239 

off her eggs. They fly backward a little bit as they rise. Thus they 
swing obliquely, up and down, many times in the same place. 

Some eggs obtained in September at Ithaca hatched the following 
January, having been kept the while in a laboratory of the normal tem- 
perature. Doubtless under normal conditions they do not hatch be- 
fore spring. 

Dr. Calvert ('26, pp. 185-190) has studied the disappearance of this 
species in autumn at a pond in the Botanical Garden of the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania. He says that "The bright red abdomen of the 
male lends a brilliant touch of color on sunny days of September and 
of the two following months. The duller brown of the female renders 
her less conspicuous." Observations made over 20 years give 
the latest data for the appearance of this species on the wing as 
ranging from October 17th to November 23rd. It survived minimum 
daily temperatures, once as low as 29°F, twice as low as 32°F. 

Mr. F. R. Nevin has raised vicinum from eggs, laid on October 1 
by females from this same pond,, which hatched, in doors, from Nov. 
28 to Jan. 4 and yielded imagos on May 3 to May 10, after 11 larval 
instars. 

The nymphs are rather daintily colored with bands of black across 
the head including the eyes, around the femora, and across the middle 
of the abdominal segments. They clamber about amid the aquatic 
vegetation. 

221. Sympetrum costiferum Hagen 

Hag. '61, p. 174: Mtk. Cat. p. 161: Ris '11, p. 692: Wmsn. '14, p. 456: Howe '20, 

p. 81: Garm. '27, p. 271. 
Length 37 mm. Expanse 60 mm. Me. and N. Y. to B. C. and Kans., Ga.? 

Another reddish species with blackish abdomen. Face, vertex and occiput 
reddish, the black cross stripe before the vertex includes both lateral and middle 
ocelli. Thorax olivaceous brown or rufous, without pattern, clothed with pale 
short pubescence. Legs pale to knees and on tibiae externally; spines and tarsi 
black. Wings hyaline with a faint flavescent tinge across extreme base and a 
long radial vein; stigma tawny with black bordering veins. Abdomen olive 
brown or rufous, suffused with black along the sides to form an inferior lateral 
stripe, and sometimes along the dorsum also of segments 4-9. Pattern very 
obscure. Appendages obscure reddish. 

Kennedy ('15) says "I have seen thousands of this species on a 
telephone wire for a stretch of a mile and all facing the same way." 

222. Sympetrum danae Sulzer 

Sulzer 1776, p. 169: Mtk. Cat. p. 163 Ris '11. p. 646: Howe '20, p. 80: Garm. 
'27, p. 271. 



240 



DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



Syn: scoticum Donovan 
Length 40 mm. Expanse 50 mm. N. H. to B. C. 

A short blackish species with hyaline wings and a thick stigma. Face yellowish 
sometimes suffused with black. Cross stripe through ocelli very broad, over- 
spreading part of vertex and frons. Thorax blackish in front and yellowish with 
anastomosing black stripes upon the sides; the foremost on the humeral suture 




danae 




atrlpes 





(stripe 3) and the others on the 2 lateral sutures, usually more or less confluent; 
from the hindmost a black streak extends to the abdomen below. Legs black. 
Wings hyaline with blackish stigma, sometimes with flavescent area at extreme 
base. Abdomen mainly black but with paler spots above and below on segment 
2; a large divided one above on 3, and smaller dorsal ones on 4-7, 8. Appendages 
black. 

223. Sympetrum atripes Hagen 

Hag. 73, p. 588: Mtk. Cat. p. 160: Howe '21, p. 80. 

Length 36 mm. Expanse 56 mm. Yellowstone 

Face and vertex reddish with broad black stripes through ocelli. Thorax 
olivaceous or rufous with thin tawny pubescence and lateral sutures more or 
less distinctly marked with narrow black lines. Legs black. Wings hyaline with 
a variable amount of flavescence at base (sometimes reaching nodus of hind 
wing); stigma reddish, bordered with black veins. Abdomen reddish, the spots 
at the sides of the segments forming a black stripe, the black sometimes spreads 
upwards and envelopes the apical segments. Appendages obscurely colored, 
yellowish to black. 

47. Leucorrhinia Brittinger 

The White-faced Skimmers 

These are rather small dragonflies with blackish bodies and clear 

wings, with short, broad stigmas. The face is white and shining, often 

with the whiteness of porcelain. The thorax is blackish, with something 



LEUCORRHINIA 



241 



of a pattern of blackish stripes on the paler sides when recently- 
emerged. The abdomen is pale at base where striped with black, be- 
coming wholly black at the end. There is little enlargement of the basal 
segment. The anal loop is short and broad, the heel being developed 
about as long as the toe. 

The nymphs are smooth bodied, greenish in color and clamber in 
beds of submerged vegetation. There are dorsal hooks on segments 2 
to 6 or 8, and lateral spines on 8 and 9, the latter never very long. 
The lateral setae are 10 or more, and the mental setae are still more 
numerous. 

The Known Nymphs 



Species L. 


Dorsal 
hooks 


frigida 


2-8 


intacta 


2-8 


glacialis 


2-8 


prozima 


2-8 


hudsonica 


2-6 


borealis 


2-6 



d.h.o/7* 



d.h.o/8* 



Lat. sp. 0/8** 



Lat. sp. of 9** 



Described hy 



=2/3 of 7 
= 1/2 of 7 
= 1/4 of 7 







=8 

= 2/3 of ; 
= 1/3 of ; 
= 1/5 of : 







= 1/2 of 8 
=2/5 of 8 
= 1/3 of 8 
= 1/4 of 8 
= 1/3 of 8 
=1/2 of 9 



=3/5 of 9 
= 1/2 of 9 
= 1/3 of 9 
= 1/4 of 8 
= 1/3 of 9 



Walk. '13, p. 168 
Ndm. '01,p.517 
Ndm. 'Ol.p. 518. 
Walk. '16, p. 420 
Walk. '14, p. 275 
Walk. '16, p. 416 



* Dorsal hooks in relation to length of segment bearing them. 
** Lateral spines in relation to length of segment bearing them. 

This holartic genus is represented in our fauna by half a dozen 
species that may be separated as follows: 

KEY TO THE SPECIES (exclusive of borealis) 
Adults 

1 Middle abdominal segments (4-7) with pale middorsal triangles 

hudsonica, p. 241 

Middle abdominal segments black 2. 

2 Abdominal segment 7 with twin dorsal spots of yello wintacta, p. 242 
Abdominal segment 7 with no twin dorsal spots of yellow 3. 

3 Sides of thorax heavily clouded, not streaked. . . .glacialis, p. 243 
Sides of thorax with at least 1 distinct fuscous stripe (stripe 5) 

4. 

4 Length 30 mm frigida, p. 243 

Length 35 mm proxima, p. 244 

224. Leucorrhinia hudsonica Selys 

Selys '50, p. 53: Mtk. Cat. p. 166: Ris '12, p. 718: Howe '20, p. 84: Garm. '27, 

p. 282. 
Length 27 mm. Expanse 46 mm. N. B. to Alask., B. C. and N. H. 



242 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

« 
This is a little brownish species with yellow costa and spotted abdomen. 
Face pale, vertex black except at pale tip. Occiput brown. Thorax hairy, tawny 
on front and a little paler on sides with only a suggestion of two broad brown 
stripes that widen below toward the leg bases. Legs black. Wings hyaline, costa 
and outer veins of stigma yellow. Basal brown streaks of both wings well 
developed; the bioader stripe of the hind wing extending beyond the mem- 
branule. Abdomen black with sides of swollen basal segments yellow, and 
yellowish triangular spots on dorsum of segments 4-7. Apical segments and 
appendages black. 

This species which according to Muttkowski ('08) is found about 
marshy places and Kennedy ('15) in more or less open sloughs, is 
described by the latter as spending "most of their time seated on the 
tops of aquatic plants. They copulated on the wing, the male picking 
up the female as she sat on some plant. The flight was short, after 
which the male dropped the female but hovered near, while she de- 
posited by tapping the tip of her abdomen repeatedly on the surface 
of the water." 

225. Leucorrhinia Intacta Hagen 
Johnny White-face 

Hag. '61. p. 179: Mtk. Cat. p. 167: Ris '12, p. 716: Howe '20, p. 83: Garm. '27, 

p. 218. 
Length 32 mm. Expanse 48 mm. Me., Pa. to Wash, and B. C. 

A fine little blackish species with a very white face and twin spots of yellow 
on the seventh abdominal segment. Face pale, becoming pearly white with age, 
up to the very black streak that envelopes the frons. Occiput yellowish in middle 
with black edges and a fringe of long tawny hairs that is continued behind the 
eyes. Thorax villous with tawny hairs which hide a very obscure pattern of 
stripes; becoming wholly black with age. Carina at first pale and sides yellowish 
with diffuse blackish streaks following the 3 lateral sutures. Legs black. Wings 
hyaline with a short broad stigma and a whitish touch on the costa just beyond. 
Extreme base of both wings with 2 short blackish streaks in the subcostal and 
cubital spaces; the latter, in the hind wing, spreading rearward along the mem- 
branule. The moderately swollen basal segments of the abdomen mostly pale 
with 2 brownish streaks each side twice connected on the carinae; segments 
3-10 black with a rather conspicuous pair of yellow spots on the dorsum of 7. 
Appendages black. 

Wilson ('12) found this dragon fly "famiharly known as 'Johnny 
White-face' .... around freshwater ponds or on side creeks; there 
were none on the river." 

Whedon ('14) says: "they are usually very alert and agile, floating 
before the collector hke a host of jet black ivory centered balls. When 
resting, the wings are thrown forward, the abdomen held high in the 
air and the head is kept turning watchfully from side to side." 



LEUCORRHINIA 243 

The senior author observed the females ovipositing in two quite 
different ways: descending and striking the water with the tip of 
the abdomen while in flight after the manner most common among 
the Libellulidae, and at rest on some vertical stem at the surface of 
the water, plying with the tip of the abdomen just below the surface. 
In both cases the female was unaccompanied by the male. 

The nymph is an alert sprawler, rather prettily marked in an intri- 
cate pattern of green and brown. Paired dots of brown underneath the 
abdomen are rather distinctive. Transformation commonly occurs in 
the forenoon, usually within a few inches of the surface of the water. 

226. Leucorrhinia glacialis Hagen 

Hag. '90, p. 234: Mtk. Cat. p. 166: Ris '12, p. 719: Howe '20, p. 84: Garm. '27, 

p. 281. 
Length 36 mm. Expanse 58 mm. N. H. and N. Y. to Wis. and Nev. 

A dainty little species with reddish thorax and black abdomen. Face pale, 
greenish white, including top of frons. Vertex and occiput black. Thorax pale 
reddish brown and black in a clouded portion that covers the whole of the sides 
and is expended on the base of the abdomen. There is a pair of broad rufous 
bands on the front bordering a stiff broader median black tract, around which 
they are dilated and attingent at their upper ends. The darker streaks on the 
sides do not conform to the sutures; the middle one crosses them. Legs black. 
Wings hyaline with tawny or rufous stigma. The short brown basal streaks 
little developed except for the one at the anal angle of the hind wing, which is 
large and conspicuous. Abdomen pale on the more convex portion of the swollen 
basal segments. Elsewhere black, including appendages. 

The senior author has written of this species ('01) : 

During the first week or two of adult life, before age and pruinosity have 
obscured its remarkably fine coloration, it is a singularly beautiful insect. One 
who sees only preserved specimens would not suspect this however, for then 
faded browns have replaced the ruby red color of the males and the brilliant 
yellow of the females. I well remember with what delighted surprise I greeted 
my first specimen. It was a young male, with a brilliant red body phalerate with 
jet black, a flavescent tinge beyond the basal markings of the wings, a rich red 
brown stigma, with a touch of yellow on the costa either side of it, and a face with 
the whiteness and subopaqueness of fine china. That specimen was captured 
the last week of June; soon afterward I found plenty of them — females as well — 
about a bog pond. They were flying with Cordulia shurileffi, Dorocordulia libera, 
and Lestes eurina — a group of rare beauties. 

227. Leucorrhinia frigida Hagen 

Hag. '90, p. 231: Mtk. Cat. p. 166: Ris '12, p. 719: Walk. '13, p. 161: Howe 
'20, p. 84: Garm. '27, p. 280. 

Length 30 mm. Expanse 48 mm. Mass., Pa., Ont., Dak. to B. C. 



244 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

A dainty little white-faced species with black abdomen the base of which 
becomes pruinose blue with age. Face pale, including the whole of the frons. 
Vertex and occiput blackish, bare, shining. Thorax thinly clothed with pale 
hairs, obscurely colored, blackish in front, olivaceous on sides with darker color 
in depths of the first and third lateral sutures (vestiges of stripes 3 and 5). Legs 
black. Wings hyaline with short brown stigma and yellowish costal margin, 
conspicuously paler just beyond the stigma and on a few adjacent longitudinal 
veins. Basal black markings as in intacta. Slightly swollen basal abdominal 
segments yellow, narrowly ringed with black on carinae, becoming wholly 
pruinose blue with age. Abdomen beyond, wholly black, including appendages. 

228. Leucorrhinia proxima Calvert 

Calv. '90, p. 38: Mtk. Cat. p. 167: Wlsn. '09, p. 656: Ris '12, p. 720: Walk. '00, 

p. 420: Howe '20, p. 85: Calv. '23, p. 88: Garm. '27, p. 284. 
Length 35 mm. Expanse 56 mm. Me. and N. H. to B. C. 

This is a dainty little white faced species with obscure brownish hairy thorax 
and black abdomen. Face white with margin of labrum black. Vertex and 
occiput blackish with tawny hairs. Thorax densely clothed with similar longer 
hairs; obscure brownish in front and paler at sides with indistinct markings, only 
the hindermost of which (stripe 5) conforms to a lateral suture. A broad blackish 
area covers the lower end of the humeral suture and extends below the thorax. 
Legs black. Wings hyaline with tawny stigma followed by the usual pale streaks 
on veins and with the hinder of the basal brown streaks on the hind wing well 
developed to rearward along the membranule. Basal half of abdomen white 
hairy; the swollen basal segments mostly paler on sides, narrowly crossed with 
black on sutures, beyond which all is black, including appendages. 

229. Leucorrhinia borealis Hagen 

Hag. '90, p. 231: Mtk. Cat. p. 166: Walk. '16, p. 416: Ris '12, p. 716. 
Length 38 mm. Expanse 64 mm. Hudson's Bay 

This species was described by comparison with the European L. rubicunda 
from which it is said to differ by having a large red spot on the dorsum of ab- 
dominal segment 8. In that species spots are present on the preceding segments 
only. The species is unknown to us. 

48. Pachydiplax Brauer 

Dragonflies of medium size, olivaceous in color and striped with 
brown, becoming wholly pruinose blue with age. 

There is a wide space without cross veins before and beneath the 
stigma. The space beyond the fore wing triangle is strongly narrowed 
toward the wing margin. Vein Cui springs from the outer side of the 
triangle in the hind wing. There is but one species. 

The nymph of Pachydiplax (Ndm. '01, p. 527) is smooth and de- 
pressed of body with wide head. It has no dorsal hooks. The superior 
abdolninal appendages are one third shorter than the inferiors. 



PACHYDIPLAX 245 

230. Pachydiplax longipennis Burmeister 
The Blue Pirate 

Burm. '39, p. 850: Mtk. Cat. p. 165: Ris '11, p. 619: Kndy. '17, p. 628: Howe 

'20, p. 78: Ndm. '23, p. 130: Smn. '27, p. 36: Garm. '27, p. 277. 
Length 38 mm. Expanse (54 mm. U. S. generally 

This is a common and widely distributed species of moderate size, striped 
of body when young but becoming wholly pruinose blue with age. Face pale, 
but with top of frons and vertex shining metallic green. Occiput shining brown. 
Thorax nearly bare, brown in front with a pair of divergent narrow yellow stripes 
abbreviated above and a pair of cross streaks below the crest which join 2 very 
irregular narrow yellow antehumeral stripes; sides yellow with 3 brownish stripes 
(stripes 3, 4, 5) diminishing in breadth from front to rear, and confluent above 
at wing roots. Legs black, paler basally. Wings hyaline or tinged with smoky 
brown before the stigma, often broadly flavescent at base with brown streaks 
sometimes present in subcostal and cubital spaces of the hind wing; stigma 
brown. Swollen basal abdominal segments mostly pale at sides; dorsum of 
segments 2-8 with a pair of parallel pale streaks abbreviated at ends. 8-10 and 
appendages blackish. 

Old pruinose blue specimens look quite like old Mesothemis simplicicollis 
but are at once distinguishable by the long space without cross veins behind 
the stigma, in this species. 

Adults of this species are swift of wing and somewhat difficult to 
capture with a net. The males hover near the surface of the water, 
darting hither and thither, meeting every newcomer, perching on a 
twig and immediately quitting it; and, when 2 males meet in combat, 
they have the curious habit of facing each other threateningly, then 
darting upward together into the air and flying skyward, often until 
lost from view. 

The females are less in evidence. They rest habitually, except when 
foraging or ovipositing on trees back from the shore. When ovipositing 
over open water, they have a curious habit which I have not observed 
in other dragonflies: they do not rise and descend again between 
strokes of the abdomen against the surface of the water, but fly hori- 
zontally close to the surface and from time to time strike downward 
with the abdomen alone, presumably washing off eggs. In the midst 
of vegetation, however, they fly down and up again, as do other species. 

The nymphs clamber about among the trash, and when grown, trans- 
form within a few inches of the margin of the water, if suitable place 
be found so near; otherwise they may go a distance of several feet. 
They are smooth, generally of dark color, with little pattern of color 
showing, except in the transverse banding of the femora. 

Williamson says ('00), "This species will frequently rest on some 
twig or stem with the wings drooping and the abdomen pointing 



246 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

straight up. The object to be gained by such a position is not evident, 
for the abdomen makes a favorite mark for passing Libellulas to nip at." 

49. Mesothemis Hagen* 

These are clear winged dragonflies of moderate size and striking 
coloration. The recently emerged adults have bodies of bright green 
color, with the abdomen ringed with black. Old specimens become 
wholly hoary, pruinose blue, only the head colors remaining unchanged. 
The first named species is of wide distribution and, sometimes, locally, 
it is very abudnant. It inhabits the weed beds of clear ponds and is to 
be sought about their borders, where it flies intermittently, resting 
much on the low vegetation, or on the bare earth of some open path. 
It is not very hard to capture. It flies through the summer season, 
having a rather long period of emergence. 

The nymph of this genus (Ndm. '01, p. 527) is easily recognizable 
among allied forms by the strongly decurved inferior abdominal ap- 
pendages and by the very short, thick, stocky body with prominent 
green eyes. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES 

Adults 

1 Wings hyaline; abdomen stout simplicicollis, p. 246 

Wings with a basal brownish spot; abdomen slender 

plebeja, p. 247 

231. Mesothemis simplicicollis Say 
Green Jacket 

Say '39 p., 28: Mtk. Cat. p. 157: Whed. '14, p. 102: Ris. '11, p. 598: Howe '20, 

p. 77: Smn. '27, p. 35: Ndm. '23, p. 120: Garm. '27, p. 264. 
Length 44 mm. Expanse 68 mm. U. S., Ont. to B. C. 

A clear winged species of medium size, having a body of bright green when 
young, the abdomen ringed with black, becoming wholly pruinose blue with age. 
Face and vertex green with a transverse black stripe covering the middle ocellus. 
Thorax green, with crest and the depths of the lateral sutures narrowly lined with 
blackish. Legs black beyond coxae, front femora greenish below. Wings hyaline 
with tawny stigma. Abdomen with a middorsal line, and an apical transverse 
line that widens towards the apical segments, and an inferior lateral marginal 
line, black. Abdomen yellowish. 

This is a vigilant, if somewhat sedentary species. It squats on the 
bare ground, or on some floating logs or trash; or if on a twig, it 

• United with Erythemis Hagen, under the latter name by some authors. 



MESOTHEMIS 247 

generally selects a low perch, then it waits for suitable prey to come 
along, and darts out upon it. Many a damsel-fly is thus snapped up 
unawares. At night it hangs up among the foliage of pondside or 
roadside weeds. The female oviposits unattended making descents to 
touch the surface at points wide apart. 

Whedon says ('14): "One usually meets with it along the shores of 
lakes and ponds where it perches upon weed stems or flattens itself 
against a path, a dock or an old boat. Its voracious appetite keeps it 
continually active." This habit of squatting, Gomphus-like, was sug- 
gested by the senior author ('01) as the possible explanation of the 
long spines found on the hind femora. 

Mr. F. G. Schaupp observed at Double Horn Creek near Shovel 
Mount Texas that young (teneral) specimens of this species were com- 
monly found 500 to 600 yards distant from the stream sitting on the 
ground or on bushes, while the old (pruinose) specimens were always 
found near the water and rested on projecting stones in the stream 
bed. 

This species abundant southward, is often of local distribution, as 
shown by the following observations, of Wilson ('09, p. 667). 

In passing up the river .... 2 distinct colonies of E. simplicicollis were found. 
The first was 10 miles above Grafton (III.) where the east bank of the river was 
covered with hundreds of this species, including both sexes, while many were 
flying across the river. The other colony was 4 miles up the river, at the head 
of an island. Here the island seemed to be the headquarters from which the 
dragonflies flew out in every direction. 

Williamson ('00) notes a peculiar aerial performance: 

Two males .... flutter motionless, one a few inches in front of the other, 
when suddenly the rear one will rise and pass over the other, which at the same 
time moves in a curve downwards, backwards and then upwards, so that the 
former position of the two is just reversed. These motions kept up with rapidity 
and regularity give the observer the impression of two intersecting circles which 
roll along near the surface of the water. 

232. Mesothemis plebeja Burmeister 

Burm. '39, p. 856: Calv. '98, p. 78: Mtk. Cat. p. 158 (as verbenata): Ris '11, 

p. 603. 
Length 45 mm. Expanse 70 mm. Tex. 

A yellowish green species that becomes almost black with age. Thorax of 
teneral specimens yellowish with a broad black antehumeral stripe (stripe 2 of 
fig. 00) each side. Hind wing with a dark brown basal spot reaching the anal 
crossing. Stigma yellowish, membranule black. Abdomen yellowish with black 
carinae. Apical half of segments 4-7 and all of 8-9 black. Appendages yellowish. 



248 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

50. Lepthemis Hagen 

These are very elongate bright green clear winged dragonflies with the 
swollen base of the abdomen very much compressed, then constricted, 
then parallel and slender. The head is broad with bulging frons. The 
thorax is high and almost without color pattern. The legs are long, 
blackish and spiny. The stigma is large, surmounting little more than 
a single cell. Dr. W. T. M. Forbes reports that this big green fellow 
attacks other insects viciously, taking butterflies and other dragon- 
flies in flight almost at the mouth of the collector's net. 

The single Neotropical species barely transgresses our southern 
border. 

The nymph is unknown. 

233. Lepthemis vesiculosa Fabricius 

Fabr. 1775, p. 421: Mtk. Cat. p. 158: Ris '11, p. 607. 

Length 57 mm. Expanse 86 mm. Fla. Keys, Tex. 

A slender greenish species with long spinous hind legs. Face yellowish, 
including vertex. Thordx green, thinly clad with short tawny hairs; without 
stripes but with slightly darker shade of color about wing roots and leg bases. 
Legs black, brownish at base. Distal half of hind femur bares several extremely 
long, slender inferior spines. Wings hyaline, with tawny stigma between black 
veins. A few cells of the hind wings adjacent to membranule tinged with brown. 
The strongly swollen base of abdomen green, and a very slender portion posterior 
to it blackish with paler areas across the dorso-basal half of the middle seg- 
ments. Appendages yellowish. 

51. Dythemis Hagen 

These are slender and graceful dragonflies having the dark thorax 
striped with green and brown and the abdomen blackish. 

The wings are tinged with brown at base and apex. There are many 
antenodal cross veins, and there are but two widely separated cross 
veins under the stigma. South western species. 

The nymphs (Ndm. '92, p. 699) are smooth, mottled green and brown, 
with spine like dorsal hooks on abdominal segments 3-9. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES 

Adults 

1 Wings with only touches of brown at base and tip. .velox, p. 249 

Wings with a broad brownish basal area reaching the triangle . . . 

fugax, p. 249 



DY THE MIS 249 

234. Dythemis velox Hagen 

Hag. '61, p. 163: Mtk. Cat. p. 172: Ris '13, p. 841: Smn. '27, p. 38. 

Length 45 mm. Expanse 70 mm. Tex., N. Mex. and Calif. 

A slender blackish species with striped thorax and half ringed abdomen 
Face yellowish darkened across labrum, postclypeus and top of frons and vertex. 
Thorax brown, sinuately striped with yellow and covered with a very short, 
close, brown pubescence. Collar with a fringe of longer, paler erect hairs. Front 
of thorax with three nearly parallel pale stripes, the median one on carina narrow- 
est. Sides of thorax alternately brown and yellow in streaks, a foremost pale 
streak obscure and interrupted; the next two, entire and rather broad; the rear- 
most pale stripe nearly divided by a backward spur from the dark stripe on the 
last lateral suture (stripe 5). Legs blackish, paler only at base. Wing hyaline 
with a variable touch of brown on both extreme base and tip; stigma blackish. 
Abdomen moderately swollen on paler basal segments, blackish and slender 
beyond. Sides of 1 and 2 with narrow vertical pale stripes; side of 3 with a broad 
basal pale stripe narrowed above; dorsum of 4-7 with paired pale spots, largest 
and plainest on 7; 9, 10 and appendages blackish. 

At Double Horn Creek near Shovel Mount Texas Mr. F. G. Schaupp 
observed the habits of this species. He says of it (in litteris) : 

"It sits on tall dry stems, perching, with the hinder half of the ab- 
domen lifted high into the air. It deserves its name (velox, swift) by 
full right (it might be velocissima) . It flies off before you are near; 
but it invariably returns to the same place, even after several attempts 
have been made to catch it. It may take ten minutes for returning, 
coming into the collector's neighborhood frequently, but keeping al- 
ways at a safe distance." 

235. Dythemis fugax Hagen 
Hag. '61, p. 163: Mtk. Cat. p. 171: Ris '13, p. 839. 

Length 48 mm. Expanse 75 mm. Texas 

A fine brownish species with half ringed abdomen and basally brown-spotted 
wings. Face pale, becoming reddish with age, including frons. Thorax nearly 
bare, pubescence very short except for long, erect, pale fringe on collar. Front of 
thorax with scarcely a trace of pale stripes; sides brown, with 3 obscure pale 
stripes of which the middle one is broader, and the rear one dilated at upper 
end. Legs blackish, paler at base. Wings hyaline except for a rich brown cross 
band that extends just beyond the arculus in both wings, and a touch of brown 
on the extreme apex. Stigma black. The slightly swollen basal abdominal seg- 
ments are mostly yellow, ringed with black on the carinae; remainder of abdomen 
blackish with yellow spots. Paired pale spots of dorsum in fours on segments 
3-6; single on 7, and larger and more conspicuous. 9, 10 and appendages 
black. 



250 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

52. Brechmorhoga Kirby 

Large dragonflies of hoary appearance due to a short grayish pubes- 
cence that covers head and body. A single Sonoran species enters our 
southwestern border. Its nymph is unknown. 

236. Brechmorhoga mendax Hagen 

Hag. '61, p. 164: Mtk. Cat. p. 174: Ris '13, p. 861: Kndy. '17, p. 605, 627. 
Length 57 mm. Expanse 88 mm. Tex,, Calif. 

A rather stout grayish species with clear wings and a half ringed abdomen. 
Face yellow, including vertex, clothed with short whitish pubescence. Thorax 
clothed with a similar longer pubescence and with the erect fringe of white hairs 
on the collar. Front of thorax with 2 broad brown stripes beside the pale carina, 
abbreviated above. Sides with a broad brown stripe upon the humeral suture 
(stripes 2 and 3) and 2 additional stripes on the succeeding suture (4 and 5), 
confluent above, all on a yellow ground. Legs brown, paler at base and on front 
femora to knees externally. Wings hyaline with a short black stigma and a tinge 
of brownish on extreme base, broader on hind wings. Abdomen mostly pale on 
moderately swollen basal segments, blackish beyond; 2 and 3 narrowly annulate 
with black on carina; 3 and 7 with large diffuse, dorsal, paired spots, largest on 7. 
There is a touch of yellow at sides of 8 and 9. 10 and appendages black. 

Kennedy ('17) says of them: "These usually had short beats in the 
shade of the occasional large willow trees that grew on the gravel 
beaches." 

"The males were taken while flying on short beats over the stream. 
The female was captured while cutting S's and figure 8's through a 
swarm of small Diptera. She was indifferent to several passes I made 
at her before I succeeded in netting her. This species is the most 
graceful on the wing of any odonate with which I am familiar. Fre- 
quently they fly with a swinging mayfly-like motion. In the heat of 
the day they floated around among the tree tops." 

53. Paltothemis Karsch 

Large rusty red dragonflies with strongly tapered abdomen. The 
wings are very broad at the base and pointed at the apex. The stigma 
is rather small, its outer end a little more oblique than the inner. The 
triangle of the fore wing points inward, vein Cu being strongly bent. 
The toe of the anal loop is long and narrow. 

The nymphs (Ndm. '04, p. 699) are very smooth and very dark 
colored. There are low dorsal hooks on abdominal segments 2 to 6, 
diminishing in size to rearward. The lateral spines on 8 and 9 are short, 
sharp and straight. The teeth on the front border of the lateral lobes 
of the labium are separated by deep notches. 



PANTALA 



251 



237. Paltothemis lineatipes Karsch 

Karsch '90, p. 362: Mtk. Cat. p. 173: Ris '13, p. 846. 

Length 50 mm. Expanse 90 mm. S.W. States, Tex. 

This is a fine krge reddish, broad-winged species. Face pale, becoming reddish 
with age, including the vertex, especially in the male. Frons bare, shining. 
Thorax thinly clothed with short pale pubescence; collar with erect fringe of 
long whitish hairs. Front of thorax brown; sides with roundish spots of deeper 
brown in front of humeral suture above and below. Rearward on the olivaceous 
sides there are three stripes of brown of very irregular outline, two on the lateral 
(stripes 4 and 5) and a third (confluent below with 5) on the infero-lateral margin, 
abbreviated above. The slightly swollen basal segments of the abdomen are 
pale or rufous dorsally, and blackish ventrally, with narrow cross lines of black 
on the carinae; the slowly widened segments beyond are more extensively 
blackish with basal and apical cross streaks of deeper black; diffluent to front 
and rear towards middle of segments. Segment 10 narrower, partly pale. Ap- 
pendages obscure yellowish brown. 

54. Pantala Hagen 

These are large strong flying dragonflies of brownish coloration 
with an overcast of red when fully mature. The face is pale. The 
thorax is thinly hairy without color pattern. The wings are broad at 
base and pointed at apex with trapezoidal stigma; the markings are 
restricted to the base of the hinder pair. The abdomen is moderately 
swollen at base and there are extra transverse carinae upon segments 
2-5. The wings are extremely broad at the base and pointed at the 
apex. Veins M2 and Rs are very strongly undulate. Vein Mi at its 
outer curvature bends sharply towards M3. The straight portion of 
vein Mi at the base is very strong and borders a long patella cell, 
and the adjacent anal border is richly veined. 

The nymphs of this genus are smooth and depressed with very wide 
head and laterally prominent eyes. The abdomen has long, lateral 
spines and no dorsal hooks. The superior abdominal appendages are 
as long as the inferiors. 

Nymphs 



Species 


Length 


Lateral setae 


Mental setae 


Described by 


hymenea 
flavescens 


28 
26 


15 

12-14 


16 
15 


Kndy. '23, p. 37 
Cabot '90, p. 43, 



KEY TO THE SPECIES 
Adults 

1 Wings with a brown spot at the anal angle hymenea, p. 252 

Wings with no distinct brown spot at the anal angle 

flavescens, p. 252 



252 DRAGON FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

238. Pantala hymenea Say 

Say '39, p. 19: Mtk. Cat. p. 178: Ris '13, p. 921: Wlsn. '12, p. 194: Kndy. '23 

p. 36: Garm. '27, p. 294. 
Length 50 mm. Expanse 90 mm. Pa. to Wis. to Fla. and N. Mex. 

A handsome brown species with conspicuous basal brown spots on the hind 
wing. Face pale, becoming reddish with age, including most of frons. Occiput 
brown, bare. Thorax tawny with short pubescence of same color; no pattern of 
stripes. Legs brown except inferiorly. Wings hyaline with rufous stigma bordered 
with black veins, extreme tips touched with brown and a brown basal spot of 
form shown in figure 00. Abdomen brown narrowly cross lined with black on 
supernumerary sutures of segments 2-5, then becoming blackened on sides of 
6 and 7, and broadly so on dorsum of 8, 9, and 10. Appendages pale. 

239. Pantala flavescens Fabricius 

The Globe-skimmer 

Fabr. 1798, p. 285: Mtk. Cat. p. 177: Ris '13, p. 917: Howe '20, p. 89: Garm. 

'27, p. 293. 
Length 52 mm. Expanse 92 mm. N. Am. 

This is a fine strong flying cosmopolitan species. Face pale, including vertex, 
with a narrow black cross stripe through the middle ocellus. Occiput shining 
yellow. Thorax tawny yellow without stripes but with 3 black crescentic spots 
above leg bases. Clothed with short tawny golden pubescence. Legs yellow at 
base, black lined beyond to the wholly black tarsi. Wings hyaline with yellowish 
stigma and reddish veins; the base of the broad hind wings close veined with 
yellow. Abdomen yellowish, cross lined on the carinae of 2-5, becoming obscure 
on 6 and 7, appearing as black middorsal spots on 10. Appendages brown. 

This cosmopolitan species is reported not only from all parts of the 
globe but from nearly all varieties of habitat. Muttkowski ('08) has 
found it flying from July to September near rivers, lakes, ponds, in 
woods, and in open places. Davis ('13) has seen it flying in great 
numbers over an oat field, and has even observed a female ovipositing 
in a ditch of brackish water by the roadside. 

55. Macrodiplax Brauer 

This is a tropical genus of two species, one old world and one Ameri- 
can, the latter barely within our southern limits. The venation is 
open. Triangles open; cross veins few; antenodals seven, and a long 
vacant space before the stigma. Reverse vein extremely oblique. Two 
rows of cells beyond the triangle. Radial and median planate subtend 
one cell row in a well circumscribed series. 

240. Macrodiplax balteata Hagen 

Hag. '61, p. 140: '90. p. 383: Mtk. Cat. p. 183: Ris '13, p. 1038 

Length 37 mm. Expanse 67 mm. Tex., Fla. Keys 



TRAM E A 



253 



This is a clear winged species that has the extreme bases of the wings spotted 
with dark brown. Face olive brown with the labrum darker. Thorax reddish, 
golden brown clothed with long, thick yellowish gray hairs with traces of black 
on the humeral suture, below the spiracle, and in the depths of the third lateral 
suture. Legs obscure red brown, paler basally. Wings broad at the base and 
pointed at the apex, with dark brown spots on the extreme base, the spot on the 
hind wing larger, rounded externally, reaching almost to the triangle. Abdomen 
reddish brown also, with a diffuse blackish middorsal band on segments 2 to 7, 
greatly widened on 7. 8 to 10 and appendages black. 

56. Tramea Hagen 
The Raggedy Skimmers 

These are elegant strong flying dragonflies with conspicuous irregu- 
lar bands of brown across the base of the hind wings. The eyes are 
very large; the face is pale. The thorax is nearly uniform brown in 
color. The abdomen is much swollen on the basal segments where 
ringed with extra transverse carinae. It is strongly tapered beyond the 
base and blackened dorsally, terminating with long slender appendages. 
Wings are externally broad at base, pointed at apex. Some of the cells 
bordering vein Mi before the stigma are transversely elongated. The 
triangle of the fore wings is very narrow and followed by four rows of 
cells. The anal loop is long, narrow and sinuous. 

The ny?nphs are smooth and broadly depressed with wide heads, 
laterally prominent eyes and very long spines at the end of the abdo- 
men. There are no dorsal hooks. The teeth on the lateral lobes of the 
labium are hardly more than crenulations of the border. 

The nymphs of North American forms seem to be lacking in good 
specific characters. Three of them were rather inadequately character- 
ized by Cabot ('90, pp. 45 and 46). Recently they have been carefully 
studied by Dr. Calvert, ('28, p. 29). 




abdominal Is 



KEY TO THE SPECIES 
Adults 

1 Brown band of hind wing covering the triangle 2. 

Brown band of hind wing not covering the triangle 

abdominalis, p. 256 



254 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

2 This band surrounded by yellow Virginia, p. 254 

This band not surrounded by yellow 3. 

3 Blackish, with pale spot on seventh abdominal segment 

lacerata, p. 254 

Reddish, abdomen brown with black tips 4. 

4 Clear spot in brown of hind wing as wide as brown . . onusta, p. 254 
Clear spot in brown of hind wing very much broader than brown 

Carolina, p. 255 

241- Tramea Virginia Rambur 
Ramb. '42, p. 33: Mtk. Cat. p. 181: Ris '13, p. 978. 

Length 53 mm. Expanse 104 mm. Va.? 

Reddish brown in front above, and top of vertex brassy purple. Thorax 
obscure brownish. Legs black, paler basally. Wings hyaline with a touch of 
yellow at extreme base of front wings and basal fourth of hind wings blackish 
brown, veined with yellow and the brown surrounded with yellow and with a 
large yellowish hyaline spot upon the middle of the hind margin. Stigma brown- 
ish, membranule white. 

This species is doubtfully included here. Dr. Ris thinks the label 
"Amer. sepi.^' on the type specimen was in error. 

242. Tramea lacerata Hagen 

Hag. '61, p. 145: Mtk. Cat. p. 180: Ris '13, p. 998: Dav. '13, p. 28: Kndy. '17, 
p. 628: Howe '20, p. 88: Ndm. '23, p. 130: Smn. '27, p. 31: Garm. '27, p. 291. 
Length 52 mm. Expanse 94 mm. N. Y. and S. Dak. to Calif, and Fla. 

This is a very handsome broad winged, blackish, strong-flying species. Face 
pale, darker on labrum, metallic violet on top of frons and whole of vertex and 
occiput also metallic. Thorax scantily clothed with short whitish pubescence; 
obscure brown without distinct pattern; sides somewhat paler. Legs blackish. 
Wings hyaline, broad at base and pointed at apex with trapezoidal stigma and 
brown basal markings, as shown in figure 00. Abdomen blackish, paler on basal 
segments with an obscure yellowish middorsal spot on middle segments, plainest 
on 7. Apical segments and appendages black. 

It flies through the greater part of the season. The pairs are often 
seen coursing the borders of ponds and ovipositing in early spring, and 
in August males are seen out on upland miles from water, foraging. 
They are exceedingly difficult to capture; but the nymphs are often 
found quite abundantly and are easily reared. 

243. Tramea onusta Hagen 

Hag. '61, p. 144: Mtk. Cat. p. 181: Ris '13, p. 996: Smn. '27, p. 31: Byers '27, 

p. 72. 
Length 45 mm. Expanse 80 mm. Ohio and III. to Fla. and Calif* 



TRAMEA 255 

A fine brown species with reddish face and black spotted tip of abdomen. 
Face, including vertex, pale, becoming reddish with age; a distinct black cross 
stripe between, enclosing middle ocellus. Occiput brown. Thorax thinly hairy 
with uniform darker brown front and paler sides that show dark streaks only in 
the bottom of the lateral sutures (stripes 3 and 5). Legs brown beyond yellowish 
bases of femora; front femora pale to knees. Wings hyaline with reddish veins 
and stigma, and a brown basal, jagged spot, of form shown in figure 00. Abdomen 
pale brown with large black middorsal spots on segments 7-10; on 10 extended 
below. Appendages yellow with blackish tips. 

This is the species whose very pretty aerial egg-laying performances 
are described in our introductory chapter (see p. 26). The senior 
author had repeated opportunities for observing these at a pond near 
Laguna Beach in Southern California, Between egg-laying flights the 
adults flew constantly about the shores of the pond, in and out among 
the bulrushes, often almost, but never quite, within reach of the col- 
lectors net. Floating along on the planing surfaces of its broad hind 
wings its flight is swift and sure and very graceful. 

244. Tramea Carolina Linneus 

Linne. '63, p. 28: Mtk. Cat. p. 179: Davis '98, p. 197: '13, p. 28: Ris '13, p. 997: 

Howe '20, p. 88: Garm. '27, p. 290. 
Length 48 mm. Expanse 84 mm. Mass. to La. and Fla. 

A handsome reddish brown species with black tipped abdomen. Face pale, 
becoming darker on labrum, top of frons and vertex, with age. Occiput brown, 
hairy. Thorax rather densely clothed with pale pubescence; uniform brown in 
color, without stripes; sutures of sides indistinct. Legs brown, reddish to middle 
of femora. Wings hyaline with reddish veins and stigma, and a broad basal 
brown spot on the hind wings, of form shown in figure 00. Abdomen reddish 
brown, without color pattern basally, segments blackened towards apex, 8, 9 and 
10 being mostly black. Appendages pale, slightly darkened at tips. 

". . . . a male Tramea Carolina was flying over one of the .... 
ponds. Soon a female came and commenced dipping her abdomen 
into the water. In a moment she was seized by the male and they 
flew away. In half an hour they were back and went flying about to- 
gether, the male now and then suddenly letting go his hold and with 
equal rapidity catching the female again by the neck. Other male 
dragonflies flew after them and when the female stopped to lay eggs, 
they annoyed her considerably. The chief among the disturbers was a 
Lihellula basalts. After a time the male Tramea left his mate and she 
was quickly seized by the aforesaid Lihellula basalis, after which they 
flew about together for a considerable time. After letting go his hold 
once and flying down the pond, the L. basalis returned and seized the 
Tramea a second time." (Davis '98, p. 197.) 



256 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

245. Tramea abdominalis Rambur 

Ramb. '42, p. 37: Mtk. Cat. p. 179: Ris '13, p. 994: Howe '20, p. 88: Garm. '27, 

p. 290. 
Length 47 mm. Expanse 92 mm. Tenn. to Fla. 

This is a rather slender species with tawny thorax and red abdomen and a basal 
brown streak across the hind wing. Face pale except for a very narrow edging 
of black on the labrum, becoming reddish above. Vertex reddish. Thorax 
obscure, densely clothed with tawny hairs, without distinct color pattern. Legs 
slender, black except at base. Wings hyaline with reddish brown stigma and 
veins; the brown cross band of the hind wing extends from Cu to the hind margin; 
it is bounded externally by vein A2 and it is emarginate internally by an oval 
clear spot on the inner wing margin. Abdomen reddish, suffused with blackish 
on dorsum of segments 8, 9 and 10. Appendages black with reddish bases. 



SUBORDER ZYGOPTERA 

Damselflies 

Insects of slender stature. Head transversely elongated. Eyes wide 
apart, separated on the top of the head by more than their own 
horizontal diameter, and directed laterally. Fore and hind wings 
similar in form, folded vertically above the back when at rest (held 
obliquely upward in Lestes). Wing with a simple quadrangle instead 
of triangle and supra-triangle, and the vein Cu not sharply bent 
between the arculus and its fork. Middle lobe of labium deeply cleft. 
Male with four terminal abdominal appendages, there being a pair of 
inferiors. Female with a well developed ovipositor. 

The nymphs have three caudal gills that are more or less plate like, 
appended to the end of the abdomen, and the slender body tapers 
from the head backward. 

KEY TO THE FAMILIES 

Adtilts 

1 Antenodal cross veins numerous; wings not stalked 

Agrionidae, p. 258 

Antenodal cross veins two; wings stalked . Coenagrionidae, p. 267 

Nymphs 
1 Basal joint of antenna very long; labium with a deep and wide 

median cleft Agrionidae, p. 258 

Basal joint of antenna short; labium entire, or nearly so 

Coenagrionidae, p. 267 



257 



258 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

Family Agrionidae 

These are broad winged damselflies. The wings are not stalked (i.e. 
the membranous area behind the anal vein extends to the wing base). 
The quadrangle is long, parallel sided, and traversed by a number of 
cross veins. There are numerous antenodal cross veins. There is no 
brace vein to the stigma. The colors of the body are highly metallic. 

The nymphs are very long legged, stream inhabiting, slender creatures 
that cling to roots and trash in the edges of the current. The basal 
joint of the antenna is longer than the six succeeding segments taken 
together. The deep median cleft of the labium is diamond shaped. The 
gills are thick and ridged longitudinally. There are no raptorial setae 
on the labium. 

The adults of this family have been called the "Birds of Paradise 
amongst Odonata." In our fauna there are but two genera, separable 
as follows : 

KEY TO THE GENERA 

Adults 
1 The space before the arculus free from cross veins . . Agrion, p. 259 
The space before the arculus with cross veins . . . Hetaerina, p. 262 

Nymphs 

1 Middle lobe of labium cleft far below base of lateral lobes 

Agrion, p. 259 

Middle lobe of labium cleft only to base of lateral lobes 

Hetaerina, p. 263 



AGRION 259 



57. Aqrion Fabricius 

Syn: Calopteryx 

Black Wings 

These are elegant bronzy green damselflies with broad wings, vari- 
ously cross banded with brown. The bodies are wholly metallic green ; 
the legs are long and black and spiny. There is no color pattern except 
on the wings. The stigma is wanting in the male and very irregular in 
the female, being traversed by irregular cross veins. The wings have 
abundant venation with many short intercalated sectors between the 
principal veins towards the wing margin. The quadrangle is long and 
narrow and traversed by many cross veins. The two branches of the 
median vein are fused with Ri after their departure from the arculus. 




Fig. 43. Nymph of Agrion maculatum 



The flight of these damselflies is slow and wavering, butterfly-like, 
fluttering from one resting place to another, by the waterside. The 
female oviposits unattended. 

The nymphs (Ndm. '03, p. 224) cHng to roots and stems swaying in 
the current. They are long legged, stiff, awkward creatures that move 
but little from place to place. Two of our species have been reared : A . 
maculata, which has the basal segment of the antennae as long as the 
head is wide; and A. aequabile, which has it a third longer. Another, A. 



260 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

angustipenne supposition, differs strikingly in having the middle gill 
but three fourths as long as the lateral gills, and broadly dilated toward 
the tip. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES 

Adults 

1 Wings hyaline, not banded with brown angustipenne, p. 260 

Wings with apices only, banded with brown 2. 

Wings all brown maculatum, p. 261 

2 Apical brown bands on hind wing only amatum, p. 260 

Apical brown bands on both wings 3. 

3 Apical brown bands of two wings of equal width 4. 

Apical brown bands wider on hind than on fore wing 

aequabile, p. 260 

4 Apical bands covering one fourth of wing dimidiatum, p. 261 

Apical bands covering one sixth of wing apicale, p. 261 

246. Agrion angustipenne Selys 

Selys '53, p. 9: Mtk. Cat. p. 28. 

Syn: elegans Hag. 
Length 56 mm. Expanse 80 mm. Pa. to Ga. 

An elegant bronzy green species with shining wings faintly tinted with 
yellowish. Face green except for a yellow labrum with black front border. There 
is an oblique yellow streak below each antenna. Thorax shining metallic green 
in front, yellowish beneath, the yellow extending up the third lateral suture and 
covering the junction with the abdomen. Legs black. Costa green, stigma of 
female yellow. Abdomen all bronzy green. 

247. Agrion amatum Hagen 

Hag. '90, p. 244: Mtk. Cat. p. 28: Garm. '27, p. 111. 

Length 56 mm. Expanse 80 mm. N. H. to N. C. 

Similar to the preceding; doubtfully distinct. Differs by having a pale brown 
patch covering the apical fourth of the hind wing. The green of the dorsum 
changing to brilliant irridescent blue in certain lights. 

248. Agrion aequabile Say 

Say '39, p. 33: Mtk. Cat. p. 27: Ckll. '13, p. 173: Kndy. '15, p. 338: '17, p. 484: 

Garm. '17, p. 467: Kndy. '18, p. 406: Garm. '27, p. 109: Walk. '18, p. 410. 

Syn: virginiana Selys, Var: hudsonicum Hag., yakima Hag., coloradicum 

Ckll., californicum Kndy. 

Length 50 mm. Expanse 66 mm. Ont. and Iowa to Me. and N. Y. 

This is a broad winged species of metallic green hue with wing tips unequally 

covered with brown. Face greenish with black labrum. Antennae black. Thorax 



AGRION 261 

metallic bluish green with narrow black lines on all sutures and lines of paler 
about the wings roots and behind the leg bases. Legs black. Wings livith the 
brown areas of the tip covering one fourth of the length of the fore wing and one 
third of that of the hind wing; inner margin of the brown diffuse. Costa black; 
stigma of female white. Abdomen metallic bluish green with black appendages. 

"While often found in company with maculata, aequahilis prefers the 
larger streams, and is considerably warier and swifter of flight than its 
congener." (Walk. '08, p. 3.) 

This species "oviposits by inserting the eggs under the water in willow 
roots. She is unaccompanied by the male but remains indifferent as 
various males hover over her." (Kndy. '15, p. 338.) 

249. Agrion dimidiatum Burmeister 

Burm. '39, p. 829: Mtk. Cat. p. 28. 

Syn: cognata Ramb., syriaca Ramb. 
Length 46 mm. Expanse 54 mm. Mass., Del. to Ky., Fla. and Mich. 

A dainty little metallic greenish blue species with black wing tips. Face 
metallic with gray hair fringes and black antennae. Thorax metallic with all 
the sutures black. Venter black. Legs black. Wings with blue costa; apical 
fourth brownish black with straight, well defined inner margin; stigma of female 
white. 

250. Agrion apicale Burmeister 

Burm. '39: p. 827: Mtk. Cat. p. 29: Garm. '27, p. 111. 

Length 46 mm. Expanse 54 mm. Mass., Pa. to Mich. 

Similar to the preceding species, appearing to differ only in that the brown 
spot at the tip of the wings covers only about a sixth of their length. 

251. Agrion maculatum Beauvais 

Beauv. '05, p. 85: Mtk. Cat. p. 29: Walk. '07, p. 1: Davis '13, p. 13: Whed. '14, 
p. 90: Garm. '17, p. 469: HoU. '22, p. 117: Garm. '27, p. 112. 

Syn: virginica Westwood, materna Say, opaca Say. holosericea Burm., 
papilonacea Burm., virgo Drury. 
Length 42 mm. Expanse 64 mm. Ont. and Me. to Fla. and Tex. 

This is the common widespread species that has the wings wholly suffused 
with blackish, lustrous, shining black in the adult male, and the body wholly 
metallic green, including face and top of head. The thoracic sutures are black. 
The wings show variable small basal areas that are subhyaline. The costal edge 
is metallic; the stigma of the female is white and the general coloration paler. 

Whedon ('14, p. 90) says: "This very conspicuous damselfly is to be 
found along streams, generally the smaller ones, weakly fluttering over 
the ripples at the water's edge or perching on the vegetation within a 
foot or two of the surface. Not infrequently numbers of them rest among 



262 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

the taller grasses of the shady flood plains some distance from the water. 
Though sometimes taken about ponds they are usually much less 
plentiful there. They are especially fond of small streams over- 
shadowed by willows and wild cucumber vines." 

The flight of this familiar species is halting and irregular, butterfly- 
like, with frequent shiftings of level, up and down. Adult males resting 
on the green foliage of some drooping streamside leafy spray in the sun, 
slowly open their elegant wings, and then quickly snap them closed, 
displaying all their gorgeous reflections, as if in ecstasy. The females 
back down into the water only the length of the abdomen in laying their 
eggs, and insert them into either green herbage or soft rotten sticks, 
always where the water is flowing. 

Davis ('13) writes that it is 

Common along brooks in June, July and August and generally distributed. 
This dragonfly will fly from a twig or low plant by the brookside, catch a tiny 
insect and return to the same station again. They often come back to the same 
resting place many times in succession where they remain until some small insect 









t^ S^ 




maculatum vuinerata amerleenA 



attracts their attention and they sally forth to catch it. In this respect they 
resemble the insect-catching phoebe bird and its relatives. Though usually a 
slow flyer this species often indulges, when two males happen to meet, in a very 
rapid aerial dance and at such times their bright colors show to the best ad- 
vantage. They will advance against each other, dodge or recede, with remarkable 
rapidity and grace, but neither of the combatants ever appears to be injured. 
It seemed to be more of an endurance test. 

58. Hetaerina Hagen 

Ruby Spots 

These are beautiful, slender, bronzy brown damselflies, conspicuously 
marked in the male sex by a broad red spot at the wing base. The 
entire dorsum is bronzy brown with metallic reflections. The sides 
show narrow pale lines upon the sutures conjoined ventrally with the 
paler under side of the body. The legs are slender and spiny. Wings are 
long and narrow with the stigma well developed but small. The arculus 
is strongly aslant its sectors rise from before the middle; the quadrangle 
is arcuate convex anteriorly and vein Cua begins with a reverse curva- 



HETAERINA 263 

ture. The females differ by generally paler coloration, better developed 
stripings upon sides of thorax, little development of ruby color upon 
wing bases, and by a shorter and stouter abdomen. 

One species, H. americana, is wide ranging and variable. Four other 
Sonoran species occur on our southern border. 

The nymph (Ndm. '03, p. 227) is a long legged, sprawling creature 
that clings to the trash in the edges of the current in slow streams. The 
median lobe of the labium is cleft only to the level of the bases of the 
lateral lobes. The lateral margins of abdominal segments 7-9 end in 
small flattened lateral spines. The dorsum of the prothorax has two 
angulate teeth each side. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES (after Calvert) 
Adults (Males) 

1 Basal spots red 2. 

Basal spot of fore wing red, of hind wing brown 4. 

2 Labrum partly yellow; inferior appendage equal one half of su- 

perior 3. 

Labrum wholly black; inferior appendage equals one third of 
superior sempronia, p. 263 

3 Wings with only a small basal median spot black . vulnerata, p. 263 
Wings with black across whole base americana, p. 264 

4 Red spot of wing not bordered with brown tricolor, p. 265 

Red spot bordered with brown titia, p. 265 

252. Hetaerina sempronia Hagen 

Hag. '53, p. 45: Mtk. Cat. p. 32. 

Length 46 mm. Expanse 60 mm. Atl. Coast, Tex. 

Face metallic. Thorax dull bronze with narrow pale lines on the three lateral 
sutures conjoined below with the yellow of the under side. Wings hyaline, stigma 
black. Apex of hind wing with a large brown spot; basal spot of fore wing short, 
commencing at median vein, ending a little beyond the quadrangle; that of the 
hind wing still smaller, does not go past anal vein. Legs black. Abdomen black. 

253. Hetaerina vulnerata Hagen 

Hag. '53, p. 40: Mtk. Cat. p. 34. 

Length 48 mm. Expanse 66 mm. Ariz. 

This is a black and brown and copper bronze species with bright red wing 
bases. The face is blackish above on postclypeus and in middle of labrum at 
base; else yellow. Basal segments of antennae yellow ringed with black. Pro- 
thorax copper bronze with black bordered carinae. A pale streak narrowly 



264 DRAGON FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

bordered with black upon the humeral suture; another on the midlateral suture, 
behind which is a pale area divided by an oblique line of brown. Legs brown, 
paler beneath the femora and on the outer face of the tibiae. Wings hyaline 
with big red basal area behind the radius and beyond the quadrangle, on the 
hind wing strikingly veined with white beneath. Abdomen brown or coppery, 
blackening toward the tip, narrowly ringed on the base of segment with the pale 
color of the under side. 

254. Hetaerina americana Fabricius 
Common Ruby Spot 

Fabr. 1798, p. 287: Mtk. Cat. p. 30: Whed. '14, p. 90: Garm. '17, p. 471: Wlsn. 
'12, p. 196: Smn. '27, p. 9: Garm. '27, p. 114. 

Syn: basalts Say, scelerata Walsh, pseudamericana Walsh, californica 

Hag., texana Walsh 

Length 44 mm. Expanse 58 mm. N. Am. Generally 

A beautiful copper bronze and metallic green species with brilliant spots 
of ruby red covering both wing bases. Labrum bordered with yellow. Bases 
of antennae same color. Thorax coppery bronze with short brownish pubescence. 
Sutures black edged. Thorax beneath grayish, this color extending up the third 
lateral suture. Legs blackish with the femora beneath and the tibiae externally 
pale chocolate color. Wings hyaline with the red spot of the base covering an 
area behind the radius well out beyond the quadrangle. Stigma brown. In old 
specimens the veins of the hind wings are white beneath. Abdominal segments 
bronzy green, darkening toward the tip with narrow basal rings of gray and a 
longitudinal gray streak each side beneath. 

The female differs by having the bright color of the wing base amber yellow 
instead of red, and diffusely extended outward, and by the yellow of the sides of 
the thorax which is more extensive. 

A southern variety described by Walsh as H. texana seems to differ 
by having the pale color of the under side of the thorax extended up- 
ward along all lateral sutures and the red color of the wing bases much 
more extensive, covering the entire width of the wing and extending 
almost to the nodus. 

This charming damselfly haunts the riffles in small, clear flowing 
streams. Males are frequently seen resting on stones or on little 
islands of sand in the riffles or on drooping sprays of white grass close 
to the water's edge, furtively opening their wings now and then as if 
to give just a tantalizing glimpse of the crimson spot on their bases 
within. 

The long-legged twig-simulating nymphs crawl up the trash only a 
few inches above the surface of the water for transformation. 

It is a late season species. Kellicott ('95, p. 198) says of it: 

It is abundant along rivers and smaller streams, especially where grasses and 
shrubs overhang the water rippling over bars of pebbles and among boulders. 



HETAERINA 265 

I have not seen adults until the middle of July, but they are often numerous 
until the middle of October, and may ordinarily be found as late as the beginning 

of that month It seems it is peculiarly restricted in its range of flight. 

I have never observed one so far as a few rods away from the accustomed habitat _ 
— the water's edge. Another notable habit is that of congregating, sometimes 
in companies of hundreds. These assemblies commence in the afternoon, and do 
not disperse until the warmth of the following day awakens them to activity. 
Both sexes assemble, and they rest so compactly that I have captured seventy- 
five by one sweep of the net. The slender, drooping twigs of the willow, loaded 
with these beautiful insects, like a string of gems, present a beautiful picture. 
.... I have seen the female unattended by the male, resting on a half sub- 
merged log, or algal-laden rock, or water-weed, and thrusting the abdomen 
beneath the water, place her eggs, one by one, in the soft substance. 

One of the senior author's earliest collecting trips was made to the 
Sangamon River in Illinois. He chased the wary ruby spots up and 
down the bank with a net of pink mosquito bar, with which he was 
equipped, capturing each one with great difficulty and labor. Then 
while standing, wearied, with the net under his arm, he chanced to 
look backward over his shoulder, and there was a fine male sitting 
placidly on the rim of the net! Was the pink color a lure? He held the 
net still in front of another and lo it promptly settled on the rim. After 
that collecting was easy. The males would come and perch, almost 
inviting capture. 

255. Hetaerina tricolor Burmeister 

Burm. '39, p. 827: Mtk. Cat. p. 33: Wmsn. '12, p. 101: Wlsn. '12, p. 196. 

Syn: rupinsulensis Walsh, rupamnensis Walsh, Var: limbata Selys. 
Length 47 mm. Expanse 54 mm. 111. and Pa. to Tex. and Fla. 

This is a dainty little brownish species with red spots on the fore wing and 
brown ones on the hind. Face brown, blackening upward. Thorax coppery with 
black middle carinae and sides obscurely and diffusely paler. Legs blackish with 
the tibiae paler externally. Wings subhyaline with a red spot on the base of the 
fore wing behind the radius extending outward well beyond the quadrangle and 
reaching the hind border for most of its length. Hind wing with a brown spot 
extending from the costa rearward beyond the anal vein and outward beyond 
the quadrangle, prolonged along the radius almost to the nodus. A wash of 
brown borders the wing tip. Abdomen blackish brown, darkening on the apices 
of the middle segments and on the entire dorsum of the apical segments. Sutural 
pale rings very obscure. 

256. Hetaerina titia Drury 

Drury 1773, II p. 83: Mtk. Cat. p. 33: Garm. '17, p. 474. 

Syn: bipartita Selys 
Length 51 mm. Expanse 62 mm. Tex. and Fla. 

This is an elegant brownish slender species. Face black. Thorax bronzy black 
with narrow pale lines on the three lateral sutures, confluent below with the paler 



266 DRAGON FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

color of the under sides. Legs wholly black. Wings with the diffuse crimson spot 
covering the area about the arculus, quadrangle in the fore wing, the red sur- 
rounded by brown which extends two thirds of the way to the nodus behind 
the subcosta. On the hind wing only the veins of this same region are red; the 
membrane is brown in an irregular and variable band that extends outward 
beyond the nodus along the costa, and after a clearer portion, is diffuse over the 
entire wing tip. Tip of fore wing also is brown beyond the stigma. Abdomen in 
old species is wholly blackish. 



COENA GRIONIA DE 267 

Family Coenagrionidae 

These are narrow winged damselflies. The wings are stalked at the 
base, the anal vein for a distance forming the hind border. The quad- 
rangle is trapezoidal, its anterior side shortened, its outer hind angle 
pointed, and it is not divided by a cross vein. There are but two ante- 
nodal cross veins and there is generally a well developed brace vein 
to the stigma. 

The nymphs are slender creatures with bodies that taper to the three 
thin plate-like caudal gills. The basal segment of the antenna is not 
longer than some of the succeeding segments. The labium is entire; 
or if cleft, the cleft is short and closed. It is armed with raptorial setae. 
They are climbers on submerged vegetation and are among the com- 
monest inhabitants of all still waters. 

In our fauna we recognize two subfamilies, separable as follows : 

KEY TO THE SUBFAMILIES 
Adults 
1 Vein Mz rises nearer the arculus than the nodus; between veins 
Ms and adjacent principal veins there are short intercalary 

sectors running to the wing margin Lestinae, p. 268 

Vein Mz rises nearer the nodus than the arculus; no such inter- 
calary longitudinal veins present Coenagrioninae, p. 280 

Nymphs 
1 Gills multiarticulate, parallel sided; labium with a median closed 

cleft Lestinae, p. 268 

Gills simple with curved margins; middle lobe of labium entire. . 
Coenagrioninae, p. 282 



268 DRAGON FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

Subfamily Lestinae 

These are rather large, clear winged damselflies of very elongate 
form. The quadrangle is rather strongly inclined to rearward, and is 
so very pointed at its outer angle as to be almost triangular. Vein Mi 
rises near to the arculus. The stigma is large and well braced and sur- 
mounts two or more cells. On both sides of vein Mz there are interca- 
lated sectors in the interspaces. The colors run to browns and bronzy 
greens. 

The nymphs are slender climbing forms, with legs, antennae and 
labium of unusual length and slenderness, and with pedunculate, 
nearly parallel sided, blunt-tipped gills, that show axial subsegmenta- 
tion. The median lobe of the labium has a short closed median cleft, 
and the lateral lobe is trifid. There are raptorial setae in both, two of 
these springing from the end hook of the lateral lobe on its dorsal side. 

In our fauna there are but two genera, separable as follows: 

KEY TO THE GENERA 
Adults 
1 Vein M2 rises about one cell beyond the nodus . Archilestes, p. 268 
Vein Mi rises several cells beyond the nodus Lestes, p. 270 

Nymphs 

1 In the trifid lateral lobe of the labium the upper notch is simple 

Archilestes, p. 269 

In the trifid lateral lobe of the labium there is a serrated border 
within the upper notch Lestes, p. 273 

59. Archilestes Selys 

These are large damselflies with rather stout bodies and rather broad 
wings. The quadrangle has the front side so greatly shortened as to 
be almost in line with the outer, making an almost triangular enclosure. 
Vein M2 rises hardly more than a single cell beyond the nodus. 

This is a small genus of two southwestern and western species. 
Their habits have been observed by Kennedy and his account of A. 
californica is quoted under that species. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES 

Adults 

1 Color metallic green or brown; expanse 82 mm — grandis, p. 269 

Color dull grayish brown or grayish blue; expanse 62 mm 

californica, p. 269 



ARCHILESTES 



269 



The nymphs clamber among submerged vegetation in still waters. 
They have broad, oblong, blunt-pointed gills that show indistinct 
segmentation along their axis, and 2 bands of obscure, darker color, 
one before the middle and one broadly covering the tips. 

Nymphs 



Species 


Length 


Length of 
gills 


Lat. Set. 


Ment. 
Set. 


Described by 


grandis 
califoinica 


40 
30 


12 
10 


3 or 4 
3 


7-7 
6-7 


Ndm. '92, p. 712 
Kndy. '15, p. 268 



257. Archilestes grandis Rambur 

Ramb. '42, p. 244: Mtk. Cat. p. 36. 

Length 62 mm. Expanse 82 mm. Wash, and Calif. 

This is a fine, brownish species with yellow side stripes upon the thorax. Face 
and occiput shining brown. Top of head with scanty, hoary pubescence. Front 
of thorax black with a median, rather narrow pale stripe narrowly divided by 
the black of the carina. Another broader pale brown stripe covers the humeral 
suture. Sides black with two broad, yellow pale stripes, one behind the middle 
suture and one at the rear below. Wings hyaline or faintly tinged with brownish 
with very long stigma. Legs blackish, yellow externally and paler at base. Ab- 
domen greenish black narrowly and obscurely ringed with paler at base of seg- 
ments 2-7 and paler on sides below. Apex blackish, 9 and 10 becoming pruinose 
in age. Appendages black. 

258. Archilestes californica McLachlan 

McL. '95, p. 20: Mtk. Cat. p. 35: Kndy. '15. p. 260: Smn. '27, p. 9. 
Length 48 mm. Expanse 62 mm. Calif. 

This species seems not to differ in any constant structural characters from 
the preceding. The only differences noted by us are those stated in the key. 

This species was carefully studied by Kennedy in Oregon. He says 
of it ('15, p. 266): 

Females that possess an ovipositor insert their eggs generally in soft plant 
tissues, such as green herbaceous stems or rotten wood. The genus Archilestes, 
however, uses the stems of woody plants, such as willows and alders, and places 
her eggs high above the water. 

During August, or until active breeding began, the individuals of this species 
with wings held loosely open were usually found hanging on the leaves and stems 
on the sunny side of willow and alder bushes. Here each appeared to have its 
favorite position, from which it would fly up and out a distance of 6 to 10 feet 
from time to time to take passing insects, returning each time to its resting place. 
On being disturbed none ever hesitated to dart into the densest portion of the 



270 



DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



bush on which it rested. Many, especially tenerals, rested on grass, and such 
when attacked flew into the nearest bush. 

Even fully developed imagoes were never on the wing for any great length 
of time, seldom at any time flying more than 20 or 30 feet; but in spite of their 
apparently weak flight they were not easily taken, because a single stroke of the 
net would send all the nearby individuals into the bushes. 




Fig. 44. Archilesies californica (drawn by Kennedy). 

In capturing the female the male flies toward her while she is on the wing; 
or if she is alighted, as is the usual case, she flies up to meet him, when he first 
seizes her head with his feet, then, bending his abdomen forward, seizes her 
prothorax with the claspers on the tip of his abdomen. 

While ovipositing the pair are remarkably indifferent to enemies as both can 
be easily picked up by the hand. 

Though I watched carefully I found only one place along the creek where 
ovipositing took place. This was in the alders and willows along a scum-covered 
stagnant pool of the creek. This was fringed by a thick growth of Juncus and 
Scirpus, on the smooth stems of which were found many exuviae of ArchUestes. 

60. Lestes Leach 

ese are elongate damselflies of rather large size. The wings are 
held obliquely upward and backward in repose, and are hyaline with 



LESTES 271 

a large stigma which has a good brace vein. Vein M2 rises several cells 
beyond the nodus. The abdomen is very long and slender. 

This is a cosmopolitan genus well represented in our fauna. The 
adults fly little over open water but seek the seclusion of marshes or 
the closer vegetation of reed choked streams. In the midst of their 
shadowy environment they are difficult to see when at rest but they are 
easy to capture when they are discovered. Our species are closely allied. 
The males are separable as follows: 

KEY TO THE SPECIES* 

Adults 
1. Males 

1 Inferior appendages longer than the superiors . . . inequalis, p. 275 
Inferior appendages shorter than the superiors 2. 

2 Inferiors less than one-half the length of the superiors 3. 

Inferiors more than one-half the length of the superiors 4. 

3 Wings flavescent. Dorsum of thorax metallic green 

eurinus, p. 275 

Wings clear. Dorsum of thorax dark brown .... congener, p. 275 

4 Inferiors sigmoid, roughly S-shaped; their apices curved in an 

opposite direction to the superiors 5. 

Inferiors not sigmoid; their apices curved, if at all, in the same 
direction as the superiors 6. 

5 Inferiors stout. Superiors with the mesal margin roughly denticu- 

late, following the basal tooth. Dorsum of thorax dark brown 

unguiculatus, p. 276 

Inferiors slender. Superiors with mesal margin not visibly denti- 
culate following the basal tooth. Dorsum of thorax pale with 
metallic green spots on either side, or entirely dull black in old 
age Sigma, p. 277 

6 Superiors with a distinct basal and apical tooth on the mesal mar- 

gin 7. 

Superiors with a distinct basal tooth only, followed by a serrated 
margin of greater or less development 10. 

7 Basal tooth of the mesal margin of the superiors, longer than the 

tooth of the apical third 8. 

Basal tooth of the mesal margin of the superiors as long as or 
distinctly shorter than the tooth of the apical third 9. 

* Prepared by C. Francis Byers. 



272 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

8 Superior appendages smooth, at least part way between the teeth 

vidua, p. 277 

Superior appendages serrated between the teeth 

forcipatus, p. 277 

9 Metapleural suture with a black stripe. Length 32-37 mm 

disjunctus, p. 278 

Metapleural suture without a black stripe. Length 50-52 mm. . . 
rectangularis, p. 278 

10 Inferior appendages boot shaped, little expanded at the base. 

Serrations of the mesal margin of the superiors in approxi- 
mately a straight line 11. 

Inferior appendages not boot shaped, sides nearly parallel, base 
noticeably expanded. Serrations of the superiors expanded near 
the apical third, or absent in vigilax 12. 

11 Color metallic green, abdomen 26-28 mm. long., .uncatus, p. 278 
Color black, abdomen 30-34 mm. long stultus, p. 279 

12 Dorsum of thorax and abdomen metallic green. Inferiors long 

and very slender. Mesal border of superiors undulating but 

not serrated vigilax, p. 279 

Dorsum of thorax black or pale blue with metallic green spots or 
stripes on either side. Mesal border of superiors deeply serrated 
13.* 

13 Rear of head black, yellow around the occipital foramen. Dorsum 

of thorax black alacer, p. 279 

Rear of head yellow, dorsum of thorax pale blue with green spots 
forficula, p. 280 

2. Females 

1 Dorsum of thorax metallic green or with metallic green spots or 

streaks on a pale background 2. 

Dorsum of thorax black or dark brown 7, 

2 Wings flavescent eurinus, p. 275 

Wings clear 3. 

3 Rear of head (occupit and postgenae) pale 4. 

Rear of head black 6. 

4 Dorsum of the thorax metallic green. Abdomen 38-40 mm. long, 

hind wings 28 mm. long inequalis, p. 275 

Dorsum of thorax pale with a metalhc green stripe or black spot 
on either side. Length of abdomen 32-35 mm., of hind wings 
22-24 mm 5. 

* L. simplex doubtfully recorded from Texas (Calv. '01, p. 48)is not included 
in this book (near alacer). 



LESTES 273 

5 Each mesepisternum with a small, superior, antehumeral black 

spot (young), or entirely black (old age) sigma, p. 277 

Each mesepisternum with a metallic green stripe one-fifth to one- 
eighth as wide as the mesepisternum itself forficula, p. 280 

6 Basal half of the first abdominal segment yellow. Stigma always 

surmounting less than three cells. Length approximately 35 

mm uncatus, p. 278 

Basal half of the first abdominal segment black. Stigma usually 

surmounting three or more cells. Length 43-47 mm 

vigilax, p. 279 

7 Metepimeron with a black spot on its lower anterior edge, just 

above and sometimes below the latero- ventral carina 8. 

Metepimeron not so marked 9. 

8 A black spot on the lower apical angle of abdominal segments 

3-8, which is not connected with the dorsal black 

stultus, p. 279 

Lower apical angles of abdominal segments 3-8 pale, without 
black spots, or if present broadly connected with the black of 
the dorsum congener, p. 275 

9 Rear of head yellow. Abdomen with a greenish tint 

unguiculatus, p. 276 

Rear of head black or dark brown. Abdomen never with a greenish 
tint 10. 

10 Tarsi black above 11. 

Tarsi with more or less pale yellow above. Length 47 mm 

rectangularis, p. 278 

11 Southern species alacer, p. 279 

Eastern and Northern species 12. 

12 Length approximately 41 mm forcipatus, p. 277 

Length approximately 35 mm disjunctus, p. 278 

13 Unknown vidua, p. 277 

3. Nymphs* 

1 Lateral setae 4-5. Mentum of labium broad at its proximal end ; 
its narrowest width equal to about one-third its width at the 

bases of the lateral lobes congener. 

Lateral setae normally three. Mentum of labium narrow at its 
proximal end; its narrowest width equal to about one-fifth to 
one-eighth its width at the bases of the lateral lobes 2. 

* Based in part on illustrated key of Howe ('21, p. 107). 



274 



DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



Lateral spines present on abdominal segments 2-, or 3-9. Gills 
not sharply pointed vigilax. 

Lateral spines present on abdominal segments 4-, or 5-9 3. 

Lateral spines present on segments 4-9. Mentum from five and 
one-half to five and three-fourth millemeters long. Mental 
setae 7 or 8. Hind femora 6 mm. long, outer wing pad 6.5 mm. 
long eurinus. 

Lateral spines on segments 5-9. Mental setae usually 5-6, often 
7. Hind femora less than 6 mm. long, outer wing pads 5.5 mm. 
long or less 4. 

Mentum of labium more than 4.2 mm. long, reaching generally to 
the apex of the hind coxa or beyond. Ovipositor extending 
beyond hind margin of segment 10 5. 

Mentum of labium 3.7-4.2 mm. long, rarely reaching beyond the 
middle of the hind coxa. Ovipositor just reaching the hind 
margin of 10 6. 

Mentum of labium 4.3-5.1 mm. long, reaching the apex of the 
hind coxa or slightly beyond. Ovipositor 3-3.5 mm. long, ex- 
tending just beyond the basal joint of the gills uncatus. 

Mentum of labium 4.75-5.5 mm. long, reaching beyond the apex 
of the hind coxa often to the apex of the trochanters. Ovipositor 
2 mm. long, and extending very little beyond the hind margin 
of 10 disjunctus. 

Mental setae Normally 5 rectangularis. 

Mental setae Normally 6-7 forcipatus. 

Nymphs* 







Lat. 








Species 


Length] 


spinest 


Lat.Set.^ 


Ment. Set.^ 


Described by 


congener 


20+9 


5-9 


4-5 


7 


Walk. '14, p. 191 


disjunctus 


19+9 


5-9 


3 


5-6 


Walk. '14, p. 196 


eurinus 


25 + 11 


4-9 


3 


7-8 


Walk. '14, p. 192 


forcipatus 


17+9 


5-9 


3 


6-7 


Walk. '14, p. 196 


rectangularis 


20+9 


5-9 


3 


5 


Ndm. '03, p. 231 


stultus 


22 + 12 


5-9 


3 


7 


Kndy. '17, p. 487 


uncatus 


23+9 


5-9 


3 


5-6 


Walk. '14, p. 195 


unguiculatus 


23+8 


5-9 


3 


7 


Ndm. '03, p. 233 


vigilax 


22 + 10 


2 or 3-9 


3 


5 


Walk. '14, p. 198 



•forficula: 18+9 
t Length of body + gills.. 
t Of abdomen on segments. 
i Of labium. 



5-9 



Calv. '28, p. 8. 



LESTES 275 

7 Segment 9 with 8-13 spinules on lateral carina (Cosmopolitan) . . 

unguiculatus. 

Segment 9 with 12-13 spinules on lateral carina (Western) 

stultus. 

259. Lestes inequalis Walsh 

Walsh '62, p. 385: Mtk. Cat. p. 38: Garm. '17, p. 487 and '27, p. 102. 

Length 50 mm. Expanse 58 mm. Me. to 111. to Tenn. and N. C. 

This is a fine big metallic green species with a bright yellow labrum, the 
external edge of which is black, fringed with white hiars. Top of head shining 
green as is the front of the thorax except for the black carina. Sides of thorax 
yellow below the mid-horizontal line, with only the third lateral suture faintly 
darker. Legs blackish, lined with yellow externally. Abdomen bronzy green 
above, and yellow at sides of basal segments; 8 and 9 becoming pruinose. Ap- 
pendages black; inferiors remarkably long, incurved and tufted with tawny 
hairs. 

260. Lestes eurinus Say 

Say '39, p. 36: Mtk. Cat. p. 37: Garm. '17, p. 482 and '27, p. 99. 
Length 47 mm. Expanse 58 mm. Mass. and Pa. to 111. and Wis. 

This is a handsome bronzy green species with bluish reflections. Face pale 
green below the interclypeal suture; metallic blue green above. Front of thorax 
metallic with only the carinae black. Sides of same color above, but with a 
row of five yellowish spots below, separated by blackish. Venter yellow. Legs 
blackish externally lined with yellow; paler basally. Tarsi blackish. Wings 
hyaline, a little tinged with yellowish. Abdomen bronzy green, yellowish at 
extreme base and on side of 2, and with a narrow basal ring dilated below on 
some of the middle segments. Apex darker. Appendages black. 

261. Lestes congener Hagen 

Hag. '61, p. 67: Mtk. Cat. p. 37: Kndy. '15, p. 339: Garm. '17, p. 479 and '27, p. 

97. 
Length 37 mm. Expanse 43 mm. B. C. and Tex. to Ont. and Del. 

This is a rather small blackish brown species. The front of the thorax is 
blackish with metallic reflections and with a narrow, median line and a narrow 
stripe each side of obscure yellow. Sides yellow with a blackish stripe that is 
dilated at the wings. Under surface yellow. Legs yellowish; femora and tibiae 
with lateral line of black. Abdomen blackish with a yellowish crescent upon the 
base of each segment. 

"A pair was seen ovipositing The male was holding the 

female and she had her abdomen looped up as does the female of 
Archilestes and was placing eggs in a small willow stem about 2 inches 
above the surface of the water." (Kndy. '15, p. 339.) 



276 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

Montgomery ('25, p. 383) writes: 

Williamson and I observed a pair ovipositing in a stem of Scirpus fluviatilis. 
The pair moved down the stem depositing eggs at short intervals. The female 
was observed to straighten out her abdomen after each egg was inserted in the 




Inaequall 



tissue of the plant. After the pair had moved down the stem several inches in 
this manner, they walked up the stem about a foot and began the process over 
again. This move was carried out in perfect unison; .... A section of the plant 
containing eggs was brought to the laboratory and examined under the micro- 
scope. The eggs were inserted at intervals of 1^-4 mm. and pointed downward 
at an angle of about 45 with the surface of the stem. Most of them were inclined 
either slightly to the right or to the left, from the plane passing through the line 
of punctures and the center of the stem. 



262. Lestes unguiculatus Hagen 

Hag. '61, p. 70: Mtk. Cat. p. 40: Davis '13, p. 14: Whed. '14, p. 91: Garm. '17, 

p. 494 and '27, p. 105. 
Length 36 mm. Expanse 40 mm. N. S. and N. J. to N. D. and Calif. 

Labrum yellowish; the face blackish above. Front of thorax brassy black, 
yellow on carinae with an isolated stripe, abbreviated both above and below, 
bordering the humeral suture in front. Sides of thorax yellow with a very broad 
stripe covering and extending rearward from the third lateral suture, and 
widened upward. Before its lower end there are some black spots about the leg 
bases. Legs black, lined with yellow externally on femora and tibiae. Abdomen 
greenish black with yellow side margins on all middle segments: apical segments 
becoming darker: appendages black at tip. 

This species is oftenest seen sitting on the vertical stems of bul- 
rushes, from whence it makes sudden dashes at passing Diptera. It 
eats them, sitting. 

(Whedon '14, p. 91) says "It is an inhabitant of pond and small lake 

regions and is very seldom seen about streams It seems clear 

that great numbers of this species migrate from pond to pond or lake 
to lake during the breeding period; ovipositing for a day or so at each 
stopping place. Incomputable myriads." 



LESTES 277 

263. Lestes sigma Calvert 

Calv. '09. p. 96: Mtk. Cat. p. 39. 

Length 41 mm. Expanse 44 mm. N. Mex. and Tex. 

A rather pale southern species of medium size. Face pale, becoming black 
above with age. Thorax yellowish with a small superior metallic green spot 
and an isolated green stripe, becoming pruinose black with age. Femora pale 
lined with black; tibiae pale externally; tarsi black. Abdomen greenish, blacken- 
ing with age. Middle segments with basal blue rings interrupted on the middle 
line. Side margins of 3-7 blue. Apical segments and appendages black. 

264. Lestes vidua Hagen 

Hag. '61, p. 69: Mtk. Cat. p. 40. 

Length 39 mm. Expanse 45 mm. La. 

This is a small blackish species. The face is a drab color below the inter- 
clypeal suture, plainly clothed with long white bristles. Head black above. 
Front of thorax black with a narrow brown line on the carina and a broader 
one at the humeral suture, widest in the middle. Sides of thorax blackish above, 
yellow beneath with a stripe on the third lateral suture that is confluent above 
with the black about the wing roots. Legs brownish, paler basally. Interalar 
area densely pruinose. Abdomen obscure blackish with greenish reflections on 
middle segments. Pale side margins on basal segments. Appendages black-tipped 
and scantily clothed with short, tawny hairs. 

265. Lestes forcipatus Rambur 

Ramb. '42, p. 246: Mtk. Cat. p. 37: Garm. '17, p. 485 and '27, p. 100. 

Syn: hamatus Hag. 
Length 37 mm. Expanse 47 mm. N. D. and B. C. to Me. and Ga. 

This is a blackish species of moderate size. The face is greenish below the 
interclypeal suture; blackish above. The front of the thorax is black with carinae 
narrowly yellow; narrow yellow humeral stripes interrupted above. The sides 
are blackish above to the roots of the fore wing; yellowish below with a rather 
broad and irregular stripe broadly overspreading the third lateral suture. Legs 
blackish paler at base and lined with yellowish externally. Abdomen blackish 
above with greenish reflections; yellowish on sides of three basal segments in- 
feriorly, and to a less extent on some of the middle segments. Apical segments 
black; 9 and 10 becoming a little pruinose with age. Appendages blackish. 

Common about "rivers and small lakes" (Mtk. '08, p. 70). 

The flight of this species is weak, low halting and indirect. It 
keeps to the cover of the sedges and tall grasses and perches on the 
sides of bare vertical stems and leaves. The female, attended by the 
male, oviposits commonly in submerged grass blades. Transformation 
occurs just above the water, mostly on vertical green stems. 

The nymph perches lightly on its long stilt-like legs with gills out- 
spread, but is singularly hard to see because of its protective coloration. 



278 



DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



It darts aside and dodges with the utmost agiUty, aided by side strokes 
of the broad gills. It undergoes extensive color changes with age and 
with ecdj^sis. Its food seems to be mainly the larger entomostraca and 
mayfly nymphs. 

266. Lestes disjunctus Selys 

Selys '62, p. 302: Mtk. Cat. p. 37: Garm '17, p. 482 and '27, p. 98. 
Length 34 mm. Expanse 40 mm. N. S. and N. C. to Wis. and Calif. 

This is a small blackish species with greenish face and greenish stripes upon 
the thorax. Front of thorax black with carina narrowly green and a broader 
greenish humeral stripe. Sides black becoming pruinose below with age, with 
an oblique "?" in green upon the middle. Legs yellowish with blackish stripes 




vidua 



f orolpatus 



disjunctus rectangularis I * uncatua 



and with black lines on sides of tibiae and tarsi. Abdomen blackish with the 
sides of the middle segments greenish, the pale color extending upward on the 
extreme base of each of these segments. Apical segments blackish becoming 
pruinose with age. Appendages black-tipped with a few whitish apical and 
basal hairs. 

267. Lestes rectangularis Say 

Say '39, p. 34: Mtk. Cat. p. 38: Garm. '17, p. 489 and '27, p. 103. 
Length 49 mm. Expanse 49 mm. Me. and N. C. to N. D. 

A rather elongate, slender species. The labrum is green, fringed with long 
bristling hairs. The thorax is black in front with carinae yellow and an ante- 
humeral stripe that widens downward and is confluent around the isolated lower 
end of a broad, black stripe. A yellow figure 7 interrupts this stripe above, just 
below the wing roots. Some blackish marks follow the wing crest to rearward, 
but the sides beneath are wholly yellow, the second stripe of the sides being 
wanting. Legs yellow; sides of femora and front of tibiae lined with black. 
Abdomen very long and slender; brown above with black apical saddle marks 
on segments 1-6, becoming diffuse rearward; 8-10 mostly black above. Side 
margins of 1-8 yellowish; 9 with two included yellow spots and 10 mostly yellow. 
Tips of appendages black, tufted with golden hairs. 

268. Lestes uncatus Kirby 

Kirby '90, p. 160: Mtk. Cat. p. 39: Kndy. '15, p. 324: Garm. '17, p. 492 and '27, 
p. 104: Ndm. '27, p. 20. 

Syn: hamata Selys 
Length 40 mm. Expanse 42 mm. N. S. and Pa. to Calif, and B. C. 



LESTES 



279 



This is a metallic green species with sides of the body yellow. Labrum 
yellowish. Face and top of head blackish. Front of thorax brilliant metallic 
green with black carina. Sides of thorax metallic green above, yellowish beneath 
with an obscure blackish stripe (that becomes pruinose with age) bordering the 
third lateral suture. Legs blackish, lined with yellow externally; tarsi black. 
Abdomen metallic green, becoming black on the third apical segment; the middle 
segments very narrowly ringed with yellowish. Appendages black. 

"Common about stagnant alkaline pools." (Kndy. '15, p. 324.) 



269. Lestes stultus Hagen 

Hag. '61, p. 67: Mtk. Cat. p. 39: Kndy. '17, p. 484. 

Length 40 mm. Expanse 46 mm. Calif. 

This is a blackish species with yellowish sides. The labrum is pale blue. The 
top of the head is black. The front of the thorax is black except for a narrow pale 
line on the carina. There is a narrow pale stripe bordering the humeral suture 
in front. The sides of the thorax are pale with an irregular blackish line on the 
third lateral suture and isolated spots below it on the inferior margin. Legs 
pale with external black stripes to the knees and internal black stripes on the 
tibiae; tarsi black. Abdomen black above with greenish reflections; yellow at 
sides, less broadly on the terminal segments. Superior appendages black; in- 
feriors pale. 

270. Lestes vigilax Hagen 

Hag. '62, p. 306: Mtk. Cat. p. 40: Whed. '14, p. 91: Garm. '17, p. 496 and '27, 

p. 107. 
Length 47 mm. Expanse 54 mm. Mass. and Pa. to N. D. 

This is a fine, metallic green species of medium size. Face is obscure yellow- 
ish, black above. Front of thorax bronzy green with the narrow pale line on 
the carina and another on the humeral suture. Side green above, pale beneath, 
becoming densely pruinose with age. Legs blackish; darker towards the joints 
paler basally. Abdomen bronzy green dorsally, and yellowish at sides; more 
broadly towards the base. Segment 1 pruinose; terminal segments blackish. 
Appendages black-tipped. 






alacer 



f orf icula 



271. Lestes alacer Hagen 

Hag. '61, p. 67: Mtk. Cat. p. 36. 
Length 39 mm. Expanse 42 mm. 



Tex., N. Max. and Ariz. 



280 



DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



This is a blackish damselfly of the southwest. The front of the thorax is 
black; the sides are paler, obscure, with a broad brownish middle band. The legs 
are yellowish with blackish tarsi. Femora and tibiae with black lines upon the 
sides. Appendages blackish with sides yellow inferiorly. Appendages black. 



272. Lestes forficula Rambur 

Ramb. '42, p. 246: Mtk. Cat. p. 38. 

Length 40 mm. Expanse 39 mm. Tex. 

This is a blackish southern species. Face pale inferiorly. Front of thorax 
bluish each side of the bronzy green stripe that is margined with black. Sides 
blackish becoming pruinose with age. Legs yellowish with black lines on femora 
and tibiae. Abdomen brassy black, middle segments ringed with paler at their 
joinings; end segments becoming pruinose. Appendages black. 

Subfamily Coenagrioninae 

These are the smallest of the damselflies. They are mostly clear 
winged forms, and not very long legged. Vein M3 rises nearer the nodus 
than the arculus. The stigma is short, surmounting hardly more than 
a single cell. There are no intercalary sectors in the spaces either side 
of vein Af 3. The colors run to black and blue and red. 

The nymphs are slender, mostly greenish forms that clamber among 
submerged vegetation. The middle lobe of the labium is entire. The 
lateral lobes have not more than two end hooks, oftenest but one with 
a serrated margin above it. The gills are non-segmented in form, 
generally lanceolate, pointed, with raptorial setae, but with none 
springing from the movable hook. The genera and species are numerous 
and closely allied. They may be separated as follows: 




KEY TO THE GENERA* 
Adults 
1 Vein Cui only three cells long; Cih rudimentary. Neoneura, p. 283 
Veins Cui and Cih well developed 2. 

* Omits the South American genus Oxyagrion, one species of which was once re- 
ported from the coast of California. (Mtk. Cat. p. 53) 



COENAGRIONINAE 281 

2 Spines of the tibiae long, generally twice as long as the intervening 

spaces 3. 

Spines of the tibiae short, hardly longer than the intervening 
spaces 5. 

3 Two rows of cells between vein Cui and the hind margin 

Hyponeura, p. 284 

One cell row between vein Cu2 and the hind margin 4. 

4 Vein Cih four or five cells long Argiallagma, p. 302 

Vein Cu2 ten or more cells long Argia, p. 286 

5 No pale post ocular spots on head 6. 

With pale post ocular spots on head 10. 

6 Body (mature) black and red, at least in the males; rather short 

and stout 7. 

Body not black and red; more slender 9. 

7 Hind wing with the costal side of the stigma shorter than the 

radial side Hesperagrion, p. 303 

Hind wing with the costal side of the stigma not shorter than the 
radial side 8. 

8 No ventral spines on abdominal segment 8 of female; male su- 

perior appendages bifid Amphiagrion, p. 304 

With a ventral spine on abdominal segment 8 of female; male 
superior appendages entire Telebasis, p. 305 

9 Body metallic green above; very slender; length about an inch 

Nehalennia, p. 306 

Body blue and black above ; larger and more robust 

Chromagrion, p. 309 

10 Stigma in fore and hind wing of male similar 11. 

Stigma in fore and hind wing of male dissimilar 15. 

11 One or both wings generally stalked to the anal crossing; abdomen 

very long (32-36 mm.) Teleallagma, p. 309 

Wrings not stalked as far out as the anal crossing 12. 

12 Costal side of stigma shorter than the radial side 

Hesperagrion, p. 303 

Costal side of stigma not shorter than the radial side 13. 

13 No ventral spine on abdominal segment 8 of female 

Coenagrion, p. 310 

With ventral spine on abdominal segment 8 of female 14. 



282 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

14 Last abdominal segment of male with no bifid process 

Enallagma, p. 311 

Last abdominal segment of male with a bifid dorsal process 

Zoniagrion, p. 342 

15 Fore wing stigma of male bordered by the costa; hind tibia of 

female with external black stripe Ischnura, p. 342 

Fore wing stigma of male removed from costal margin ; hind tibiae 
of female wholly pale Anomalagrion, p, 357 

Nymphs* 

1 Gills half as broad as long: no mental setae 2. 

Gills not more than one third as broad as long: mental setae 

present 3. 

2 Lateral setae 1-4 Argia, p. 286 

Lateral setae (occasionally 1) H3T)oneura, p. 284 

3 Hind angles of head angulate 4. 

Hind angle of head rounded 5. 




Fig. 45. The nymph of Amphiagrion. 

4 Gills widest in middle, one third as broad as long 

Amphiagrion, p. 304 

Gills widest toward the distal end, one sixth as broad as long . . , 
Chromagrion, p. 309 

5 Mental setae 1 or 2 6. 

Mental setae 3 or more 7. 

6 Mental setae 1 — Nehalennia, p. 306 

Mental setae 2 8. 

* From Guide to the Study of Fresh-water Biology, by James G. Needham 
and Paul R. Needham. 



NEON EUR A 283 

7 Lateral setae 6-7 Telebasis, p. 305 

Lateral setae 4-5 Enallagma, p. 313 

8 Lateral setae 6-7 9. 

Lateral setae 4-5 12. 

9 Gills tapering to a slender point 10. 

Gills rather bluntly pointed 11. 

10 Length without gills 18 mm Teleallagma, p. 309 

Length without gills 11-13 mm Ischnura, p. 342 

11 Tip of gills obtusely angled Coenagrion, p. 310 

Tip of gills rounded Hesperagrion, p. 303 

12 No lateral spines on terminal abdominal segments 

Anomalagrion, p. 357 

With lateral spines on terminal abdominal segments 13. 

13 Gills tapering to a slender point 14. 

Gills ending in an acute angle Enallagma, p. 313 

14 Side of abdomen fringed with long hairs Zoniagrion, p, 342 

Sides of abdomen not fringed with long hairs. . . Ischnura, p. 342 

61. Neoneura Selys 

These are slender blackish damselflies rather strikingly marked with 
reddish yellow, the amount of blackening increasing with age. They 
will be instantly recognized by the brevity of the branches of the 
cubital veins, Cui being but 3 cells long and Cui a rudiment. 

The nymph is unknown. These are tropical American damselflies 
of which the following species enter our borders. 

273. Neoneura aaroni Calvert 

Calv. '03, p. 139: Mtk. Cat. p. 72: Wmsn. '14, p. 446: Kndy. '17, p. 289. 
Length 29 mm. Expanse 36 mm. Tex. 

This single member of a large tropical genus has been taken as yet only in 
southern Texas. Face pale with blackish dots on the postclypeus and labrum. 
Top of head brown becoming red with age. Front of thorax with a pair of narrow 
blackish stripes bordering the middorsal carina, narrow and interrupted in 
younger specimens; a broad blackish area covering the humeral region that 
varies with age from a shadowy line to a broad, dark band. Legs yellowish with 
black lines on femora and tibiae, the blackish portion becoming pruinose with 
age. Abdomen blackish above, yellowish beneath with lateral basal, narrow 
rings at joinings of segments 3-6. 8 and 9 obscure. 

WilUamson ('14, p. 446) writes of it as follows: "a small lot of drift 
debris on one side of a relatively deep pool in a small stream on the 



284 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

right bank of the river From the drift the Neoneura flew out 

to hover motionless above the deep water of the pool. As the collector 
approached they would disappear, leaving him to guess at the direction 
of their flight. I have collected several species of Neoneura and 
the flight and actions of all have been similar. Their agility must 
be seen to be appreciated. And almost invariably they have been found 
about deep pools in small streams with drift or overhanging bushes near 
at hand." 

62. Hyponeura Selys 

Rather large and heavily built, clear winged damselflies with stout 
spiny legs. The thorax is strongly bulged above the bases of the fore 
legs. The stigma of the wings is rather large, surmounting two entire 
cells. The quadrangle is very short and broad, especially in the fore 
wing. 

The nymph is a rather large, dark colored climber with very thick 
gills; the paired ones with heavy midlateral external ridges. The labium 
generally lacks raptorial setae; occasionally there is a single lateral one. 

This Sonoran genus which enters our southwest border is represented 
by the following species: 

274. Hyponeura lugens Hagen 

Hag. '61, p. 95: Mtk. Cat. p. 44: Smn. '27, p. 11. 

Length 42 mm. Expanse 64 mm. N. Mex. and Ariz. 

This is a stout bodied bluish species that varies very much in depth of colora- 
tion. Face in young specimens is of a light tan color, paler in labrum, becoming 
wholly black with age. Thorax bluish green with a black carina, developing, when 
a little older, narrow black stripes as follows; a narrow pale pair on the front, 
rather close to the carina; a very narrow line on the humeral suture; a broader 
but incomplete one on the yellow area behind it, narrowly connected below with 
the black spot above the base of the fore leg; a short stripe on upper end of mid- 
lateral suture and a complete line on the third lateral suture, these connected 
at the wing roots. Thorax, in old males, wholly black, pruinose. Legs yellowish, 
blackish about the knees, darkening with age. Abdomen stout; two submedian, 
dorsal, black streaks are narrowly connected near apex of all middle segments. 
Paler color more extensive on end segments. Appendages pale. 

63. Argia Rambur. 

By C. Francis Byers 

Argia is a very complex genus, found chiefly in the American tropics 
but represented in our limits by 18 species. Unlike most of the damsel- 
flies, they seem to have a pronounced distaste for vegetation. The 
imagoes are to be found commonly flying very low above hard clay 



ARGIA 285 

roads, or in the open spaces of fields and woods that are devoid of 
vegetation. They thus frequently wander far inland from water and 
are to be found in and around houses in towns and villages. The author 
saw his first Argia fumi'pennis on a pipe organ in a Church in a small 
Florida town. The females in ovipositing seem to prefer floating chips, 
boards, etc., to vegetation. Many females will congregate on such 
floatsam and, clinging to the edges of it, will deposit their eggs by 
thrusting the ovipositor as far under water as possible. The emerging 
nymphs seem also to have this marked distaste for vegetation. For 
when they leave the water to transform they will, when ever possible 
crawl up the hard surfaces of stones, piers, logs, bare banks, etc. 
rather than green plants. 

In some species the male accompanies the female in ovipositing and 
when she submerges he goes with her. A few species of Argia are to 
be found in the deep vegetation along the banks of rivers and streams. 
All Argias are extremely nervous. They remain but a little time at 
rest, and are continually darting hither and yon, seemingly never 
content to remain inactive. 

The males divide sharply into two general color groups: One, the 
"light group," having the body predominantly pale in color (gray, 
blue, violet or purple) with the black reduced to spots, streaks, or 
narrow bands. The other, the "dark group" having the body pre- 
dominantly black or dark brown, the pale colors being yellow or light 
brown. Argia hipundulata is however, an intermediate between these 
two groups, having the abdomen light and the thorax and the head 
dark. The females of Argia do not fall into this same grouping, almost 
all of them have the pale colors predominating on some part of the 
body at least. 

The postocular spots are either well defined in the dark group, or 
broadly merged into the general pale color of the head in the light 
group. The color pattern of the abdomen is of some value in the 
separation of species. The coloration of the thorax is of special in- 
terest in Argia, especially in the males, varying as it does according 
to age, geographic distribution, and, probably, climate and altitude. 
In general there are six types of thoracic color patterns, (all with their 
various modifications), as shown in the accompanying figure. 

Structurally, Argia can be separated from the other genera of the 
Coenagrioninae, by the long spines on the tibia, which are at least twice 
as long as the spaces separating them; and by the larger number of 
them (10 or more). 

The male superior and inferior abdominal appendages are very small 



286 



DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



and hard to observe, but of very great importance taxonomically as 
are also the mesostigmal plates (laminae) of the females. Figures of 
both are given with the descriptions that follow. 

The nymphs of Argia are usually recognizable at a glance by reason 
of their thick set bodies and the dark colored, short, broad gills. If 
this is not sufficient, the entire absence of mental setae will serve to 
separate the members of this genus from all the following Coenagrioni- 
nae. The nymphs of the 9 known species are so very much alike that 
a short generic description will be given for them all, followed by a 
table giving the characteristics more or less peculiar to the species. 

The nymph is short and thick and usually with dark colored legs 
and short oblong gill plates. The head is somewhat wider than long, 
flat above with very prominent eyes. The antennae are six or seven 
jointed, the third joint being the longest. The labium is short with the 
hinge reaching barely to the base of the middle legs; the median lobe 
is without mental setae but has a row of small setae on the lateral 
margins just posterior to the articulation of the lateral lobes: lateral 
setae 1-4; lateral lobe short with a short stout moveable hook and a 
small end hook which may or may not be separated from the inner 
margin by a notch (see column 5 of the table). Abdomen stout, some- 



The Known Nymphs 



Species 


Length* 


Lat 


Notch** 


Gills 


Described by 


set. 


Greatest 
breadth 


pigment 


agrioides 


12+6 


2-4 


absent 


near m. 


mottled 


Smn. '26, p. 13 


apicalis 


14+6 


3-4 


present 


middle 


3 X bands 


Ndm. '03, p. 242 


emma 


17+5 


1 


present 


before m. 


X bands 


Kndy. '15, p. 271 


fumipennis 


10+4 


2-3 


absent 


middle 


1 X band 


Ndm. '04, p. 714 


moesta 


14+5-6 


1 


present 


before m. 


uniform 


Ndm. & Cldl. '03, p. 136 


sedula 


12+4 


2 


absent 


middle 


uniform 


Smn. '26, p. 13 


tibialis 


12+4.5 


4 


absent 


beyond m. 


apical 


Ndm. '03, p. 244 


translata 


13+5 


1 


present 


beyond m. 


3 confluent 
X bands 


Brtn. '28, p. 34 


violacea 


17(?)+4.5 


2-3 


present 


beyond m. 


V-shaped 
apical 


Ndm. '03, p. 242 


vivida 


12+3 


4 


absent 






Kndy. '15, p. 288 



* Body +gill8. 

** In end of lateral lobe separating off the end hook. 



what tapering, with its segments decreasing in length to the ninth, 
the tenth again a little longer. Gills oblong about half as wide as long. 
The shape and pigmentation of the gills varies with the species as 
indicated in the table. 



ARGIA 287 

The gills are easily broken off the nymphs of this genus both in the 
laboratory and in Hfe. If their loss occurs early in nymphal life, they 
are regenerated, and it is no uncommon thing to find a specimen with 
one, two or three of the gill plates of smaller size than normal. The 
loss of gills seems not to seriously affect the respiration of the nymphs. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES 

Adults 

1. Males 

1 The total area of dark color on abdominal segments 3-6, or the 

thoracic dorsum, or both, less than the pale area of the same 

parts 2. 

The total area of dark color on the abdominal segments 3-6, and 
the thoracic dorsum, greater than the pale area of the same parts 
12. 

2 Black middorsal thoracic stripe a mere hair line. Antehumeral 

pale stripe very broad, 4-6 times as wide as the middorsal 

dark stripe 3. 

Black middorsal thoracic stripe wide. Antehumeral pale stripe 
narrow, one-half to one and one-half times as wide as the mid- 
dorsal stripe 6. 

3 Humeral black stripe reduced to a hair line and of uniform thick- 

ness throughout its entire length 4. 

Humeral black stripe not of uniform thickness throughout, the 
ends being greatly thickened, while the median third or more 
is reduced to a hair line or is absent 5. 

4 Head with some black markings around the vertex and bases of 

the antennae at least tonto, p. 299 

Head with no black markings at all, pale colors being cream and 
violet solita, p. 299 

5 Abdominal terga 3-5 with less than the basal half black. Posterior 

lobe of the prothorax pale. No black spot on abdominal segment 

one emma, p. 294 

Abdominal terga 3-5 almost entirely black. Posterior lobe of the 
prothroax black. A black spot on the dorsum of abdominal 
segment one apicalis, p. 292 

6 Humeral stripe forked 7. 

Humeral stripe not forked 10. 



288 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

7 Superior appendages bilobed or trilobed at apex, inner margin 

rounded and convex before the tip 8 

Superior appendages almost entire at the tip, the inner margins 
with an anteapical projection 9. 

8 Inferior appendages bifid hinei, p. 295 

Inferior appendages not bifid agrioides, p. 291 

9 Pale colors on thorax and abdominal segments 3-6 violet. 

Antenodals of the front wing 4 violacea, p. 300 

Pale colors of the thorax and abdominal segments 3-6 blue. 
Antenodals of the fore wing 3 immunda, p. 296 

10 Dark humeral stripe wider than the pale antehumeral, straight 

and of equal width throughout bipunctulata, p. 293 

Dark humeral stripe narrower than the pale antehumeral, at least 
in the middle third of its length 11, 

11 Dark humeral stripe a mere hair line throughout its entire length 

tonto, p. 299 

Dark humeral stripe not of uniform thickness throughout, the 
ends being greatly thickened, while the median third or more 
is reduced or wanting vivida, p. 301 

12 Wings a uniform smoky brown fumipennis, p. 295 

Wings clear or with only the extreme tips smoky 13. 

13 Stigma surmounting more than one cell in both wings. Superior 

appendages not bifid 14. 

Stigma surmounting one cell or less in both wings 16. 

14 Abdomen 27-33 mm. long. Pale antehumeral stripe from one-third 

(young) to one-twelfth (older males) as wide as the black mid- 
dorsal, or absent entirely in very old individuals. Abdominal 
segment 8 black on dorsum with a pale transverse basal ring 

translata, p. 300 

Abdomen 35-37 mm. long. Pale antehumeral stripe one-half as 
wide as the dark middorsal one. Terga of abdominal segment 8 
usually entirely black, or, pale olive with a longitudinal black 
stripe on either side in young specimens 15. 

15 Metepimeron pale or black. Abdomen with a pale longitudinal 

dorsal line on segments 3-7. Inferior appendages without a 

tubercle moesta, p. 297 

Metepimeron always pale. Abdomen with the dorsum entirely 
black on segments 3-7. Inferior appendages with a tubercle at 
the end intruda, p. 296 



ARGIA 



289 



16 Tergum of 8 black 17. 

Terga of 8 to 10 blue 18. 

17 Superior appendages bifid at the tip. Segment 9 mostly blue on 

dorsum tibialis, p. 299 

Superior appendages not bifid at tip. Segment 9 mostly black on 
dorsum translata, p. 300 

18 Pale antehuraeral stripe narrow, one-third to one-half as wide as 

the black middorsal. Humeral stripe wider than antehumeral 

pale one, and not split sedula, p. 298 

Pale antehumeral stripe as wide or wider than the dark mid- 
dorsal. Humeral stripe not as wide as the antehumeral and 
split in its upper third alberta, p. 292 




inoeata (western) 



290 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

2. Females 

1 Dorsum of abdominal segments 3-6 mostly pale 2, 

Dorsum of abdominal segments 3-6 mostly black (4-6 in bipunctu- 

lata,) 15. 

2 Post basal stripes present on abdominal segments 3-6 and con- 

fluent with the apical black 3. 

Post basal stripes present on abdominal segments 3- or 4-6, but 
not usually confluent with the apical black 8. 

3 Dark humeral stripe forked 4. 

Dark humeral stripe not forked 5. 

4 Length of abdomen 26 mm hinei, p. 295 

Length of abdomen 20 mm violacea, p. 300 

5 Mesepisternal tubercle absent tonto, p. 299 

Mesepisternal tubercle present 6. 

6 Dark middorsal and humeral stripes reduced to a thin line or 

absent 7. 

Dark middorsal and humeral stripes wide, nearly as wide as the 
pale antehumeral vivida, p. 301 

7 Thorax usually with a black line on either side of the middorsal 

carina, which is also black. Oklahoma intruda, p. 296 

Thorax with only the middorsal carina black, no black lines on 
either side of it. General moesta (inc. putrida,) p. 297 

8 Segments 8-9 of abdomen without black on dorsum (except on 9 

in some specimens of vivida) 9. 

Segments 8-9 of the abdomen pale, each with a long black stripe 
on each side of the dorsum, from base backward to a variable 
distance 13. 

9 Two enormous pits on the anterior ends of the mesepisternum, 

one under each mesostigmal lamina rita, p. 298 

No such pits present 10. 

10 Antenodal cells in front wing three immunda, p. 296 

Antenodal cells in front wing 4-5 11. 

11 Black middorsal thoracic and humeral stripes and mesepisternal 

tubercles present 12. 

Black middorsal thoracic and humeral stripes reduced to a mere 
hne or absent, mesepisternal tubercles absent .... sedula, p. 298 

12 Middorsal carina abruptly ending in the mesostigmal plate .... 

emma, p. 294 

Middorsal carina widening out into a broad triangle in the meso- 
stigmal plate vivida, p. 301 



ARGIA 291 

13 Mesostigmal lamina prolonged at the mesal end in a slender 

process 14. 

Mesostigmal lamina rounded with no slender prolongation 

agrioides, p. 291 

14 Length of abdomen 20 mm. Mesostigmal lamina with a projection 

near the dorsal carina violacea, p. 300 

Length of abdomen 22 mm. Mesostigmal lamina without a pro- 
jection near the dorsal carina. California, Colorado and Utah 
alberta, p. 292 

15 Wings smoky fumipennis, p. 295 

Wings clear 16. 

16 Black middorsal thoracic stripe a mere hair line, .apicalis, p. 292 
Black middorsal stripe at least one third as wide as the pale 

antehumeral 17. 

17 Abdominal segments 2-3 mostly pale bipunctulata, p. 293 

Abdominal segments 2-3 mostly dark 18. 

18 Mesepisternal tubercle well developed. Dorsum of abdominal seg- 

ments 8-9 pale with black markings translata, p. 300 

Mesepisternal tubercles absent. Dorsum of segments 8-9 black 
tibialis, p. 299 

275. Argia agrioides Calvert 

Calv. '95, p. 476: Mtk. Cat. p. 45: Wmsn. '14, p. 444: Smn. '27, p. 12. 

Var: nahuana Calv. 
Length 28 (cf )-35( 9 ) mm. Expanse 37-45 mm. Calif., Ariz, and Tex. 

A southwestern Argia, that frequents desert streams. 

Male. — Head predominantly pale with black lattice-like streaks on the ver- 
tex. Dorsum of the middle and posterior lobes of the prothorax narrowly black, 
with a median geminate pale stripe of blue; anterior lobe and sides broadly pale, 
except for a fine sinuate lateral line of black. Meso- and metathorax predomi- 
nantly pale with the black middorsal stripe little or usually no wider than the 
pale antehumeral stripe. The humeral dark stripe is irregular, narrow and 



"^ ,, .- n 


^ agrioides 


tf^T> 


M 


alberta "— '^ 



forked, the posterior fourth appears as a basal spot, followed for another quarter 
of the length of the humeral suture by a fine brown line, the third quarter of the 
stripe is broad and subrectangular with a tail-like process trailing off posteriorly 
across the mesepimeron, giving the humeral a forked appearance, the fourth 



292 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

quarter of the suture is covered by a slightly broader black line than the 2nd 
quarter. A fine brown line on the third lateral suture. Abdomen mainly blue 
with reduced spots on 2; small apical rings on 3-6; most of 7; and slight lateral 
markings on 8-10, black. 

Female — Similar to the male except the black markings of the head and thorax 
are more reduced. Segments 3-6 of the abdomen have in addition to the apical 
black rings of the male, long semilateral postbasal dark stripes on either side 
of the pale dorsum, on 6 these may fuse with the apical black rings, but usually 
they do not. Dorsum of 7 mainly dark. Dark semilateral stripes on 8-9. Segment 
10 pale. 

276. Argia alberta Kennedy 
Kndy. '18, p. 257. 
Length 27 mm. Expanse 38 mm. Calif., Colo, and Utah 

This species simulates Argia sedula in color and appendages, but the penis 
show this to be more nearly related to the northern violacea group, while sedula 
is nearer translata and a large series of Mexican species. 

Male. — Head predominantly pale with black edging the postclypeus; a wide 
black bar through the paired ocelli; and a broad black stripe behind each post- 
ocular area. Prothorax black dorsally with a bluish spot on either side. Thorax 
predominantly pale. Dark middorsal stripe occupying one-third of the area 
between the humeral sutures. Humeral stripe about half as wide as the mid- 
dorsal, its upper third forked. A black stripe, 1 mm. wide, on the third lateral 
suture. Abdomen with segments 1-3 dull blue. Segment 1 with a baso-dorsal 
black spot. Segment 2 with a narrow apical band and lateral stripe black. Seg- 
ment 3 with the apical third and a lateral stripe black. Segments 4-7 with the 
apical third and the dorsum black, except a narrow basal band of blue, the sides 
bluish or brownish. Segments 8-10 pure pale blue the lower edges more or less 
blotched with black. 

Female. — Color as in the male, but with the blue of the head and thorax 
paler. Humeral stripe about half as wide as in the male, its branches linear. 
Abdomen pale with a narrow apical band on segments 2-6, an apical dorsal spot, 
a lateral stripe, and an oblique spot on the lower apical angle of the sides black. 
Segment 7 with the dorsal half or more black. Segments 8-9 with the dorso- 
lateral stripes of black. Segment 10 pale. In some females segment 6 is colored 
like 7. 

277. Argia apicalis (Say) 

Say '39, p. 40: Mtk. Cat. p. 45: Wlsn. '12, p. 197: Garm. '17, p. 503. 

Length 36-38 mm. Expanse 50 mm. Me., to N. C. and Ark. to N. Dak. 

Like violacea and tibialis this is a common species about shaded ponds and 
rivers. 

Male. — Colors blue and black. Head pale except for extended black areas 
surrounding the antennae, the ocelli, and the pale postocular area. Prothorax 
black except for the sides and a pair of large lateral spots on the median lobe. 
Thorax with the middorsal black stripe reduced to a mere hair line. The dorsal 
half of the mesinfraepisternum and the anterior fifth of the mesemiperon covered 
by a broad black band, remainder of the humeral stripe represented by a fine 
brown line on the humeral suture. Third lateral suture with a fine brown line. 



ARGIA 293 

Dorsum of abdominal segments 1-7 metallic black except for narrow interrupted 
basal rings of yellow on segments 3-7. and apical rings on 1 and 7; dorsum of 
8-10 blue. Sides of 1-2 pale, of 3-6 pale with the apical fourth black, of 7-10 
black. 

Female. — Head entirely pale with a few isolated black streaks or spots. 
Thorax as in the male. Abdomen with the mid-carina blue, dorsum black, and 
sides mainly pale, on segments 2-7. Dorsum of 8-9 blackish with a dorsal yellow 
longitudinal stripe and dark brown and yellow on the sides; 10 dark above, 
paler on the sides. 

Garman ('17, p. 505) says it is 

A common species along all large-sized streams in Illinois. The nymphs live 
in the mud at the bottom, but when mature approach the banks and hide among 
dead submerged weeds or rubbish. The eggs are deposited below the water on 
driftwood, and large numbers of females may sometimes be seen congregated 
about the old log at the water's edge depositing eggs. 



r^ .^^ 


^Yh. 


,L „^ ap-icalls 


bipunclulata 



The following notes concerning this species are from a field record 
made by the senior author at Galesburg, 111., in 1895. 

Pale straw yellow males and females appeared first about the middle of May. 
These fluttered along in a weak and halting manner through the grass as if their 
flying apparatus were not quite equal to the task of carrying them. Older and 
sturdier bright blue males and lilac females gradually replaced these pale ones. 

The species flies slowly at best and spends most of its time resting on grass 
stems and on twigs and pebbles near the water. It preys upon a large midge 
(a Chironomid) which is common in the same situations. It is oftener preyed 
upon, for many wings of this species may be seen in the calla-shaped ground 
webs of spiders, common on the slopes. 

The nymphs cling to submerged vegetation, usually with the caudal gills 
slightly elevated and slowly swaying back and forth. When on dead small leaved 
aquatics, there is striking likeness of the broad gills to small brown leaves; and 
their motion hardly impairs their concealment, for it is like that of leaves swayed 
by currents in the water. 

The nymphs are readily fed on entomostraca. They crawl slowly and swim 
indifferently by sculling with their broad gills. Transformation takes place early 
in the forenoon, a few inches from the edge of the water. 

278. Argia bipunctulata (Hagen) 

Hag. '61, p. 90: Mtk. Cat. p. 45: Garm. '27, p. 88. 

Syn: bipustulata Kirby 
Length 28 mm. Expanse 32 mm. N. Y. to Fla. 



294 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

Male. — Color pale gray or brown and black. Face pale with a black spot at 
the base of the labrum and another and larger one at the base of the postclypeus. 
Pale transverse frontal band wide, reaching to the basis of the antennae and 
interdigitating with the black of the vertex on either side of the median ocellus. 
Top of head black except for spots on either side of the lateral ocelli, a pale post- 
ocellar stripe, and obscure pale postocular spots. Dorsum of the prothorax black 
except for a stripe on the anterior lobe, a pair of large lateral spots on the median 
lobe, and the sides of the posterior lobe which are pale. Sides of the median lobe 
pale. Thorax (fig. 289) predominantly black with wide middorsal and humeral 
dark stripes, which are twice as wide as the pale antehumeral stripe. A black 
line on the caudal end of the second lateral suture and another covering the third 
lateral suture. Abdomen predominantly blue, black as follows: a basal spot on 
the dorsum of 1; two small preapical spots and a fine preapical ring on 2; apical 
third or less of segments 3-6; apical five-sixths of 7; none of 8-9, sides inferiorly 
of 10. 

Female. — Head and thorax as in the male. Abdomen with the dorsum of 
4-7 and 9-10 brown or black except for narrow interrupted basal rings on 4-7. 
Sides of 1-5 as in the male, 6-10 mostly black. Segment 8 blue on the dorsum. 

279. Argia emma Kennedy 

Kndy. '15, p. 271. 

Length 35-37 mm. Expanse 46-54 mm. Wash. 

Male. — Labrum, clypeus, frons, vertex, postocular area and occiput, rich 
violet. Genae lighter almost pinkish. Antennae black. A black line connecting 
each antennae with the median ocellus. A black T-spot extending forward from 
the median ocellus. The ocellar area black with large pale spots. Postocular 
area narrowly edged with black posteriorly. Prothorax pale the median lobe 
with two heavy median and two fine lateral longitudinal stripes of black, the 




stripes joined by a fine brown transverse line across the anterior and posterior 
border of the middle lobe. Thorax predominantly pale. The dark middorsal 
stripe very narrow, not a fourth as wide as the pale antehumeral stripe. Humeral 
suture black as follows: a rectangular black spot below its anterior end from 
which a broad line extends dorsal to its middle point, where it tapers to a third 
of its previous width, extending thus narrowed to the dorsal fourth where it 
abruptly widens for the remainder of the extent of the suture. A black spot 
on the caudal end of the third lateral suture followed by a black line, also a short 
black line on the second lateral suture. Abdomen. Segment 1 pale violet with 
the sides and sternum brown overlaid with pruinose. Segments 2-7 violet, black 
as follows: 2, with a large lateral spot and narrow apical ring; 3-6 with a narrow 
line along the ventral edge of the plurite connected with an apical ring occupying 



ARGIA 295 

from one-third to over one-half the length of the segment; about five-sixths of 7. 
Segments 8-10 blue on the dorsum with the sides black. 

Female. — Head and thorax similar to the male. Abdomen pale black as 
follows; a pair of reduced dorso-lateral spots on 2; apical third of the dorsum 
of 3-6, and reduced postbasal streaks, not united with the apical black on 3-5, 
narrowly so on 6; segment 7 with a pair of dorso-lateral postbasal streaks but 
no apical black. Segments 8-10 entirely blue. 

280. Argia fumipennis (Burmeister) 

The Smoky-winged Argia 

Burm. '39, p. 819: Mtk. Cat. p. 47: Garm. '17, p. 506. 

Syn: obscura Ramb. 
Length 33 mm. Expanse 41 mm. Ga., Ky. to Fla. 

This dark brown Argia is very common in the southeast where it can be easily 
collected from all types of environments. 

Male. — Color obscure brown and black. Head dark brown and buff, with a 
black bar through the ocellar area, and the hind margins of the postocular area 
black. Dorsum of the prothorax and the sides of the median lobe narrowly black. 
Black middorsal thoracic stripe not quite as wide as the paler antehumeral, 
which latter is about as wide as the irregular humeral dark stripe. Abdominal 
segments 1-7 dark on the dorsum, sides lighter. Dorsum of 8-10 bluish-green, 
sides black. Wings uniformly dark smoky brown like those of Agrion maculatum 
or a little lighter. 

Female. — Similar to the male. Dorsum of abdominal segments 8-10 dark 
sides paler. Segment 10 pale. 

281. Argia hinei Kennedy 
Kndy. '18, p. 258. 
Length 31 mm. Expanse 42 mm. Calif, and Ariz. 

Male. — Labium and the rear of the head pale; labrum, face and the top of 
the head violet. A black bar through the ocelli; postocular areas edged pos- 
teriorly with black. Prothorax violet with a median dorsal stripe and a lateral 
stripe on each side of it, black. Thorax violet with the mid-carina edged with 
pale. The middorsal black stripe slightly wider than the pale antehumeral 
stripe. Black humeral stripe one-third as wide as the mesepimeron, forked in 
its posterior third. Third lateral suture narrowly black. Abdomen with segments 
1-7 violet, segments 8-10 blue, with the following black markings: a dorso-basal 




spot on 1; narrow apical rings on segments 2-7; segment 2 with a lateral stripe 
not reaching the apical edge; segments 3-5 with a spot covering the apical fourth 
of the sides, the pairs on segments 4-6 confluent on the middle line; a small 



296 DRAGON FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

antero-lateral spot on 6; segment 7 with the dorsal half black except a narrow 
basal band, and having a small latero-apical spot in the ventro-apical angle of 
the segment; segments 8-9 with more or less black on the lower sides. 

Female. — Colored brown with the black markings on the head and thorax 
as in the male. The abdomen with lateral stripes on segments 2-9, those on 
segments 7-8 more or less confluent with their mates across the middle line. 
Segments 2-8 with latero-apical oblique spot on the lower apical angle of the 
Bide. Segments 2-7 with a narrow apical ring. 

282. Argia immunda (Hagen) 

Hag. '61, p. 93: Mtk. Cat. p. 47: Wmsn. '14, p. 416. 

Length 30(d'')-36( 9) mm. Expanse 40-52 mm. Tex. 

Male. — Color, blue or violet and black. Face and rear of head pale, a black 
bar through the ocellar region. Prothorax black on the dorsum, sides pale. Pale 
antehumeral stripe from three-fourths to one and a half times as wide as the 
black middorsal. Humeral stripe forked in its upper third, never wider than 
the pale antehumeral. Abdomen blue, the following black: segment 2 each 
side with a dorso-basal spot, a large rounded spot near the apex, and an oblique 
inferior streak, the latter two or all three sometimes united; 3-6 each side with 
a postbasal streak and the apical third, the postbasal streaks from one side may- 
unite with their fellows from the other across the meson, but never with the 
apical black; 7 entirely except a pale basal ring; an inferior stripe the length 
of the segment on 8-9. 

Female. — Similar to the male. Differs as follows: Humeral stripe hardly 
more than a line throughout. Segment 7 like 6, but with the postbasal streak 
and apical black usually united; 8-9 entirely pale, unspotted. 

283. Argia intruda Williamson 
Wmsn. '12, p. 200. 

Length 38-42 mm. Expanse 54-60 mm. Okla. 

This species of Argia is closely related to moesta, whose large size and general 
characteristics it shares. 

Male. — Head dull pale brown, rear of head black above, pale brown below. 
Thorax pale brown, black as follows: a middorsal thoracic stripe, one either 
side occupying one-half of the front; a spot on the front against the humeral 
suture where it meets the mesinfraepisternum, and another above the caudal 
end of the second lateral suture; a faint line on the third lateral suture widened 
into a small spot on the rear end; in some specimens the two large black spots 
on the mesepimeron become narrowly or even broadly connected. Abdomen 
black above, pale brown on the sides of all segments but 7; pale narrow blue 
rings on 3-7; a longitudinal middorsal stripe absent or very reduced on 6-7; 
9-10 variable, generally gray or light brown excepting the lower lateral margins 
and ventrally, and a black lateral spot on the middle of 9, this spot on 9 may be 
wanting or elongate. Abdominal appendages similar to moesta, but the inferiors 
are longer than the superiors, and are terminated by a large rounded pale 
tubercle. 

Female. — Similar to the male. Darkest thoracic pattern: a black line on 
either side of the middorsal thoracic carina, separated from the black middorsal 



ARGIA 



297 



carina by a pale area equal in width to the black lines themselves, these black 
and pale areas occupy about one-half the surface of the mesepisternum on each 
side. This black area is developed in a pale area which is present on the mesepis- 
ternum as well as on the mesepimeron and the metepimeron, as in moesta. Ab- 
domen darker than moesta, with a narrow pale dorsal longitudinal stripe, nar- 
rowest on 7. The lateral black is carried posteriorly onto 9, usually to its apex; 
10 is pale colored. Sides of abdomen below the black, pale colored. The meso- 
stigmal plates of intruda differ from moesta as follows: in moesta the posterior 
(or superior) lobe of the plate is symmetrical with the border of the plate on 
either side similarly curved, while the anterior (or inferior) border of the plate is 
distinctly concave, the external angle of the plate being correspondingly acute. 
In intruda the posterior border of the mesostigmal plate external to the lobe is 
straighter or less curved than internal to the lobe, resulting in an asymmetrical 
lobe, and the anterior border is straight or slightly convex, resulting in a less 
acute external angle. 



284. Argia moesta (Hagen) 

Hag. '61, p. 94: Mtk. Cat. p. 48: Wmsn. '12, p. 196: Smn. '27, p. 12: Garm. '27, 
p. 89. 

Var: putrida Hag., binotatum Walsh, fantum Hag. 
Length 43-45 mm. Expanse 50-56 mm. Okla., Tex., Ariz, and Calif. 

This is one of the largest of North American species, the typical form is con- 
fined to the southwestern United States and Mexico. 

Male. — Head predominantly black or dark brown, face blue. Prothorax 
brown with a median black area. Middorsal thoracic stripe and carina dark 
brown, occupying about three-fourths of the front on each side, and being thus 
twice as wide as the pale antehumeral stripe. Humeral stripe a black line broadly 




united below with another parallel band which reaches to the base of the fore 
wings. Metepimeron and adjoining parts of the metepisternum dark brown or 
black. These black areas of the thorax may become so large that the entire 
thorax is black save a very narrow pale antehumeral stripe, and an abbreviated 
streak on the metepisternum near its middle, just posterior to the interpleural 
suture. Abdomen with segment 2 blackish, with a middorsal yellow spot; 3-7 
reddish brown with a narrow transverse basal yellow ring and a fine longitudinal, 
middorsal yellow line; 8-9 tawny, with a black stripe or a spot on each side near 
the base, the stripe extending sometimes nearly to the apex, the inferior margins 
blackish. 



298 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

Female. — Differs from the male as follows: rear of head tawny with a vary- 
ing amount of black. Thoracic dorsum pale, the middorsal carina and a fine 
line on the humeral sutures black. Abdomen pale reddish brown, segments 3-7 
each side with a longitudinal blackish stripe, paler below this; 8 as in male; 9 
pale green or brown with or without black markings. 

Both male and female have the stigma surmounting more than one cell 
in 98 per cent of cases. Also this species tends to become very pruinose very 
early in life, sometimes so much so as to entirely obscure the color pattern. 

In the light colored eastern form (A. putrida Hagen), the face is 
yellowish. The antehumeral pale stripe is yellowish. The lower half of 
the sides of the thorax is pale, with only a narrow black stripe on the 
third lateral suture. 

285. Argia rita Kennedy 
Kndy. '19, p. 17. 
Length 35 mm. Expanse 44 mm. Ariz. 

Male unknown. 

Female. — Color of labium pale; labrum bluish; face and head otherwise 
violaceous, except the ventral surfaces which are pale buff. Each postocular 
area bounded anteriorly and posteriorly by a narrow bar of black. Prothorax 
violaceous, darker above, sides with a sinuous black line, the dorsum with a 
heavy black Y-mark, the fork opening caudal. Thorax with the middorsal 
carina pale, but edged by a very narrow, middorsal black stripe. Humeral stripe 
narrow in the lower half, narrowing to a hair line above, but widening into an 
oval spot at the alar ridge. Third lateral suture with a hair line of black. Ab- 
domen violaceous on segments 1-2, brown on segments 3-7, blue on segments 
8-10. The following black markings occur: a pair of stripes on 2, mere hair 
lines with the posterior end of each enlarged into a triangular spot; an apical 
ring incomplete below on segments 2-6; a saddle-shaped spot on the apex of 
segments 3-6; this is connected anteriorly on 6 with a lateral line on either side 
which appears on segments 3-5 as a detached antero-lateral spot. Segment 7 
with the dorsum black except for a narrow ring across the anterior end and the 
anterior two-thirds of the middorsal line which are pale. 

This female is distinguished at once from all other Argias by two enormous 
pits, one under each mesostigmal plate, on the anterior ends of the mesepisterna. 

286. Argia sedula (Hagen) 

Hag. '61, p. 94: Mtk. Cat. p. 50: Wlsn. '12, p. 198: Garm. '17, p. 610: Smn. '27, 

p. 12. 
Length 30(cf)-40( 9 ) mm. Expanse 40-45 mm. C. and S. States to Ariz. 
Male. — Face blue. Postclypeus blue with reduced black markings. Frons 
blue with a Y-shaped black mark anterior from the median ocellus. Ocellar area 
black with blue spots in the neighborhood of the lateral ocelli. Pale postocular 
spots large and contiguous with the margins of the compound eyes. Rear margin 
of the postocular area black. Dorsum of the prothorax black with a large lateral 
pale spot on either side of the median lobe, and smaller ones on the sides of the 
posterior lobe, sides pale. Thorax with the black middorsal and humeral stripes 



ARGIA 299 

of about equal width, both twice as wide as the pale antehumeral stripe. A heavy 
black line on the third lateral suture (p. 289). Abdomen: segment 1 pale 
with a broad angulate basal spot and two small round lateral spots of black. 
Segment 2 black on the dorsum with small irregular basal pale greenish spot on 
either side of the meson. Segments 3-6 black on the dorsum with interrupted 
basal rings and two postbasal dorsal spots pale. Segment 7 almost entirely 
black. Dorsum of 8-10 blue, sides marked with black. 

Female. — Like the male. Head brown above with a few black stripes in the 
ocellar region. Thorax with the black middorsal stripe wanting or feebly 
represented on either side of the carina. Dark humeral stripe represented by a 
hair line only. A black line on the metapleural suture. Abdomen segments 1-7 
dull brown, sides tawny, basal rings ill defined. 8-10 tawny. 

287. Argia solita Kennedy 
Kndy. '18, p. 256. 

Length 31 mm. Expanse 48 mm. Ariz. 

Male. — Head creamy beneath, violet above, no black present at all. Pro- 
thorax violet with a small black spot on either side. Thorax violet. Black mid- 
dorsal stripe narrow about one-sixth as wide as the pale antehumeral stripe. 
A mere hair line on the humeral and the third lateral sutures. Abdomen violet, 
black as follows: small lateral spot on the apex of 1; narrow apical ring on 2; 
lateral, irregular, apical spot, one-fourth the length of the segment, and a narrow 
apical ring on 3-6; segment 7 with an interrupted irregular stripe along the side, 
below the apical end of which is a small detached spot. Segments 8-10 blue. 

Female. — Unknown. 

288. Argia tibialis Rambur 

Ramb. '42, p. 241; Mtk. Cat. p. 50: Whed. '14, p. 92: Garm. '17, p. 511. 
Length 34-37 mm. Expanse 42-50 mm. C, M. and S. States 

Found in June, July and August along the edge of streams or pools, flitting 
along the banks or resting among the bordering vegetation. 

Male. — Mouth parts buff. Face blue or brownish. Vertex and occiput black 
with pale spots in the neighborhood of the ocelli. Prothorax black a lateral spot 
on each side of the middle lobe, brown. Black middorsal thoracic stripe about 
half as wide as the paler antehumeral, black humeral about as wide as the latter. 
Sides of the thorax tawny with a black line on the third lateral suture. Dorsum 
of abdominal segments 1-8 black, with narrow yellow basal rings on 2-7, sides 
of 2-7 narrowl}-^ pale. Dorsum of 9-10 yellow or blue, sides inferiorly black. 

Female. — Light in color, much more so than the male. Humeral stripe 
narrower. Abdomen with segment 2 dark with a median pale spot, segments 
3-6 with a fine pale line on the middorsum, sides broadly pale; 7-9 entirely black; 
10 mostly pale, darker below. 

289. Argia tonto Calvert 

Calv. '02, p. 89: Mtk. Cat. p. 51. 

Length 37-40 mm. Expanse 54-60 mm. Ariz. 

Male. — Color violet and black. Black middorsal and humeral stripes re- 
duced to little more than lines. Abdomen with segment 2 pale, each side with 



300 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

a superior longitudinal black stripe not reaching the apex of the segment; 3-6 
violet each side with a black spot on the apical fourth to third, united on the 
meson with its fellow on the opposite side in segments 4 or 5-6, and with a black 
transverse ring at the articulation between 3 and 4, and 4 and 5; 7 with a trans- 
verse basal ring and dorsal basal fourth, violet, apical dorsal three-fourths and 
the greater part of the sides black and confluent; 8-9 with an inferior black 
stripe on either side for the apical two-thirds of 8 and the entire length of 9. 




Female. — With the pale antehumeral stripe at mid-height one and one- 
fourth times as wide as the black middorsal stripe; black humeral stripe not 
forked, a mere line on its upper half, lower half one-fifth to a half as wide as the 
pale antehumeral. The black postbasal stripe on either side of abdominal seg- 
ments 3-6 is united with the apical black on 5 and 6 only; 8-9 blue, a narrow 
black mark on either side of the dorsum in the basal fifth. 

290. Argia translata Hagen 

Hag. '65, p. 410: Mtk. Cat. p. 51: Wlsn. '12, p. 198: Garm. '27, p. 90. 

Length 40 mm. Expanse 46 mm. N. Y., Va., to Wis., Ark. and Tex. 

A large dark Argia found most commonly in the central and southern states. 

Male. — Face dark brown, with black basal markings on the labrum and the 
postclypeus. Top of head predominantly black. Brown postocular spots rather 
small for Argia. Black middorsal thoracic stripe wide. Pale antehumeral stripe 
irregular from one-third (young) to one-twelfth (old males) as wide as the black 
middorsal, or absent entirely in very old individuals. Humeral stripe in young 
males divided for almost its entire length, except at its lower end; in age these 
two fuse to become even five times as wide as the pale antehumeral. A heavy 
black line on the third lateral suture. Both the head and thorax are covered 
with unusually long white fine hairs. Wings with the stigma surmounting more 
than one cell in about 45 H of cases only. Abdomen with segments 2-8 almost 
entirely black on dorsum, sides and basal rings paler. Segment 1 with a pale 
spot on either side. Segment 9 pale on the dorsum with sides and apical markings 
of black. Segment 10 predominantly dark. 

Female. — Differs from the male as follows: Pale antehumeral stripe from 
one-fifth to three-fifths as wide as the black middorsal. Humeral stripe as in 
young males. Segments 2-7 with a pale longitudinal stripe on the middle line; 
8-9 pale greenish on the sides with wide black stripes. 

291. Argia violacea Hagen 

Hag. '61, p. 90: Mtk. Cat. p. 51: Garm. '17, p. 515: Garm. '27, p. 91. 

Var: pallens Calv. 
Length 32 mm. Expanse 42 mm. Ont., Me. to Va., west to Mich, and Ariz. 



ARGIA 301 

While this, the most beautiful of the Argias, may occur generally throughout 
the whole of its range, it is found commonly only in the eastern states and 
southern Canada, where it becomes the dominant species of its genus. It fre- 
quents all types of aquatic situations but seems to prefer the dense reed grown 
banks of rivers and streams. 

Male. — Mouth parts and head below gray. Frons, clypeus and genae purple 
or deep violet. Vertex mainly black. Large postocular spots and postocellar 
stripe gray or violet. Prothorax with the anterior lobe pale on the dorsum; 
middle lobe black with a large spot on either side and the sides inferiorly, violet; 
posterior lobe violet except two small lateral lines of black. Thorax (p. 289) 
with the middorsal black stripe not quite as wide as the pale antehumeral stripe. 
Humeral black stripe irregular and forked in its posterior third. Third lateral 
suture with a black line covering it. Sides of the thorax violet shading into gray 
along the dark stripes. Abdomen purple, black as follows: a basal, dorsal and 
lateral spots on 1; sides of 2 except apical fifth; sterna, pleura, narrow apical 
rings, and a lateral apical spot on segments 3-6, the latter occupying about one- 
fifth to one-fourth of the segment, on segments 5-6 at least they unite with their 







fellow from the opposite side across the dorsum, and are broadly joined with the 
black apical ring. Segment 7 entirely black, except for a narrow basal pale ring. 
Segments 8-10 purple on the dorsum black on the sides 

Female. — The color similar to the male, the purple, however, in many speci- 
mens being replaced by brown. Head and thorax similar to the male. Abdomen 
with more black than the male, segments 2-9 with dorso-lateral stripes which are 
broad enough on segments 6-7 to fuse on the meson; lateral surface of 9 and all 
of 10 bufif. 

Fallens a subspecies of violacea is found in Arizona and Mexico, it 
differs from violacea type by having the humeral stripe of the thorax 
reduced to a mere Une and the pale color of seg. 7 predominating. 

292. Argia vivida Hagen 

Hag. '65, p. 406: Mtk. Cat. p. 52: Kndy. '15, pp. 288, 298: '20, p. 84: Smn. '27, 
p. 13. 

Var: munda Calv., var. 'plana Calv. 
Length 34-38 mm. Expanse 46-52 mm. B. C. and Mont, to Tox. and Calif. 

A mountain species of Argia found commonly around springs and the boggy 
streamlets flowing from them. 

Male. — Head pale beneath, mouth parts buff. Face blue. Ocellar region black 
with pale spots in the region of the ocelli. Postocular region blue except for a 
narrow black line on the posterior margins of the head. Prothorax pale blue 
with a pair of heavy median longitudinal black stripes on the dorsum, and a 



302 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

black sinuate line on either side. Thorax (p. 289) with the blue antehumeral 
stripe from two-fifths to nine-tenths as wide as the black middorsal. The black 
humeral stripe of unequal width throughout, the middle third sometimes want- 
ing, seldom forked. A black line on the third lateral suture. Abdomen with 
segment 1 mostly blue. Segment 2 blue with a longitudinal black stripe on each 
side, the posterior end of which is triangularly dilated, and does not reach the 
apex, or this stripe represented only by a black anteapical spot. Segments 3-7 
blue, each with a postbasal streak, and the apical third to fifth black, the post- 
basal streak usually not united with the apical black except on 7 and occasionally 
on 6 also; on 7 the black occupies the entire dorsum except a pale basal ring; 
the postbasal streaks are often absent on 3, and less frequently on 4 or 5; 8-9 
blue unmarked. 

Female. — Differs from the male as follows: Pale brown often replacing the 
blue of the male. Segment 9 as in the male, or, more frequently, with a short, 
black, basal stripe on each side of the dorsum. 

For descriptions and notes regarding southwestern subspecies of 
vivida, see Calvert, 1902. 

64. Argiallagma Selys 

This genus belongs to the same division of theCoenagrioninaeasdoes 
Argia and Hyponeura for, as in these two genera, the front row of setae 
on the tibia are all very long, being twice as long as the spaces sepa- 
rating them. It differs from these genera however, by the smaller 
number of these setae (5-7 on the 3rd tibia), in the reduced number of 
the postnodal cross veins with the result that M2 arises nearest the 5th 
in the fore wing and the 4th in the hind, and in the presence of a ventral 
spine on the apical margin of abdominal segment 8 in the female. 

There is but one known species : 

293. Argiallagma minutum Selys 

Selys '57, p. 464: Mtk. Cat. p. 52. 

Syn: aduncum Hag. 
Length 26 mm. Expanse 28-33 mm. Fla. 

A rare species of damselfly found in southern bogs and swamps. 

Male. — Colors metallic black and pale yellowish. Head entirely pale beneath 
Labrum pale with the basal half black. Postclypeus black; anteclypeus pale. 
The pale transverse frontal stripe covering the vertical portion of the frons and 
the horizontal portion to the basis of the antennae. Antennae black, except the 
2nd joint which has a broad median ring of pale. Vertex black. Pale postocular 
spots linear and broadly connected with the pale postocellar stripe on the caudo- 
mesal margin of the head, though separated from the pale color of the rear of 
the head. Dorsum of the prothorax metallic black, sides broadly pale. The 
hind margin of the posterior lobe high and convex throughout. Black middorsal 
thoracic stripe very wide touching the humeral suture at its caudal end, re- 
mainder of the humeral suture with a fine brown line separated from the mid- 



HESPERAGRION 303 

dorsal stripe by a pale area. Sides of the thorax pale with a short dark spot on 
the upper end of the second and third lateral sutures. Legs mostly pale. Stigma 
with the proximal end tending to be more oblique than the distal end so that the 
costal side is shorter than the posterior. 9-10 postnodal cross veins in the fore 





mlnutura ' ' heterodoxum 




wing, 8 in the hind. Dorsum of abdominal segments 1-8 brassy black with pale 
interrupted basal rings on 3-8; 9-10 usually entirely blue, 9 sometimes with a 
dorsal black spot. 

Female. — Similar to the male in all respects except the hind margin of the 
prothorax is deeply trilobed, the dorsum of abdominal segment 9 is entirely 
brassy black, and there is a well developed ventral spine on 8. 

Nymph — unknown . 

65. Hesperagrion Calvert 

These are small, brilliantly colored Sonoran damselflies that are 
found only on our sothern border. The abdomen is moderately slender, 
slightly widened at both ends. The wings have a rather long quadrangle 
and a short stigma that is wider on its posterior than on its anterior 
side. The stripings of the thorax and the pattern of the abdomen show 
a remarkable variation of very brilliant colors ; the changes are appar- 
ently due to age. 

The nymph of this genus was reared by Mr. Frank C. Willard near 
Tombstone, Arizona, and described by the senior author (Ndm. *04, 
p. 717). "The situation was a deep reservoir of cold water, formed by 
damming a stream that flowed through a narrow canyon. The imagoes 
of the species 'spent most of their time among the joint-grass that grew 
in the edge of the water.' " 

294. Hesperagrion heterodoxum Selys 

Selys '68, p. 69: Mtk. Cat. p. 53. 

Syn: flavescens Selys 
Length 28 mm. Expanse 36 mm. Ariz. 

This pretty species is remarkable for its extraordinary range of color. Changes 
that seem to be due to age range from a pale yellow thorax without stripes, 
through red with a middle bronze stripe, to blue with an antehumeral black 
stripe each side of the front; from plain yellow on the top of the head, through 
blue with red postocular spots, to wholly black; from pale abdomen with middle 



304 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

segments only black above, through bright red at both ends, to black at ends 
and green in the middle. Face is pale except for a black postclypeus. The legs 
are yellow becoming striped with black in front with age. The wings are hyaline, 
with a stigma that is wider on the hind than on the front margin. Appendages 
pale. 

66. Amphiagrion Selys 

These are small stout-bodied black and red damselflies that frequent 
reedy, spring-fed swales. The abdomen is rather short and thick. The 
wings are hyaline. The stigma is notably longer in the front than on the 
hind margin, especially in the male, and the costal area of the wing tips 
beyond the stigma is richly charged with cross veins. 

The sexes are colored alike except that the red of the male becomes 
brighter. The color changes with age are considerable. Size varies 
greatly also and a number of variations have been described. The 
species is wide ranging within our limits; frequenting meadow rivulets. 
Adults are found only in the vicinity of their native streamlets where 
they flit about among the stems in or overhanging the water. 

The nymphs (Ndm, '03, p. 248) have a thick set body and remarkably 
prominent hind angles on the head. 

In our fauna there is a single variable species. 

295. Amphiagrion saucium Burmeister 

Burm. '39, p. 819: Mtk. Cat. p. 66: Whed. '14, p. 92: Garm. '17, p. 562 and '27, 
p. 48. 

Syn: abbreviatum Selys, discolor Burm., amphion Selys 
Length 27 mm. Expanse 36 mm. Wash, and Calif, to Mass. and S. C. 

This is a stocky little red and black species with trapezoidal stigma with 
clear wings. The face is yellowish in front, becoming red with age, and black 
above. Thorax bronzy black without distinct stripings, but with paler carinae. 
Legsjpale brownish.^ Abdomen yellowish to reddish brown, becoming bright red 
over|the basal^half. The^apex suffused with blackish except for a median narrow 
redjine^and a red area inferiorly. Appendages reddish. 





Whedon ('14, p. 92) discovered this species in "small numbers and in 
teneral condition along a\ery small stream leading from the 'slough' 
to the^Minnesota River at Mankato on June 11, '13. A few days after, 



TELEBASIS 305 

thousands of the fully colored individuals were copulating and ovi- 
positing in the shallow water an;iong the sedges and the Sagittarias. A 
week later their numbers began to reduce and by July 7 but an occa- 
sional specimen could be found. During the whole period their distri- 
bution was limited to an area of 200 yards along this little rivulet, so 
narrow that one could easily leap across it anywhere, and but a few 
inches deep. Such a localization is not what would be expected of a 
species distributed from the Atlantic to the west." 

67. Telebasis Selys 

These are dainty little red damselflies of the southwest. The legs are 
weak and slender. The abdomen is moderately slender. The wings are 
hyaline with rather long quadrangle and rather short stigma that sur- 
mounts hardly one entire cell. 

296. Telebasis salva Hagen 

The Flapper 

Hag. '61, p. 85: Mtk. Cat. p. 63: Ndm. '23, p. 130: Smn. '27, p. 16. 

Syn: boucardi Selya 
Length 27 mm. Expanse 30 mm. Calif. 

This is a dainty little damselfly with brown striped thorax and red abdomen. 
The face is yellowish or reddish up to the ocelli. Top of head bronzy black. 
Front of thorax with a broad bronzy black middle stripe divided by the yellow 
carina, bifurcated above and notched on the outer margin at three fourths its 
length. Sides of thorax pale with a short oblique stripe behind the humeral 
suture and a spot on the suture. Legs yellowish with short black spines. Stigma 
yellowish. Abdomen red, paler beneath; a little suffused with brownish toward 
the tip. Appendages red with blackish tips. 

It flies very low over the water — so low that one cannot get a net 
under it and avoid the water. It haunts the low vegetation, especially 
the spike-rush patches. The male accompanies the female while she 
deposits her eggs. They fly together in a straight line, tandem, and 
settle together on floating alga-mats or sticks. While the female is 
plying her ovipositor beneath the surface the male is held aloft solely 
by the clasp of his caudal appendages about her prothorax. 

The nymph (Ndm. '09, p. 176) in life is very easily recognized, 
among the other very similar damselfly nymphs with which it is associ- 
ated, by reason of an odd little mannerism of its own: about once a 
second it flaps the lateral gills at the end of the body against the middle 
one. This act suggests the aimless manner in which a cat-bird flirts its 
tail; but the movement of the gills is lateral. 



306 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

Transformation is apparently at its height about the latter end of 
August. It occurs always within a few inches of the surface of the water. 
The color changes that this species undergoes after transformation are 
very striking. It emerges from the nymph skin pale yellow and be- 
comes more yellow before it turns red. The bronzy green-black stripes 
upon the thorax and across the top of the head are at first pale brown 
and then deep brown and acquire their metallic luster only at full 
maturity. 

68. Nehalennia Selys 

These are very delicate little bronzy green damselflies the entire 
dorsum of head and body is more or less completely rich bronzy green. 
The face is pale, cross lined with black. The legs are short, pale, with 
black stripings and black spines. Wings are hyaline with pale stigma 
covering a single cell and with narrow quadrangle. The abdomen is 
very slender widening a little toward both ends. 

The nymphs (Ndm. '03, p. 249) are slender, climbing forms that 
inhabit dense beds of submerged vegetation. They are greenish in color 
with faint brownish rings on legs and with spots on the gill margins. 

Our species of this Holarctic genus are distinguishable as follows : 

KEY TO THE SPECIES* 

Adults 
1. Males 

1 Superior appendages longer than the inferiors. Dorsum of abdo- 

minal segments 8-9 dark metallic blue, each with a narrow 
transverse pale line at base and apex, sides pale blue; 10 pale 

blue with a little black at the base middorsally 

pallidula, p. 307 

Superior appendages equal to or shorter than the inferiors 2. 

2 Abdominal segment 8 blue, with a transverse dorsal basal black or 

metallic green line or spot, 9-10 entirely pale blue. Superior 
appendages nearly as long but not as high as the inferiors seen 

in profile view gracilis, p. 307 

Abdominal segment 8 with a broad dark dorsal band reaching 
nearly to the apical margin; 9-10 blue with dark markings. .3. 

* Prepared by C. F. By era. 



NEHALENNIA 307 

3 Dorsum of abdominal segment 8 dark metallic green with no pale 
dorsal spots; 9-10 blue, 9 with a metallic green stripe on each 
side of the dorsum reaching from the base to one-half to two- 
thirds the way to the proximal end, 10 with a transverse basal 

black line integricoUis, p. 308 

Dorsum of abdominal segment 8 dark metallic green with a pale 
middorsal spot on the posterior fourth or less, and sides in- 
feriorly pale blue; 9 pale blue with a triangular dark metallic 
green spot on each side of the dorsum in its basal half or more; 
10 pale blue with a metallic green spot on each side of the dor- 
sum at the base. Superior appendages smaller than the in- 
feriors Irene, p. 308 

2. Females 

1 Hind margin of the prothorax entire and convex. Abdominal seg- 

ment 8-9 dark metallic blue-green, no pale dorsal spots on 8, a 

pale blue dorsal spot on 9, sides inferiorly and 10 pale blue with 

slight traces of black at extreme base. . . .integricollis, p. 308 

Hind margin of the prothorax emarginate 2. 

2 Hind margin of the prothorax bilobed. Segment 8 pale with a 

transverse stripe and lateral band of dark, or the dorsum of 8 

almost entirely black; 9 blue with a triangular dark lateral band; 

10 entirely blue gracilis, p. 307 

Hind margin of prothorax trilobed, 8-9 dark metallic green, 9 

with a pale dorsal spot. Rarely 8-9 colored like male 

Irene, p. 307 

Unknown pallidula, p. 308 

297. Nehalennia pallidula Calvert 
Calv. '13, p. 373. 
Length 24 mm. Expanse 26 mm. Fla. 

Another delicate bronzy green species. Face pale, cross striped with black 
on the postclypeus, and a narrow line on the base of the labrum. Front of thorax 
bronze green. Sides yellow below the middle line. Sides of abdominal segments 
1-6 pale bluish; of 7-8 yellowish; dorsum of 8 green with no dorsal spots; of 9-10 
blue; 9 with a green stripe each side, 10 with a transverse basal black line. 
Appendages blackish. 

298. Nehalennia gracilis Morse 

Morse '95, p. 274: Mtk. Cat. p. 64: Walk. '13, p. 161: Garm'27p. 51. 
Length 25 mm. Expanse 32 mm. Mass., N. Y., N. J. 

Another slender bronzy green species. Face is paler with blackish postclypeus 
and with a dark triangle projecting forward from the base of the labrum. Basal 



308 



DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



segments of the antennae ringed with black. Top of head black. Thorax and 
abdomen much as in irene except as noted in key. 

This species is found at the edges of upland bogs where cotton grass and 
sphagnum grow. 

299. Nehalennia integricollis Calvert 

Calv. '13, pp. 312; p. 373: Garm. '27, p. 50. 

Length 22 mm. Expanse 26 mm. N. J. 

This is one of the smallest of the damselflies. Face pale with black post- 
clypeus and a trilobed black line across the base of the labrum. Top of head 
black. Front of thorax black with metallic reflections becoming green towards 
the fore wing roots. Sides, below the middle, line yellow. Legs yellow; the 
femora lined and the tibiae dotted with black. Abdomen dark bronze green 
above becoming bluish toward the apex; yellow beneath. 8 above, wholly black; 
10 blue; 9 blue with a pair of large basal black spots. Appendages black in the 
male, yellowish in the female. 

300. Nehalennia Irene Hagen 

Hag. '61, p. 74: Mtk. Cat. p. 65: Butler '14, p. 346: Whed. '14, p. 92: Garm. 
'17, p. 559 and '27, p. 51. 

Syn: carlotta Butler 

Length 27 mm. Expanse 30 mm. Me. and N. D. to Fla. 

This is a delicate bronzy green species with blue tipped abdomen. Face pale, 

cross striped with black on the postclypeus and base of labrum. Basal segment 

of antennae ringed with black and white. Top of head metallic green. Front 




grac 



Irene 



of thorax wholly metallic green except for narrow black lines on the carinae, and 
the sutures. Sides yellow below the mid line. Legs yellow with black marginal 
lines on the femora and tibiae, and with black spines. Abdomen bronzy green 
above, yellowish beneath; the yellow extending, encircling the base of segments 
1-7. Black of dorsum restricted apically on 8-10; little on 8, two half length 
spots on 9, two basal spots on 10. Appendages black in male, brown in female. 

Whedon ('14, p. 92) says: "It is usually found in the tall grasses 
about marshy places and kettle holes, never venturing into the higher 



TELEALLAGMA 309 

air but keeping close to the water along the shore line or fluttering un- 
seen between the stems of the sedges." 

69. Chromagrion Needham 

These are damselflies of moderate size and rather unique coloration. 
The bright yellow of the rear of the thorax beneath will at once dis- 
tinguish them from all the others. The legs are rather long but their 
spines are short. 

The nymphs (Ndm. '03, p. 247) are cHmbers amid the submerged 
vegetation of sheltered pools. The gills are long and rather narrow 
;a,nd rather aburptly tapered at their tips. 

There is but one species. 

301. Chromagrion conditum Hagen 

Hag. '76, p. 1305: Mtk. Cat. p. 67: Garm. '17, p. 565 and '27, p. 46. 
Length 35 mm. Expanse 48 mm. Me. and N. J. to Ind. and Que. 

These are damselflies of blue and yellow coloration. The face is pale, cross 
striped with black on postclypeus and base of labrum. Top of head black. Front 
of thorax is well covered by a broad black stripe that is widest in the middle and 
notched each side above. The sides are pale with only traces of stripes in the 
depths of the sutures; yellow below the third lateral suture (or higher in the 
female); becoming a robin's egg blue above. Legs blackish externally on the 
femora and internally on the tibiae, becoming pruinose white basally, as in the 
whole under surface of the thorax. Wings hyaline with rather long quadrangular 
stigma surmounting a single cell. Abdomen blackish above with the blue of the 
yellow of the sides, on its basal half, extending upward almost to the middorsal 
line at the front of the segments. 6 and 7 wholly black; 8 and 9 in the male with 
a dorsal pair of round spots on a blue ground, and an intervening, interrupted 
middorsal blue line. Appendages black. 

The imagoes appear to keep rather close to the shelter of their native 
pool, spending but little time on the wing. Transformation takes place 
for the most part in the morning or early forenoon, and the place 
selected is but a few inches above the water. The species is of wide 
distribution, but is every where quite local. 

70. Teleallagma Kennedy 

(Kndy. '20, p. 87 for Telagrion daeckii) 

These are very long and slender and pale-hued damselflies in which 
the wings are stalked, generally as far out as the anal crossing. Within 
our range is found a single species. 

The nymph (Ndm. '04, p. 715) is likewise elongate, but otherwise 
similar to Enallagma. 



310 DRAGON FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

302. Teleallagma daeckii Calvert 

Calv. '03, p. 306: Mtk. Cat. p. 64 : Wmsn. '15, p. 616: Garm. '27, p. 50. 
Length 43 mm. Expanse 46 mm. Atl. Coast, N. J. to Fla. 

This is a long, thin, pa le bluish species with obscure black markings and an 
extremely long abdomen. Face blue with a few black dots. Top of head blackish 
with a pair of 1 large, triangular, pale blue postocular spots. Front of thorax 
with carina black and narrowly bordered with black, and with a widely inter- 
rupted stripe on the humeral suture. Sides pale with a short black narrow line 
at the upper end of middle suture. Legs pale with a black stripe on all femora 
above and one on outside and front of tibiae. There is a blackish middorsal 
stripe on abdominal segments 1-6, widening before the apex on each segment, 
covering three-fourths of 7; apex of 7 and 8 to 10 pale blue. Appendages black- 
tipped. 






daeckii interrqgatum angulaturo — -'resolutura 




71. COENAGRION 

These are blue-and-back-ringed damselflies of moderate size, in 
which the wings are stalked almost to the anal crossing, and the rather 
short stigma surmounts less than a single cell. 

The nymphs of none of our American species have as yet been made 
known. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES 

Adults 

1 Pale stripes of front of thorax interrupted by a cross line of black 

interrogatum, p. 310 

Pale stripes entire 2 

2 Dorsal black spot of second abdominal segment isolated 

angulatum, p. 311 

Dorsal black spot of second abdominal segment connected with 
the black at apex of segment resolutum, p. 311 

303. Coenagrion interrogatum Selys 

Selys '76, p. 254: Walk. '15. p. 174. 

Length 30 mm. Expanse 38 mm. Sask. 

This is a pretty blue and black species of average stature. Face greenish, 

postclypeus and heavy line at base of labrum black. Top of head black with 

bluish pyriform postocular spots. A narrow blue occipital line between them. 



ENALLAGMA 311 

Thorax bronzy blue with two antehumeral stripes of blue interrupted at three 
quarters their height. Sides of thorax blue with traces of a black line on the 
upper part of the middle suture and a continuous broader irregular line on the 
third lateral suture. Legs blackish beyond the middle of the femora; tibiae 
greenish externally. Abdomen bronze black above on middle segments, most 
extensively black on 6 with two transverse crescents (cf) or a club shaped spot 
( 9) on 2; 8 and 9 blue with submedian dots (cf) or basal quadrangular spots 
( 9 ) of black. 10 black in male and blue in female. 

This species inhabits reedy borders of trout streams 

304. Coenagrion angulatum Walker 

Walk. '12, p. 256: Whed. '14, p. 93: Whts. '17, p. 98. 

Length 30 mm. Expanse 36 mm. Man., Sask. 

This is an azure blue species marked with black. Face pale green cross-lined 
with black on the postclypeus and base of labrum. Head black above with large 
pyriform postocular spots and no connecting line on the occiput. Front of thorax 
bronze black with blue antehumeral bands that are parallel sided and slightly 
convergent toward their isolated ends. Sides bluish. Legs pale yellow, femora 
and tibiae lined with black. Abdomen bluish above, yellowish beneath, marked 
with bronze black as follows: an isolated transverse crescent on the second 
segment; a broad band covering most of 3-7; and the dorsum of 10; and in the 
female all of 9 and basal three-fourths of 8, as well. Appendages blackish. 

The nymph is at present unknown but its true habitat appears to be 
"a stagnant slough rather than a considerable body of clear water" 
(Whitehouse '17, p. 98). 

305. Coenagrion resolutum Hagen 

Hag. '76, p. 1263: Mtk. Cat. p. 66: Walk. '12, p. 255. 

Length 30 mm. Expanse 37 mm. Gr. Slave L., Hudson Bay, Wis. 

Another bronzy black and blue species. Face pale greenish yellow except 
postclypeus which is bronze black. Postocular spots blue; a greenish line between 
them along the occiput. Front of thorax bronze black with two pale greenish 
antehumeral lines that are isolated at both ends and a little constricted towards 
the upper end. Sides bluish or yellowish green. Abdomen pale blue above, 
greenish below, marked with bronze black as follows: a club shaped spot at apex 
and a pair of longitudinal lines before it on 2; broad apical spots on 3-5, more 
extensive on 6-7; all of 10 but the hind margins. Appendages blackish. 8 and 9 
are blue in the female and the black spot on 10 is smaller and basal in the female . 

This is a widely distributed species. 

72. Enallagma Charpentier 
The Bluets, etc. 
By C. Francis Byers 
This is the second largest genus of North American Odonata, num- 
bering 38 species, and being surpassed only by the Anisopterous genus 



312 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

Gomphus with its 45 species. In the suborder of the Zygoptera it is 
dominant, both in the number of described species and the number of 
individuals. In all faunal lists of Odonata, the term "common" appears 
frequently after the names of the species. 

While Enallagmas frequent all types of aquatic habitat, being re- 
corded even from brackish water and desert alkaline pools, they prefer 
still, shallow, fresh water, where there is an abundance of submerged 
and floating vegetation. 

The adults spend most of their time over the surface of the water, 
or in the grasses along the shores of the lakes and streams, but oc- 
casionally they are found in the woods and fields. They fly from plant 
to plant, or from one mass of floating algae to another, they are particu- 
larly fond of resting on bulrushes and cat-tails, or on floating lily pads. 
They fly very low, some species so low that it is well nigh impossible to 
get a collecting net under them without dipping the water. In foraging 
they fly through the vegetation, seldom over it, and do not often de- 
part very far from the borders of the water. They flit easily about 
among the grass stems and settle often in a rigidly horizontal position 
on the stems and leaves. Their food consists mainly of small Diptera, 
mosquitoes, midges, etc., that swarm in such places. They are eaten 
by frogs, which lie in ambush amid the floating algae, and catch them 
when they come to mate or oviposit; by swallows and other birds, that 
can fly close enough to the water to get them. They are snared in 
spiders webs, and are captured and eaten by robber-flies, dragonflies 
and other damselflies. 

The eggs are deposited in punctures in the tissues of green plants 
just beneath the surface of the water. Floating leaves are preferred, 
but the stems of standing aquatics are often found thickly punctured 
and filled with eggs in all stages of development. Oviposition gener- 
ally is performed in copulo, the male flying along with the female. 
They do not, as a rule, descend below the surface ; however, several 
species have been observed to do so, in which case the female is un- 
accompanied by the male. 

The adults divide sharply into two groups on color, the larger group, 
being bright blue and black, the other, black with yellow or orange 
markings. The head is predominantly black above, with the mouth 
parts, the anteclypeus, the genae, the postgenae and the occiput, pale. 
The postclypeus (nasus) is usually black, but in some if species is pale 
with reduced black markings. There is a pale transverse frontal band, 
just above the clypeus, on the frons, of varying width, sometimes ex- 
tending as far as the median ocellus. The vertex is usually entirely 



ENALLAGMA 313 

black, with occasional pale spots around the ocelli. Antennae are en- 
tirely black, or black with the two basal joints pale. Pale postocular 
spots are always present, in some species small and entirely surrounded 
by the black of the head, in others large and united with each other by 
way of the pale occipital stripe on the rear of the head, or united with 
the pale of the rear of the head, that is, the postgenal and occipital 
region, in still other species they are very thin and linear. The pro- 
thorax is predominantly black, with superimposed pale areas and spots. 
Certain species have a pair of dorsal pits on the prothorax in the fe- 
males. The thorax is always predominantly pale, never metallic green, 
with a black middorsal and humeral stripe of varying width and extent, 
and usually reduced basal black markings on the second and third 
lateral sutures. M2 arises between the fourth and sixth, usually the 
fourth and fifth, postnodal cross vein in the fore wings, and between the 
third and fifth in the hind wings. The legs always have the front row 
of setae on the tibia less than twice as long as the spaces between their 
bases. The coloration of the abdomen varies greatly and is used for the 
determination of species. The females all have a ventral spine on the 
apical margin of abdominal segment eight. The appendages of the 
male vary greatly also, and are the final criteria for specific deter- 
mination. 

The nymphs live in tangled submerged vegetation, and are among the 
most numerous of the predatory hordes in such places, living on other 
insect larva, small crustaceans, etc. They are eaten by larger aquatic 
insects and vertebrates, especially the shallow-water fish. 

Of the thirty-eight described species of North American adults, the 
nymphs of only eighteen are known, and only fourteen have been ade- 
quately described. Their identification is difiicult and it is quite im- 
possible to write a satisfactory key for their separation in the light of 
our present incomplete knowledge of them. In general, the nymph of 
Enallagma is slender, nearly smooth, with the head a third wider than 
the succeeding parts of the body. Antennae long slender, six or seven 
jointed, the segments generally increasing in length to the third, de- 
creasing thereafter to the tip. Labium slender with a prominant median 
lobe, which has a row of 3-9 setae on the lateral margins in addition to 
the mental setae, numbering from 2-4 on a side. Lateral setae 4-6. 
Legs usually smooth with a preapical brown ring on the femora. The 
abdomen cyHndric, each segment with lateral keels, well or poorly de- 
veloped, and carrying in some species clumps or rows of heavy setae. 
The gills vary greatly as to size and pigmentation, but do not possess 
the long tapering points of Ischnura and Anomalagrion. 



314 



DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



Enallagma is essentially a holarctic genus, with its center of distribu- 
tion in the United States. However, a number of species have been 
described from Africa and from the islands of the Pacific. The present 
account embodies all the New World species with the exception of E. 
krugii Kolbe, E. truncatum Gundlach, from Porto Rico and Cuba, and 
probably E. simile Selys from Venezuela. 

The Known Nymphs 







Setae 






GilU 




Species 


Length* 


Lat. 


Ment. 


Ext\ 


ComhX 


Pigmentation 


Described by 


antennatum 


14+7.5 


4-5 


3 


7-8 


Vi 


Basal % & apex 


Ndm. '03, p. 257 


boreale 


15+7 


6 


4 


5-6 


H + 


Tracheae only 


Walk. '16, p. 192 


carunculatum 


14+6 


6 


3 


8-9 


H 


Tracheae only 


Ndm. '03, p. 255 


civile 


15+6 


5-6 


3-4 


7-8 


H- 


Tracheae only 


Ndm. & Ckll. '03. p. 137 


cyathigerum 


14+5 


5-6 


4 


4-5 


Vz^ 


Tracheae only 


Lucas '00, p. 297 
Walk. '16, p. 193 


ebrium 


13+5.5 


6 


2-4 


6 


y2+ 


Tracheae only 


Walk. '14, p. 351 
Lyon '15, p. 57 


exsulans 


13+6 


4-5 


3 


6-7 


H 


Basal M of 
tracheae 


Ndm. '03. p. 255 


geminatum 


12+4.7 


5 


3 


3-4 


V2- 


Tracheae only 


Ndm. '03, p. 254 


hageni 


15+5 


5 


3 


3-4 


H+ 


Tracheae only 


Ndm. '03. p. 253 


pallidum 


14+7 


4 


2 


6 


H 


Tracheae, base 
& apes 


Byers '27. p. 00 


praevarum 


13+5 


5 


3 


3 


Vz 


Tracheae only 


Smn. '27, p. 14 


signatum 


17+5.5 


5 


3 


3-4 


? 


3 dark bands 


Ndm. '03, p. 258 


traviatum 


11(7) +6 


4 


6-7 


2-3 





Basal M 


Garm. *17. p. 556 


vesperum 


16+5.5 


5 


3-4 


4 





Uniform (7) 


Walk. '13. p. 162 
(as pollutum) 



t Body +gill8. * Spines on outer margin of mentum of labium. 

t Spinous margin on base of dorsal edge of middle gill in terms of length of entire gill. 

The keys for the separation of the adults follow. A key dealing with 
so many species is bound to be cumbersome, so final identification 
should only be made after a comparison with a written description and 
drawings of the male superior abdominal appendages. The identifica- 
tion of the females is notoriously difficult, and is in many cases only 
certain when the specimen has been taken mated with a known male, 
it is for this reason that collectors of Enallagma should be very careful 
not to separate such pairs in the killing and mounting processes. 

The species of Enallagma may be broken up into four large groups, 
based in the main on the genitalia of the male. These groups may be 
roughly defined as follows : 

Group A : Superior appendages distinctly shorter than the 10th ab- 
dominal segment; simple in form, not distinctly bifid, and without a 
tubercle. Color blue and black. Abdominal segment 2 with an apical 
black spot and ring, the remainder blue. 



ENALLAGMA 



315 



Group B: Superior appendages bifid; the inferior arm as long or 
longer than the superior. 

Group C: Superior appendages bifid, the inferior arm never as long 
as the superior. 

Group D: Superior appendages as long as, or longer than, the 10th 
abdominal segment. Not bifid. Color black with yellow or orange 
markings. Abdominal segment 2 with the black of the dorsum reaching 
from the base to the apex. 

The species may be arranged under these groups as follows: 



A. 


B. 


C. 


D. 


cyathigerum 


ebrium 


anna 
prevarum 


cultellatum 


clausum 


ezsulans 






divagans 


weewa 


culicinorum 


laurentj 
vesperum 


hageni 


antennatum 


eiseni 


poUutum 


recurvatum 


pallidum 










basidens 


signatum 


geminatum 






sulcatum 


piscinarium 


doubledayi 


semlcirculare 






carunculatum 




concisum 


boreale 




coecum 


pictum 




civile 


cardenium 


dubium 


durum 








minusculum 




aspersum 
travatum 





laterale 



KEY TO THE SPECIES 
Adults 
1. Males 
Superior abdominal appendages not bifid, the distal margin at 
most only slightly indented giving the appendage a bilobed ap- 

pearence {pollutum, durum, divagans and minusculum) 2. 

Superior appendages bifid, consisting of two distinct parts nar- 
rowly joined near the base. There may or may not be a clear 
yellowish tubercle between the arms in the notch of the fork . . 21 

Superior abdominal appendages small, greatest length less than 
that of the 10th segment. Dorsum of abdominal segment 2 blue 
with a black dorsal spot or spots of varying size, but never cover- 
ing the entire dorsum from base to apex of the segment (except 
divagans). Color blue and black 3. 



316 •■ DRAGON FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

Superior abdominal appendages large, greatest length as long or 
longer than 10th segment (except sulcatum). Dorsum of abdo- 
minal segment 2 with the black of the dorsum extending from 
the base to the apex of the segment. Color predominantly black 
with orange or yellow markings, occasionally blue 13. 

3 Abdominal segments 8-9 unmarked with black 4. 

Abdominal segment 8 marked with black, 9 blue entirely 11. 

4 Abdominal segment 2 with dorsum entirely black . divagans, p. 322 
Abdominal segment 2 blue with a black spot 5. 

5 Inferior appendages longer than the superiors 6. 

Inferior appendages as long as the superiors or shorter 9. 

6 M2 arising between the 3rd -4th postnodal cross veins in the hind 

wings hageni, p. 322 

M2 arising between the 4th-5th postnodals in the hind wing .... 7. 

7 Superior appendages blunt, berry-like boreale, p. 323 

Superior appendages with tips more or less acute 8. 

8 Superior appendages with tip recurved. Humeral dark stripe 

broken and very narrow clausum, p. 324 

Superior appendages with tip directed posteriorly. Humeral stripe 
wider and not broken cyathigerum, p. 324 

9 Abdominal segments 3-5 at least one-third blue 10. 

Abdominal segments 3-5 mostly black piscinarium, p. 325 

10 With 4-5 antenodal cells between M4 and Cul. . .durum, p. 325 
With 3 such antenodal cells minusculum p. 325 

1 1 Abdominal segment 9 marked with black on the sides 

geminatum, p. 326 

Abdominal segment 9 all blue 12. 

12 Superior abdominal appendages with the tips recurved 

recurvatum, p. 326 

Superior abdominal appendages with the end truncate, distal mar- 
gin slightly convex, inferiors longer than superiors 

laterale, p. 327 

13 Abdominal segment 2 with the dorsum entirely black 14. 

Abdominal segment 2 with the black of the dorsum assuming a 

U-shape, the arms of the U reaching from near the base to the 
apex so as to isolate a pale median spot from the pale of the 
sides cultellatum, p. 327 



ENALLAGMA 317 

14 Dorsum of abdominal segment 9 pale blue or orange 15. 

Dorsum of abdominal segment 9 black. Pale postocular spots 

linear, not confluent with the pale color of the rear of the head. 
Pale antehumeral stripe narrower than the black humeral stripe 
19 

15 Pale postocular spots directly confluent with the pale color of the 

rear of the head. Middle prothoracic lobe predominantly pale 

on dorsum laurenti, p. 327 

Pale postocular spots not directly confluent with the pale color of 
the rear of the head, although they may be indirectly confluent 
therewith, by way of, the pale postocellar stripe. Middle 
prothoracic lobe predominantly black on dorsum 16. 

16 Pale antehumeral stripe narrower than the black humeral stripe 

17. 

Pale antehumeral stripe as wide as, or wider than the dark humeral 
stripe 18. 

17 Ninth abdominal segment orange pollutum, p. 328 

Ninth abdominal segment blue sulcatum, p. 329 

18 Ninth abdominal segment yellow signatum, p. 329 

Ninth abdominal segment blue vesperum, p. 330 

19 The two basal joints of the antennae black. No pale spots about 

the ocelH dubium, p. 330 

The two basal joints of the antennae pale. Two light spots be- 
tween the lateral and median ocelli 20. 

20 Second lateral thoracic (metapleural) black stripe abruptly nar- 

rowed at three-fourths to two-thirds its length to a narrow line 

pictum, p. 331 

Second lateral thoracic black stripe uniformly widening from an- 
terior to posterior end concisum, p. 332 

21 Superior abdominal appendages with the inferior arm as long or 

longer than the superior 22. 

Superior abdominal appendages with the superior arm always the 
longer, the inferior arm short and in some species assuming the 
form of a basal spine or flap 29. 

22 Without a clear tubercle between the arms of the superior abdom- 

inal appendages 23. 

With a clear tubercle between the arms of the superior abdominal 
appendages 26. 



318 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

23 Dorsum of abdominal segment 2 blue with a black spot 

ebrium, p. 332 

Dorsum of abdominal segment 2 wholly black 24. 

24 Superior appendages with the arms approximate, the inferior 

longer than the superior 25. 

Superior appendages with the arms widely divergent, the superior 
as long as the inferior 27, 

25 A line drawn through the long axis of the upper arm of the superior 

appendages parallel to a similar line drawn through the lower 

exsulans, p. 332 

A line drawn through the long axis of the upper arm of the superior 
appendages meets a similar line drawn through the lower at an 
acute angle weewa, p. 333 

26 Abdominal segment 8-10 almost entirely pale blue 

pallidum, p. 334 

Abdominal segments 8 and 10 black on the dorsum 

antennatum, p. 334 

27 Dorsum of abdominal segments 4-5 more than half black 

carunculatum, p. 335 

Dorsum of abdominal segments 4-5 less than half black 28. 

28 Superior appendages with the tubercle projecting noticeably be- 

yond the dorso-caudal angles when viewed from the side 

doubledayi, p. 335 

Superior abdominal appendages not as above. Arms longer and 
more divergent civile, p. 336 

29 With a clear tubercle usually present on the inner face of the 

superior appendages, usually visible in profile view between the 

arms of the appendage, but not always 30. 

Without such a tubercle 32. 

30 Superior appendages in dorsal view, with a long basal tooth just 

beyond the point where the lower branch of the appendages is 
attached to the upper. Lower branch broad, angulate and flap- 
like culicinorum, p. 336 

Superior appendages in dorsal view without this tooth. Lower 
branch not flap-like, more or less pointed 31. 

31 Superior appendages with the apex of the upper arm dire ; ed back, 

lower arm with the apex directed posteriorly, .praevarum, p. 337 
Superior appendages with the apex of the upper arm directed 

ventrally, the lower arm directed in the same direction 

anna, p. 338 



ENALLAGMA 319 

32 Abdominal segment 2 with the black of the dorsum extending from 

base to apex 33. 

Abdominal segment 2 with the black of the dorsum in isolated 
spots, streaks or bands 34. 

33 M2 arising nearest the 5th postnodal cross vein in the fore wings, 

4th in the hind. Eight to ten postnodals. Superior appendages 
with the lower arm appearing as a basal triangle, with the apex 

directed ventrally eiseni, p. 338 

M2 arising nearest the 4th postnodal cross vein in the fore wings, 
3rd in the hind. 5-6 post nodals basidens, p. 339 

34 Caudal half at least of segment 7 pale aspersum, p. 339 

Abdominal segment 7 with the dorsum mostly black 35. 

35 Segment 10 entirely blue semicirculare, p. 340 

Segment 10 with black markings 36. 

36 Segment 10 entirely black on dorsum, sides of 8 with black streaks. 

traviatum, p. 340 

Segment 10 with some pale markings on the dorsum 37, 

37 Segment 10 with a narrow median stripe of black, remainder blue 

eiseni, p. 338 

Segment 10 with the sides and a narrow basal stripe black, leaving 
a pale apical area on the dorsum 38. 

38 Postocular spots wide, .45-.49 mm. from cephalic to caudal edge 

coecum, p. 341 

Postocular spots narrow, .28-.38 mm. from the cephalic to the 
caudal border cardenium, p. 341 

2. Females 

1 Middle prothoracic lobes with a pair of dorsal pits 2. 

Middle prothoracic lobes without a pair of dorsal pits 21. 

2 Abdominal segment 10 usually without black markings on the 

dorsum 3. 

Segment 10 with black markings on the dorsum 9. 

3 Dorsum of segment 9 mostly black 4. 

Dorsum of segment 9 entirely blue or with black lines or spots only 

.., 5 

4 Antenodal cells, 4-5 durum, p. 335 

Antenodal cells 2-3 antennatum, p. 334 

5 Dorsutn of segment 9 all blue traviatum, p. 340 

Dorsum of segment 9 with black lines or spots 6. 



320 DRAGON FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

6 Dorsum of segment 9 with a pair of dorsal black spots on the basal 

half 7. 

Dorsum of 9 without spots, these replaced by 2 dorso-lateral lines 
either joined or separated at the meson 8. 

7 Ten to eleven postnodal cross veins. Distribution: Eastern U. S. 

west to Texas exsulans, p. 332, and weewa, p. 333 

Five to six postnodal cross veins. Distribution: Western U. S. 
east to Texas basidens, p. 339 

8 Segment 8 black with pale blue lateral spots .... divagans, p. 322 
Segment 8 blue with a dorsal stripe of black, fully four-jBfths as 

wide as the segment in dorsal view pallidum, p. 334 

9 Segment 8 black on dorsum with a large blue subapical spot on 

each side 10. 

Abdominal segment 8 not so marked 11. 

10 Abdominal segment 7 black geminatum, p. 326 

Abdominal segment 7 blue, never with more than a line of black 

aspersum, p. 339 

11 Abdominal segment 8 entirely blue 12. 

Abdominal segment 8 with some black 13. 

12 Dorsum of abdominal segment 2 entirely black 

cardenium, p. 341 

Dorsum of abdominal segment 2 blue with black spot 

cyathigerum, p. 324; clausum p. 324, and boreale p. 323 

13 Black of abdominal segment 1 reaching from the base to the apex 

civile, p. 336 

Black of abdominal segment 1 not reaching the apex of the seg- 
ment 14. 

14 Western species 15. 

Eastern species 18. 

15 Hind margin of the prothorax convex throughout 16. 

Hind margin of the prothorax concave medially, slightly concave 

or truncate on either side. . .praevarum, p. 337, and anna p. 338 

16 Segment 9 black on dorsum, 8 entirely blue, or with black band on 

dorsum narrower anteriorly than posteriorly 17. 

Segment 9 black on dorsum with an apical blue spot, 8 blue, apical 
fourth and sides inferiorly black and confluent, .coecum, p. 341 

17 Mesostigmal plates with a diagonal ridge from the caudo-mesal to 

the cephalo-lateral angles carunculatum, p. 335 

Without such a ridge on the mesostigmal plates 

cyathigerum, p. 324, and boreale p. 323 



ENALLAGMA 321 

18 M2 rising beyond the fourth postnodal cross vein in the hind 

wings 19. 

M2 rising between the 3rd and 4th postnodal cross veins in the 
hind wings ebrium, p. 332 

19 Mesostigmal plates with a diagonal ridge . . . carunculatum, p. 335 
Mesostigmal plate without such a ridge 20. 

20 Black color of the dorsum of abdominal segments 4-7 always 

reaching the cephalic margin doubledayi, p. 335 

Black of the dorsum of 4-7 never reaching the cephalic margin 
cyathigerum, p. 324, and boreale, p. 323 

21 Abdominal segment 1 with the black of the dorsum extending from 

the base to the apex 22. 

Black on the dorsum of segment 1 interrupted by an apical ring of 
blue hageni, p. 322, and recurvatum p. 326 

22 Prothoracic dorsal pits very shallow and situated near the hind 

lobe which is trilobate cultellatum, p. 327 

Prothoracic pits deeper, hind lobe entire 23. 

23 Black humeral stripe not touching the lower end of the meso- 

stigmal plates. Pale antehumeral stripe wider than the black 

humeral 24. 

Black humeral stripe touching the lower end of the mesostigmal 
plates 25. 

24 Pale postocular spots broadly connected with the pale of the rear 

of the head laurenti, p. 327 

Pale postocular spots not directly connected with the pale of the 
rear of the head vesperum, p. 330 

25 Dorsum of segment 10 pale colored 26. 

Dorsum of segment 10 black 28. 

26 Prothoracic pits large, situated near the anterior border of the 

middle lobe, a pale area posterior and external to each 

signatum, p. 329 

Prothoracic pits smaller, situated at, or near, the mid-length of the 
middle lobe, pale color adjacent to each more extensive anterior 
to it, rather than posterior to it 27. 

27 Anterior end of the antehumeral pale stripe bordered with a broad 

stripe of black on the mesostigmal plate, which black widely 
separates the antehumeral stripe from the pale vertical stripe on 

the plate sulcatum, p. 329 

Antero-mesal end of the pale antehumeral stripe narrowly sepa- 
rated by black from the extensive pale area of the mesostigmal 
plate pollutum, p. 328 



322 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

28 Prothoracic dorsal pits situated anterior to the middle of the me- 
dian lobe. The middorsal and humeral black stripes broadly 

joined by a black bar across the mesostigmal plate 

pictum, p. 331 

Prothoracic dorsal pits situated at about mid-length of the median 
lobe. Middorsal and humeral black stripes narrowly joined by a 

black stripe on the suture of the mesostigmal plate 

concisum, p. 332 

N. B. The females of the following species have not been included in 
this key, either because they are, as yet, not known, or have 
been inadequately described: culicinorum, dubium, eiseni, 
laterale, minusculum, piscinarium and semicirculare. 

306. Enallagma divagans Selys 

Selys 76, p. 52: Mtk. Cat. p. 58: Garm. '17, p. 536 and '27, p. 79. 

Length 29-33 mm. Expanse 40 mm. Mass. to Fla. to Ind., Mich, and 111. 

Color dark blue and black. 

Male. — Face blue. Labrum with a black median spot, postclypeus black, 
antennae black. Anterior part of frons blue, remainder of frons and vertex black. 
Postocular spots subcuneiform and not connected. Prothorax black with spots 
of varying sizes, one on the anterior lobe, sometimes very large, two lateral ones 
on the middle lobe, two lateral ones and a median one on the hind lobe, all pale. 
Thorax with the middorsal and humeral dark stripe wide, antehumeral pale 
stripe narrower than either. A short black basal line on the second and third 
lateral sutures. Abdomen blue-bronze, black as follows: a basal spot on 1; 
entire dorsum of 2-7 and 10. 8-9 entirely blue except for an occasional minute 
isolated black spot on the sides. Superior appendages black, shorter than 10, and 
not bifid, but comma-shaped with a short rounded upper part followed by an 
incurved slender process. In some specimens the differentiation between the 
"head" and "tail" of the comma is so marked as to give the appendage a bifid 
appearance. 

The female is similar to the male except the abdomen. The 8th abdominal 
segment is black on the dorsum with pale blue lateral spots on the caudal margin. 
Segment 9 blue with two short dorso-lateral black stripes that fuse at the base 
of the meson. 10 blue. 

307. Enallagma hageni Walsh 

Walsh '63, p. 234: Mtk. Cat. p. 60: Whed. '14, p. 93: Garm. '17. p. 547 and '27, 

p. 75. 
Length 30 mm. Expanse 38 mm. Me. and Pa. to N. Dak. 

This species is probably our most common northeastern Zygopteron, being 
rivaled in its range only by Ischnura verticalis for number of individuals. During 
the summer it is usually present about ponds in such quantities as to be taken 
by the netful rather than as individuals. Masses of floating vegetation are dotted 



ENALLAGMA 323 

with its bright blue and black. Male. Face blue. Postclypeus black. Pale trans- 
verse frontal band reaching the basis of the antennae. Vertex, antennae and the 
remainder of the frons black. Pale postocular spots wide, cuneiform, and entirely 
surrounded by the black of the head. Pale postocellar stripe vestigial. Anterior 
and posterior lobes of the prothorax mostly pale. Middle lobe black on dorsum, 
with two lateral spots and sides pale. Thorax with the usual wide middorsal and 
humeral black stripes, and the pale antehumeral stripe. Remainder of the thorax 
pale. M2 arising between the 4th and 5th postnodal cross veins in the fore wings, 
the 3rd and 4th in the hind. Abdomen blue, black as follows: a basal spot on 1; 
an apical ring and spot on 2; spots on the apical third to fourth of 3-5; half of 6; 
nearly all of 7; the dorsum of 10. 8-9 entirely blue. Superior appendages shorter 
than 10, simple, not bifid. The inferior appendages longer than the superiors. 

The female is colored a yellow-green and black. Head and thorax like the 
male. Abdomen with segments 1-10 black except the lateral surfaces and an 
apical ring on the first; lateral surfaces of 2-10, and interrupted basal rings on 
3-6 inclusive, which are pale blue or greenish. 

308. Enallagama boreale Selys 

Selys 75, p. 242: Mtk. Cat. p. 55: Garm. '17, p. 525 and '27, p. 65: Walk. '24. 
p. 173. 

Syn: calverti Morse 
Length 33-35 mm. Expanse 42-46 mm. Northern U. S. and Canada to Pa. 






dlvagans hagenl boreale 




A common damselfly of the blue-black group. Male with the head bufJ below. 
Postclypeus black, except for the lateral margins. Pale transverse frontal band. 
Vertex, antennae and the remainder of the frons black. Postocular spots large 
and isolated, entirely surrounded by black. Prothorax mostly black, with the 
anterior lobe, two large lateral spots and the sides of the middle lobe, and the 
posterior margin of the hind lobe pale. Thorax with a wide middorsal black 
stripe (sometimes divided by a fine blue line), a wide antehumeral blue stripe, 
and a narrow black humeral stripe. A black basal spot on the third lateral suture 
extending usually only one-third to one-half the distance to the bases of the 
posterior legs, but occasionally being prolonged into a fine line that reaches the 
entire distance. M2 arising between the 5th and 6th postnodal cross veins in the 
front wing, and between the 4th and 5th in the hind. Abdomen blue with the 
following black: a basal spot on 1; an apical spot and narrow ring on 2; an apical 
spot connected with an apical band on 3-4; apical third of 5; two-thirds of 6; 
five-sixths of 7; and all of the dorsum of 10. Superior appendages black, short, 
one-third as long as 10, blunt, and with no tubercle. 

Female similar to the male. Abdomen with the first segment as in male, 
2nd with the spot connected with the apical ring and a line on the meson to the 



324 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

base of the sclerite, 3-6 with narrow dorsal black lines widened near the apices, 
7 with a similar but broader dorsal line, caudal half of 8 and all of 9-10 black. 

309. Enallagma clausum Morse 

Morse '95, p. 209: Mtk. Cat. p. 56: Kndy. '15, p. 299 (Annals E. S. A.): Kndy. 

'17, p. 619. 
Length 31-33 mm. Expanse 42 mm. Kan., Nev. and Wash. 

A western intermountain species, an inhabitant of the desert and seemingly 
enjoys its life in the alkaline ponds of this barren region. Color, blue and black. 
Male. Head pale beneath. Postclypeus with a wide black basal spot. Pale post- 
ocular spots wide, triangular, and entirely surrounded by the black of the head. 
Prothorax black with the anterior lobe transversely lineate with pale, middle 
lobe with or without pale lateral spots, posterior lobe margined with pale. 
Thorax with the mid-carina black or lineate with pale; middorsal black stripe 
rather narrow; dark humeral stripe very narrow, widest at and more or less 
broken at the suture; pale antehumeral stripe wide, at least two-thirds as wide 
as the middorsal dark stripe. Abdomen blue, black as follows: a basal spot 
on 1; an apical spot and ring on 2; apical two-fifths to two-thirds of 3-5; with a 
longitudinal stripe narrowed submarginally; apical two-thirds of 6; almost all 
of 7; and all the dorsum of 10. 8-9 entirely blue. Superior appendages not bifid, 
shorter than 10, pointed and recurved at the tip, somewhat like E. recurvatuvl. 
Female, similar to the male, except the apical black spots on the abdominal 
segments 3-7 occupy the greater part of the dorsum, however, they do not reach 
the basal margins of the segments. Segment 8 entirely blue. Dorsum of 9-10 
black. 

310. Enallagma cyathigerum Charpentier 

Charp. '40, p. 163: Mtk. Cat. p. 57: Garm. '17, p. 534 and '27, p. 70: Smn. '27, 
p. 14.: Lucas, W. J., The Entomologist, 34:69, pi. 2, S. 5, 1900. 
Syn: annexum Hag., robustum Selys. 
Length 31-32 mm. Expanse 44 mm. North America 

This species enjoys the widest distribution of any of the New World Enal- 
lagma, being found the world over, except in the tropics. Color blue and black. 
Male. Head buff beneath. Postclypeus black with wide blue lateral margins. 
and blue transverse area above on the frons. Vertex, antennae and the remainder 
of the frons black. Postocular spots large, pear shaped and separate. Prothorax 
black with the most of the anterior lobe, 2 spots on the median lobe, the caudal 
margin of the posterior lobe, and the sides blue. A narrow humeral black stripe, 
a wide antehumeral blue, and middorsal black, stripe. A black spot at the base 
of the third lateral suture. Remainder of the thorax blue. M2 arising between 
the 4th and 5th postnodal cross vein in the fore wings, the 3rd and 4th in the 
hind. Abdomen blue with the following black: a basal spot on 1; a subapical 
dorsal spot and apical ring on 2; apical spots and rings on 3-5; caudal half of 6, 
four-fifths of 7, and all of the dorsum of 10. Superior appendages black, short, 
bent downward with apices acute, not blunt as in boreale. 

Female like the male, blue generally replaced by yellow. Abdomen with 
broad longitudinal stripes on the 2nd segment, those on 3-7 narrower and ex- 
panded near the caudal margin, that on 8 reduced near the front margin. 



ENALLAGMA 



325 



311. Enallagma piscinarium Williamson 

Wmsn. '00, p. 273: Mtk. Cat. p. 61. 

Length 28 mm. Expanse 34 mm. N. Y., N. J., Pa. Ind. 

One of the rarer blue and black Enallagmas found around fish ponds. The 
following description of the male is taken from Mr. E. B. Williamson's original 
one: "Head blue, beneath pale. Vertex, antennae (except the first joint), and 
the postclypeus, black. Postocular spots rounded, cuneiform, narrowly con- 
nected. Prothorax black, posterior lobe narrowly margined with blue. Thorax 
blue, a middorsal and a humeral stripe and a spot on the second and third lateral 
sutures just under the wing bases, black. Abdomen blue, black as follows: 
a basal spot and a narrow apical ring on 1; an apical spot connected with an 
apical spot connected with an apical ring on 2; very narrowly interrupted basal 
rings on 3-6 (these rings are wider anteriorly becoming narrower successively); 
all of 7 and 10. Sides of 1 and 2 blue, posteriorly the black of the dorsum extend- 
ing more unto the sides." Superior appendages very similar to E. geminatum. 
Male. 

312. Enallagma durum Hagen 

Hag. '61, p. 87: Mtk. Cat. p. 58: Wmsn. '22, p. 142: Root '23, p. 202: Garm. '27, 

p. 83. 
Length 32-38 mm. Expanse 48-52 mm. Mass., R. I., to Fla. and La. 

One of our largest bluets, frequently recorded from brackish water ponds. 
Colors, blue and black. Head typical of the blue-black Enallagmas, postocular 
spots usually united. Prothorax and thorax not differing from those of this 
group already described, except that the middorsal carina is yellow or blue 




cyathigerum 




pieclnarivim 




separating the middorsal black stripe into two parts. Wings with 4-5 antenodal 
cells. Abdomen blue with the following black: a basal spot on 1, wider than 
long; a rounded apical spot with an apical "tail" on 2; apical part of 3-6, pointed 
anteriorly; all of 7, except a transverse basal ring; the dorsum of 10. 8-9 blue. 
Superior appendages one-fourth to one-third as long as 10, excavated within, but 
not bifid, inferior apical angle with a small tubercle. Inferior appendages a little 
longer than the superior. 

Female. Color, yellowish-red and black. Similar to the male in the head 
and thorax. Dorsum of 1-9 with a broad black band widened before the apices, 
and interrupted transverse basal yellow rings on 3-7. Dorsum of 10 mostly pale. 

313. Enallagma minusculum Morse 

Morse '95, p. 207: Mtk. Cat. p. 60: Howe '17, p. 16: Garm. '27, p. 77. 
Length 26 mm. Expanse 34 mm. Mass. and N. H. 

A rare species very muchly circumscribed in its range. Described by Dr. 
Morse as follows: "Cuneiform postocular spots small, more or less rounded. 



326 DRAGON FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

Posterior lobe of pronotum black, unspotted, margined with yellow; anterior 
lobe with pale transverse band. Thorax with the following black: a wide mid- 
dorsal stripe, widest in front; a wide humeral (wider than pale antehumeral) 
stripe, widest below, expanded on and just behind its crossing of the humeral 
suture. Abdomen black as follows: dorsum of 1, divided by an apical spot of 
blue or purple; posterior half of 2, third of 3, two-fifths of 4, half of 5, three- 
fourths of 6, four-fifths of 7, and all of 10; 8-9 blue. Superior appendages half 
as long as 10, in profile view broader than long." The superiors are not bifid, 
however, the posterior margin is shallowly excavate, giving the appearance of 
two parts broadly connected. 

The female is still unknown after some thirty-eight years of collecting. 

314. Enallagma geminatum Kellicott 

Klct. '95, p. 239: Mtk. Cat. p. 59: Garm. '17, p. 544 and '27, p. 73. 

Length 26-27 mm. Expanse 35 mm. N. Y. to Wis., 111. to Fla. and La. 

This species is regionally common or rare, collected mostly at ponds where 
it flies very close to the water. Colors, light blue and black. Male. Face light 
blue, the labrum with a black basal spot. Postclypeus black. The frontal trans- 
verse pale band reaching just to the basis of the antennae. Vertex, antennae and 
the remainder of the frons, black. Pale postocular spots oval, their margins 
frequently serrated, and not connected. The usual pale postocellar stripe is 
wanting. Dorsum of the prothorax with the anterior and the posterior lobes 
mostly blue; the middle lobe entirely black on the dorsum, sides pale. Thorax 
with the middorsal black stripe wide. Pale antehumeral stripe irregular, not 
reaching the caudal margin of the sclerite, contracted at the caudal third or 
fourth, and occasionally interrupted to form an exclamation point. Humeral 
black stripe widest below. A black basal line on the third lateral suture. Ab- 
domen: the first segment blue, a black basal spot occupying half the dorsum, and 
the caudo-lateral margins black; second segment blue, except a subapical dorsal 
spot, an apical ring, and a longitudinal lateral stripe, which are black; segments 
3-7 with longitudinal black stripes on the dorsum from near the bases to the 
apices. 8-9 with the dorsum blue, but with a lateral marginal stripe from the 
the bases to the apices dark brown or black. Superior appendages shorter than 
10, and not bifid. 

The female is similar to the male, except abdominal segments 9-10 are en- 
tirely brown on the dorsum; 8 brown with two large blue spots occupying most 
of the segment and separated by a dark mesal line. 

315. Enallagma recurvatum Davis 

Davis '13, p. 15: Garm. '27, p. 78. 

Length 30 mm. Expanse 34 mm. N. Y. and N. J. 

A species very closely related to E. hageni, and as yet only recorded from the 
vicinity of New York City. Male. Color pale blue and black. Head black, 
beneath pale, the following blue; band on front between eyes and postocular 
spots. Prothorax black above, pale beneath; thorax with a middorsal, a humeral 
stripe, and a basal spot on the third lateral suture, black. Abdomen blue, black 
as follows: a basal spot on the dorsum of 1; apical ring and spot on 2; apical 



ENALLAGMA 327 

ring on 3; apical half of 4; apical two-thirds of 5; apical three-fourths of 6; almost 
all of 7; a narrow linear spot on each side of 8; dorsum of 10. Colored in general 
very much like hageni. Superior appendages like hageni, but with the tips re- 
curved, and the superiors and inferiors of almost equal length. 
The female cannot yet be distinguished from that of E. hageni. 

316. Enallagma laterale Morse 

Morse '95, p. 274: Howe '17, p. 18: Mtk. Cat. p. 60: Garm. '27, p. 77. 

Length 26 mm. Expanse 34 mm. Mass. 

A very rare bluet. In absence of specimens in our collection, the following 
description of the male has been taken from the original one by Morse: "Post- 
ocular spots of moderate size. Middorsal thoracic and humeral dark stripes of 
median width. Abdomen blue with the dorsum black as follows: apical half of 
2, fourth of 3, third of 4, half of 5, three-fourths of 6, all of 7 except an interrupted 
basal ring, a stripe each side on 8, all of 10. Dorsum of 10 emarginate. Superior 
appendages short, one-fourth to one-third as long as side of 10, in side view nearly 
as broad as long, directed caudad or slightly deflexed, sides parallel, apex bluntly 
emarginate Inferior appendages nearly twice as long as the superiors." 

The female is unknown. 

317. Enallagma cultellatum Hagen 

Hag. '76, p. 524: Mtk. Cat. p. 57: Kndy. '20, p. 86. 

Length 31 mm. Expanse 36 mm. Tropic 

While no definite record is available of the capture of this species within the 
political bounds of the United States, it is found in the life zones that include 
Florida and the U. S. -Mexican boundary; so it is included here for completeness. 
In color it varies from yellow through orange to blue, and black. Face yellow, 
rear of head black. Postclypeus entirely yellow. Postocular spots separated. 
Prothorax marked as in E. basidens. Abdomen with dorsum of 2 with a horse 
shoe-shaped black mark, 8-9 blue, remainder black. 

The female has the postclypeus mainly black, abdominal segment 2 with a 
wide dorsal band, 8 blue with a dorsal black band, 9 black, 10 black at base only. 

Dr. C. H, Kennedy places this species in a genus by itself, which he 
calls Neoerythromma. 

318. Enallagma laurenti Calvert 

Calv. '19, p. 379: Byers '27, p. 388. 

Length 36 mm. Expanse 44 mm. Fla. 

A long thin lemon yellow and black damselfly found about ponds in non- 
tropical Florida. Male. Face yellow with vestigial black streaks at the base of 
the labrum and postclypeus. The transverse frontal pale stripe reaches to or a 
little beyond the median ocellus. Base and the first two segments of the antennae 
pale yellow. Vertex black with a pair of yellow spots between the lateral and the 
median ocelli. Pale postocular spots linear joined together by the pale postocellar 
stripe, on the occipital margin of the head, also broadly joined with the pale 
color of the rear of the head, i.e., the occipital and postgeneal region. Prothorax 



328 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

predominantly orange or yellow. The middle lobe with a transverse black stripe 
along its hind margin, where it joins the hind lobe, from which extends forward, 
on each side, a longitudinal black stripe. Thorax yellow except for the middorsal 
black stripe (.35-. 42 mm. wide), and a very narrow black humeral stripe varying 
in width from a mere line to .10 mm. Antehumeral pale stripe wide (.49 -.56 mm.). 
A short black basal streak also present on the upper ends of the second and third 
lateral sutures. Vein M2 rises nearest the 5th postnodal cross vein in the fore 
wings, the 4th in the hind. Stigma bright yellow. Abdomen with the entire 
dorsum of 1-8 and 10 metallic black, except for narrow interrupted pale basal 
rings on 3-6.9 and sides of 10 blue. Superior appendages longer than 10, re- 
sembling those of vesperum and pollutum. 

Female similar to the male in most respects. The color pattern of the post- 
clypeus varies from almost entirely pale to black with a median yellow spot. 
Yellow areas of the head large, making the black appear as an interocular stripe. 
Prothorax sometimes predominantly black with large yellow spots. Black of 
the humeral stripe never touches the mesostigmal plate (lamina). Abdomen as 
in the male except segment 9 has a large triangular basal black spot on the 
dorsum, covering about three-fourths of the surface, but not reaching the apical 
margin. Segment 10 entirely blue. 

319. Enallagma pollutum Hagen 

Hag. '16, p. 83: Mtk. Cat. p. 61: Calv. '19, p. 378. 

Length 32 mm. Expanse 36 mm. Fla. 







laurentl pollutum gulcatum signatum 



One of the yellow-black species occurring commonly in ponds and swamps 
where there is an abundance of standing vegetation. Male. Face yellow, a fine 
black line at the base of the labrum. Postclypeus usually entirely black, oc- 
casionally with one or two median yellow spots. Pale frontal transverse band 
narrow, not reaching the middle ocellus. Base and first segment of the antennae 
yellow. Vertex black except for a pair of yellow spots between the lateral and 
the median ocelli. Postocular spots linear and very narrowly connected with 
the pale postocellar stripe, but not connected with the pale color of the rear of 
the head. Anterior and posterior lobes of the prothorax yellow. Middle lobe 
predominantly black, with only the sides and two lateral spots yellow. Thorax 
with the pale antehumeral stripe narrower than the black humeral. Middorsal 
dark stripe .53-. 63 mm., pale antehumeral .25-. 28 mm., dark humeral .37-. 42 
mm. wide. Third lateral suture with a black stripe on the upper five-sixths 01 
more of its length. Dorsum of abdominal segments 1-8 and 10 entirely metallic 
black. Segment 9 entirely orange. Superior appendages longer than 10 and 
though irregular, are not bifid. 

The female is similar to the male. The lateral end of the mesostigmal plate 
is margined with the black of the humeral stripe. Width of black middorsal 



ENALLAGMA 329 

stripe .56-. 63 mm., of pale antehumeral stripe .28-. 42 mm., of the dark humeral 
stripe .28-. 35 mm. Black on the dorsum of abdominal segment 9 of almost 
uniform width from base to apex. 

320. Enallagma sulcatum Williamson 

Wmsn. '22, p. 114. 

Length 32-35 mm. Expanse 36-42 mm. Fla. 

Male. Color, orange, blue and black. Face orange. Postclypeus entirely 
shining black or with superimposed pale areas making it almost entirely orange 
in some specimens. Pale transverse frontal band not reaching the pale area an 
terior to the median ocellus. Antennae with the base and the first segment, at 
least, orange, remainder black. Vertex black except for a small pale spot anterior 
to each ocellus. Postocular spots linear and joined together by way of the pale 
postocellar stripe, or narrowly separated from it, never joined with the pale 
color of the rear of the head. Anterior and posterior lobes of the prothorax largely 
orange. Middle lobe black except for the sides and two lateral spots of orange, 
no median orange spot on the dorsum. Thorax with the pale antehumeral stripe 
narrower than the black humeral. Width of the black mid-dorsal stripe .87 mm., 
of the pale antehumeral stripe .26 mm., of the black humeral about .55 mm. 
Third lateral suture covered with a black stripe for about the upper five-sixths of 
its length. A short black spot on the caudal end of the second lateral suture. 
Abdomen with the dorsum of segments 1-8 and 10 entirely metallic black, except 
for narrow interrupted basal rings on segments 3-6. Segment 9 entirely blue. 
Superior appendages not quite as long as 10. 

Mesostigmal plate largely black, in the female, with a pale stripe, the pos- 
terior and inferior black portion grooved. Width of the black mid-dorsal thoracic 
stripe .78 mm., of the pale antehumeral stripe .27 mm., of the dark humeral 
about .5 mm. Black stripe on the second lateral suture on slightly less than the 
upper five-sixths of its length, continued as a thread of black to the inferior end 
of the suture. Black on the dorsum of abdominal segments 1-9, that on 9 not 
reaching the apex. Segment 10 pale. 

321. Enallagma signatum Hagen 

Hag. '61, p. 84: Mtk. Cat. p. 61: Garm. '17, p. 553: Calv. '19, p. 337: Garm. '27, 
p. 62. 

Syn: dentiferum Walsh 
Length 33 mm. Expanse 38 mm. U. S. east of Miss. R. 

A large black and orange damselfly occurring quite commonly, at times, 
about floating vegetation. Male. Face pale. Postclypeus usually entirely black, 
sometimes with margins and median spots or streaks of orange. Pale transverse 
frontal band not reaching the median ocellus. Base and the first segment of the 
antennae pale. Vertex black except for a small pale spot anterior to each ocellus. 
Pale postocular spots linear and connected with each other, by way of the pale 
postocellar stripe, but never connected with the pale color of the rear of the 
head. Anterior and posterior lobes of the prothorax pale. Middle lobe black 
with the sides, a median spot and two lateral spots, pale. Thorax with the pale 
antehumeral stripe as wide as, or wider than, the black humeral. Width of the 



330 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

mid-dorsal black thoracic stripe .63-. 7 mm., of the pale antehumeral stripe 
.35-. 42 mm., of the black humeral stripe .24-. 35 mm. Third lateral suture with 
a blackish-brown stripe, or line, for the uppermost fourth to three-fourths of 
its distance. Dorsum of abdominal segments 1-8 and 10 metallic black. Segment 
9 entirely yellow. 

Female. Color sometimes blue and black. Lateral end of the mesostigmal 
plate black, the humeral stripe touching the lower end. Prothoracic pits large. 
Widths of the black thoracic mid-dorsal stripe .63-. 7 mm, of the pale antehumeral 
.35-. 42 mm., of the dark humeral .28-. 42 mm. Black of the dorsum of segment 9 
usually narrowed posteriorly. 

322. Enallagma vesperum Calvert 

Calv. '19, p. 380: Garm. '27, p. 64. 

Length 30-34 mm. Expanse 34-42 mm. U. S. east of Miss. R. 

A species that is found abundantly along the shores of the Great Lakes, but 
not at all restricted to them. Color, orange or yellow and black. Face yellow. 
Postclypeus entirely black or with two median spots and margins of yellow. 
Pale transverse frontal band sometimes attaining the pale spot immediately 
anterior to the median ocellus, and indundating the black of the superior surface 
more deeply than in E. pollutum. Postocular spots connected with each other, 
but not confluent with the pale of the rear of the head. First two segments of 
the antennae pale. Vertex black, except for two pale ocellar spots. Anterior and 
posterior lobes of the prothorax mostly yellow; middle lobe usually predomi- 
nantly black on the dorsum, a spot on each side, a pair of median spots or lines, 
and the sides inferiorly yellow. Thorax with the pale antehumeral stripe wider 
than the dark humeral. Width of black mid-dorsal thoracic stripe .28-. 67 mm., 
of the pale antehumeral stripe .35-. 7 mm., of the dark humeral stripe, from a 
mere line to .28 mm. Third lateral suture with a black stripe on its uppermost 
fourth or fifth only. Abdomen with the dorsum of 1-8 and 10 entirely metallic 
black, reduced somewhat on 10. 9 entirely blue. 

Female: Lateral margins of the mesostigmal plate not margined with the 
black of the humeral stripe, but having a black spot on itself. Postocular spots 
as in the male, not connected with the pale color of the rear of the head. Width 
of black thoracic mid-dorsal stripe .33-. 63 mm., of the pale antehumeral stripe 
.42-. 63 mm., of the black humeral, from a mere line to .14 mm. Dorsum of 9 
black, not reaching the apical margin. 

The E. pollutum of most writers on northern species of Enallagma is 
synonymous with E. vesperum. The true pollutum is entirely southern. 

323. Enallagma dubium Root 
Root '24, p. 317: Byers '27, p. 388. 

Length 26 mm. Expanse 28 mm. Ga. and Fla. 

A small very dark Enallagma collected in cypress swamps. Color, metallic 
black and yellow-red. Male: Head pale beneath. Postclypeus black. Frons with 
the pale transverse anterior band reaching the basis of the antennae. Antennae 
entirely black. Remainder of frons and the vertex black (no pale markings about 



ENALLAGMA 331 

the ocelli). Pale postocular spots linear cuneiform, broadly separated by black 
from the pale color of the rear of the head, and narrowly separated from, or 
joined with, the pale occipital stripe. Dorsum of the prothorax mainly black, 
a transverse yellow bar on the anterior margin of the anterior lobe, small in- 
distinct pale spots laterally on the posterior lobe, dorsum of the middle lobe 
without pale markings, but with the sides yellow inferiorly. Width of black 
thoracic middorsal stripe, .62 mm.; of pale antehumeral stripe .1-.2 mm.; of 
the black humeral stripe .49 mm. Third lateral suture with a black stripe for its 
entire length, narrowed below. Abdomen all black dorsally, except for a very 
narrow apical (1, 7, 9) or basal (3-7) rings. Sides and venter of abdomen orange 
or yellow. Superior appendages longer than 10, not bifid, resembling those of 
laurenti or signatum. 

The female is unknown. 




dubluB plctum conclsun 



324. Enallagma pictum Morse 

Morse '95, p. 307: Mtk. Cat. p. 60: Calv. '19, p. 385: Garm. '27, p. 61. 
Length 30 mm. Expanse 38 mm. Mass. and N. J. 

A very dark species, not common. Color black with orange or yellow mark- 
ings. Male. Postclypeus orange, a transverse basal black stripe, trilobed distally, 
the three lobes of varying prominence; or, black predominating, rather broadly 
margined with orange. Frons with pale transverse stripe of its anterior surface 
not attaining the median ocellus, a mere yellow line bordering the ocellus an- 
teriorly. The first two segments of the antennae pale. Vertex black excepting 
two spots anterior to the lateral ocelli. Postocular spots linear, orange, connected 
with each other usually, but not confluent with the pale color of the rear of the 
head. Middle prothoracic lobe in dorsal view, metallic black, usually a small 
yellow spot on each side of the, anterior half. Remainder of the prothorax pre- 
dominantly yellow. Width of the black middorsal thoracic stripe .7-. 77 mm., 
of pale antehumeral stripe .28-. 35 mm., of black humeral .42-. 49 mm. Third 
lateral suture with a black stripe on the upper three-fourths to two-thirds of its 
length, the stripe continuing as a line the remainder of the distance of the pos- 
terior legs. Abdomen black as follows: dorsum of 1-10; on 2 in the form of an 
orbicular apical spot narrowly connected to the base; on three terminating in a 
sharp point basally; 1 with a wide apical, and 2-7 with narrow interrupted basal 
rings. 

Female similar to the male. Mesostigmal plate (lamina) mostly black, 
margined with the black of the mid-dorsal and the humeral stripes. Width of 
black middorsal thoracic stripe .84-. 91, of antehumeral pale stripe .18-. 21, 
of dark humeral stripe .48-. 56 mm. Third lateral suture with the black stripe 
for its entire length. Black of the dorsum of segment 9 of uniform width. 



332 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

325. Enallagma concisum Williamson 
Wmsn. '22, p. 117. 

Length 31 mm. Expanse 34 mm. Fla. 

This species, but recently described, is generally found resting on the vegeta- 
tion of ponds where the water is about waist deep. It is one of the species belong- 
ing to the orange-black group. Male. Postclypeus orange, a transverse black 
stripe at the base and on either side; at mid-length a small black or brown de- 
pression. The pale transverse frontal band is wide reaching the level of the 
median ocellus on either side, but the latter is bordered in front with a small 
pale area of varying size and an anterior projecting quadrangle of black, the latter 
often unsymmetrical. Pale postocular spots linear, cuneiform, widely separated 
by black from the pale color of the rear of the head, but joined with each other 
by way of the pale postocellar stripe on the caudo-mesal margin of the head. 
Vertex black with a pair of pale spots near the lateral ocelli. Prothorax shining 
greenish-black, front and hind lobes broadly edged with orange; sides of the 
middle lobe pale orange, dorsum of middle lobe with a round orange spot, of 
varying size, on either side, and with a median orange twin spot of varying size 
present or wanting. Thorax with black middorsal stripe about .67 mm. wide, 
pale antehumeral stripe about .33 mm. wide, and black humeral stripe about 
.43 mm. wide. Third lateral suture with a black stripe for its entire length, 
widening above from a narrow line at its lower end. Abdomen with the segments 
dark except 9 which is orange on the sides and apical membranous rings of 
orange. Superior appendages not bifid and longer than 10. 

326. Enallagma ebrium Hagen 

Hag. '61, p. 89: Mtk. Cat. p. 59: Garm. '17, p. 540: and '27, p. 71. 

Length 29 mm. Expanse 38-40 mm. N. S. to Md. and Wash. 

A common species that often leaves the lakes to fly in the woods and fields. 
Colors, blue and black. Male. Head below pale. Face blue. Postclypeus black. 
Pale transverse frontal band reaching the basis of the antennae. Vertex, antennae 
and the remainder of the frons black. Postocular spots large, oval and isolated. 
Prothorax black on the dorsum with the usual pale markings, i.e., a transverse 
pale stripe on the anterior lobe, two lateral spots on the middle lobe, and the 
posterior margin of the posterior lobe. Thorax with the middorsal dark stripe 
and the antehumeral pale stripe of about equal width, both being wider than 
the dark humeral stripe. Third lateral suture with a black basal spot. Abdomen 
blue, black as follows: a basal semi-ring on 1; apical spot and ring on 2; apical 
third of 3-5; apical half to two-thirds of 6, almost all of 7; all the dorsum of 10. 
8-9 entirely blue. Superior appendages black, bifid, the notch formed being 
circular. Upper and lower arms of equal length and width. No tubercle. 

Female: Color, blue or yellow, and black. Head and thorax similar to the 
male. Abdomen with broad dark dorsal stripes on 2-10, the stripes contracted 
to the meson on the basis of segments 3-7, and widened subapically on segments 
2-7. First segment pale with black basal spot. 

327. Enallagma exsulans Hagen 

Hag. '61, p. 82: Mtk. Cat. p. 59: Garm. '17, p. 542: and '27, p. 80: Byers 

'27, p. 387. 
Length 32-53 mm. Expanse 42-44 mm. Eeastern U. S. west to Tex. 



ENALLAGMA 333 

A very attractive dark blue and black damselfly found commonly, especially 
near rivers and streams. Male. Face blue. Base of labrum brown or with a black 
spot. Postclypeus entirely black, or black with two lateral blue spots. Blue 
transverse frontal band reaching to the basis of the antennae. Vertex, antennae 
and the remainder of the frons, black. Pale postocular spots narrow and ir- 
regular, connected with, or very narrowly separated from, the pale occipital 
stripe. Dorsum of the prothorax black, blue as follows: a large median and two 
small lateral spots on the anterior lobe; a paired median and two large lateral 
spots, and the sides of the middle lobe; and median and lateral spots or lines 
on the posterior lobe. Black middorsal thoracic stripe wide, antehumeral pale 
stripe narrower than either the middorsal or the humeral dark ones. The 
humeral black stripe is often split longitudinally near its caudal end, leaving that 
part of the humeral suture pale. A short black stripe on the second and third 
lateral sutures at the upper end. Wings with a brownish tinge. Abdomen with 
dorsum of segments 1-8 and 10 entirely metallic black, except for basal rings 
on 3-6.9 entirely blue. Superior appendages shorter than 10, bifid, the upper 
arm shorter than the lower, no clear tub&rcle between them and both produced 
on the same plane, i.e., the long axis of the lower arm is parallel to the long axis 
of the upper arm, and not at angles to it. 

Female colored pale green and black or brown. Abdomen with broad black 
dorsal stripes on segments 1-8, the one on 9 being reduced to a triangular spot 
at the base. Remainder of 9 and all of 10 blue. 






ebrium exsulans weewa palU 




328. Enallagma weewa Byers 

Byers '27, p. 385. 

Length 38 mm. Expanse 42-46 mm. S. C, Ga. and Fla 

Male. Color in dried specimens, light tan and metallic greenish-black, becom- 
ing violet-gray pruinose in old specimens. Mouth parts, genae, postgenae and 
occiput, pale. Mandibles pale with a black basal spot. Basal half of the labrum 
and of the postclypeus, black. Pale transverse frontal band narrow, hardly 
reaching the basis of the antennae. Vertex, antennae and the remainder of the 
frons, black. Pale postocular spots linear, narrowly joined, or separated from the 
pale postocellar stripe, not connected with the pale color of the rear of the head. 
Prothorax predominantly black, most of the anterior lobe, the sides, a pair of 
lateral spots, a dorsal twin spot of the median lobe, and the posterior margin 
of the hind lobe, pale. Thorax with the middorsal carina broadly brown, 
separating the usual wide middorsal dark stripe into two narrower stripes. The 
humeral dark stripe very irregular and split longitudinally in the middle of its 
length, so that almost the whole of the humeral suture is pale. The pale ante- 
humeral stripe narrow. A black basal streak on the second and third lateral 
sutures, that on the latter usually prolonged as a narrow line to the base of the 



334 DRAGON FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

posterior legs. Abdomen pale, segments 1-8 inclusive with the dorsum entirely 
metallic black, except for narrow basal rings on 3-6. Segment 9 entirely pale 
except for a transverse apical line of black. Segment 10 entirely black on the 
dorsum. Superior appendages black, bifid, shorter than 10. No tubercle present. 
The upper arm short, subtriangular; the lower, oval and semirotated under the 
upper, 80 that a line drawn through its long axis would meet a similar line drawn 
through the upper arm at an acute angle. Otherwise similar to E. exsulans. 
Female is similar to the female of E. exsulans. 

329. Enallagma pallidum Root 

Root '23, p. 202: Byers '27, p. 389. 

Length 32-36 mm. Expanse 38-44 mm. Md. and Fla. 

A large, delicate, pale gray-blue, and black species, resembling Teleallagma 
daeckii in coloration and appearance, and Enallagma antennatum in nymph and 
some adult structural features. 

Male. Face pale. A black mid-basal dot on the labrum. Postclypeus pale 
with a dark basal line and two lateral dark stripes or spots. Frons entirely pale, 
except for a dark spot anterior to the median ocellus. Antennae mostly pale or 
with tips light brown. Vertex black, the following pale: a small pair of spots 
anterior to the lateral ocelli, a large lateral spot at the side of each lateral ocellus, 
and a posterior spot between the ocelli. Postocular pale spots very large, angu- 
late, narrowly separated from the pale of the rear of the head, joined or narrowly 
separated from the wide postocellar pale stripe. Prothorax entirely pale except 
for three longitudinal and two transverse stripes on the middle lobe, formed by 
the enlarged median and lateral pale spots so common on the prothorax of 
Enallagma. Thorax with the humeral and middorsal dark stripes very much 
reduced and often light brown in color. A short basal black streak on the second 
and third lateral sutures. Abdomen with the dorsum of 1-7 almost entirely dark 
brown or black. 8-10 entirely blue. Superior appendages widely bifid, the upper 
arm broad, the lower narrow, in profile view. Similar to E. antennatum. 

Female similar to the male. Humeral stripe ill defined, a brown line the 
entire length of the third lateral suture. The anterior two-thirds of abdominal 
segment 8 has a wide dorsal black stripe. There is a narrow transverse basal 
brown stripe on 9. 

330. Enallagma antennatum Say 

Say '39, p. 39: Mtk. Cat. p. 54: Garm. '17, p. 521. 

Syn: fischeri Klct. 
Length 34 mm. Expanse 42 mm. N. Y. and Pa. to Iowa 

This was the first known North American species. Color blue or greenish- 
yellow and black. Found, not commonly, on standing aquatic vegetation and 
seldom goes far from waters edge. Head black above, buff below. Postclypeus 
black, with the pale transverse frontal band above it orange. Pale postocular 
spots narrowly cuneiform and usually connected with each other by way of the 
pale postocellar stripe, seldom narrowly separated from it. Prothorax mainly 
black, with a transverse stripe across the posterior lobe and the sides pale. 
Thorax with wide middorsal and humeral black stripes and consequently very 



ENALLAGMA 335 

narrow pale antehumeral stripe. Sides of the thorax pale with a short basal 
black line on the second and third lateral sutures. Abdomen with the dorsum of 
1-8 and 10 practically entirely black, sides and all of 9 pale, except for a pair 
of black dorsal spots on 9. Superior appendages black, widely bifid, the two 
arms of about equal length, with no tubercle. 

The female has the dorsum of 1-9 broadly black and 10 pale. 

331. Enallagma carunculatum Morse 

Morse '95, p. 208: Mtk. Cat. p. 56: Garm. '17, p. 528 and 27, p. 67: Ndm. '23, 

p. 131: Smn. '27, p. 14. 
Length 33 mm. Expanse 42 mm. B. C, Calif., Nev. to N. Y. and Conn. 

A very common damselfly about large bodies of water, remaining late into the 
autumn after most other Enallagma have disappeared. Color, dark blue or buff 
and black. Male with the head below blue and buff; above entirely black, except 
the narrow lateral margins of the postclypeus, the transverse frontal band, and 
the two isolated postocular spots, which are blue. Prothorax black, with a trans- 
verse median stripe on the anterior lobe, the posterior margins of the hind lobe 
and a pair of small crescent shaped spots and the sides of the middle lobe, blue. 
Thorax with the mid-carina black or lined with pale, middorsal dark stripe 
broad; humeral dark stripe of moderate width, variable; antehumeral pale stripe 
varying in width from nearly twice as wide to only two-thirds as wide as the 





antennatum carunculatum " — 'doubledayi civile 





humeral. Third lateral suture with black basal spot. Abdomen blue, black as 
follows: 1 with a basal spot and a short lateral apical line; an apical spot broadly 
connected with an apical ring on 2; apical third to half of 3-4; one-half to three- 
fifths of 5-6; almost all of 7; none of 8-9; all the dorsum of 10. Superior ap- 
pendages black, shallowly bifid, with a clear yellowish tubercle between the arms, 
shorter than 10. 

Female similar to male except the abdomen has the dorsum of 1-10 with 
broad black stripes widened subapically and narrowed to a median line near 
the base of the segments, where the pale of the sides meets across the dorsum. 

There is apparently a great variation in the color pattern of this species, some 
individuals possessing a great deal more black than others, the pale spots of the 
prothorax tending to disappear and the postocular spots to be reduced. 

332. Enallagma doubledayi Selys 

Selys '50, p. 209: Mtk. Cat. p. 58: Garm. '17, p. 538 and '27, p. 71: Root '24, p. 

319. 
Length 31 mm. Expanse 40 mm. Mass. to Ohio, 111. and Fla. 

One of the commonest damselflies of the south, occurring in large numbers 
throughout the summer at all permanent and semipermanent ponds and swamps. 



336 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

Not common in the northern states. Color, light blue and black. Male. Face 
yellowish and blue to the basis of the antennae, with only the postclypeus and 
a line at the base of the labrum, black. Vertex, antennae and the remainder of 
the frons black. Postocular spots irregular, oval and not connected. Prothorax 
black with the usual transverse pale stripe on the anterior lobe, the two lateral 
spots on the middle lobe, and pale line on the posterior margin of the hind lobe. 
Middorsal black stripe of the thorax wide, pale antehumeral stripe about as 
wide as the black humeral. A short line of black at the posterior end of the second 
lateral suture, connected with the humeral by a dark band across the wing base. 
A black basal spot on the third lateral suture. Vein M2 arises between the 5th 
and 6th postnodal cross veins in the fore wing, the 4th and 5th in the hind. 
Abdomen blue with the following black: a basal spot on 1; an apical spot and 
ring occupying the dorsal half of 2; a third to a fourth of 3-5; two-thirds of 6; 
nearly all of 7; and all the dorsum of 10. 8-9 entirely blue. Superior appendages 
similar to those of carunculatum and civile but differ in having a smaller pale 
tubercle at the end and in being much wider proximal to the tubercle. 

Female, similar to male. Abdomen with segments 1-10 with broad dorsal 
black stripes and interrupted basal rings. 

333 Enallagma civile Hagen 

Hag. '61, p. 88: Mtk. Cat. p. 56: Garm. '17, p. 531 and '27, p. 68. 

Syn: canadense Prov. 
Length 29-32 mm. Expanse 38-44 mm. North America 

A common species about ponds from June to September and generally dia 
tributed. Color blue and black. Male. Mouth parts buff. Head pale. Post 
clypeus with a dark basal spot. Pale transverse frontal band wide, reaching to, 
and sometimes including the basis of the antennae. Vertex, remainder of an 
tennae and remainder of the frons, black. Pale postocular spots large and oval 
and usually separated from the pale postocellar stripe, and the pale of the rear 
of the head. Prothorax black, the anterior lobe with a pale transverse line, and 
the middle lobe with a pale spot on the lateral margins, and the sides pale, and 
the posterior lobe with the hind margin, pale. Thorax with the middorsal black 
stripe broad, the pale antehumeral stripe broad, and the dark humeral stripe 
narrow, widest anteriorly. A black basal spot on the third lateral suture. Ab- 
domen blue, the following black: basal spot on 1; apical spot and ring on 2; 
apical fourth to third of 3-5; half of 6; nearly all of 7; and all the dorsum of 10. 
8-9 entirely blue. Superior appendages black, shorter than 10, widely bifid, 
the two arms of nearly equal length with a large tubercle between them. 

Female similar to the male. Abdomen: the dorsum of all segments have a 
black longitudinal stripe from their basis to the apices, and a short narrow apical 
black ring. Pale color of the sides of the segments extending onto the dorsum 
at the basis of 2-6, but never connecting across the middorsal line as they do 
in carunculatum. 

334. Enallagma culicinorum Byers 

Byers '27, p. 249. 

Length 30 mm. Expanse 44 mm. Utah 

A recently described species, known as yet from one male taken in the 

vegetation in still water along Logan River. Color, yellow and black (probably 



ENALLAGMA 337 

blue and black in older specimens). Male. Face pale. Postclypeus black with 
pale margins. Pale transverse frontal band wide, reaching the basis of the an- 
tennae. Vertex, antennae and remainder of frons entirely black. Pale postocular 
spots, large, cuneiform and isolated. The pale postocellar stripe wide and well 
developed, but separated from the postocular spots. Anterior and posterior lobes 
of the prothorax predominantly yellow, merely edged with black. Middle lobe 
mainly black, with the sides and two very large lateral spots, pale. Middorsal 
carina pale. Middorsal black stripe wide. Pale antehumeral stripe much wider 
than the dark humeral, which latter is extremely irregular. Small black basal 
spot on the third lateral suture, none on the second lateral suture. Abdomen pale, 
black as follows: a small basal spot on 1; an apical spot and ring on 2; apical 
fourth of 3-4; apical two-thirds of 5-6; four-fifths of 7; all the dorsum of 10. 
8-9 entirely pale. 

Superior abdominal appendages about as long as 10, bifid, the lower basal 
branch short and flap like, the upper branch slender and turned up slightly at 
the tip. In an interio-dorsal view there is a distinct heavy spine at the base of 
the superiors and a small tubercle just before it. Culicinorum is related to the 
anna-praevarum group, but in profile view the appendages superficially resemble 
those of coecum and traviatum. 

The female is unknown. 

335. Enallagma praevarum Hagen 

Hag. '61, p. 88: Mtk. Cat. p. 61: Ndm. '23, p. 131: Smn. '27, p. 15. 
Length 31 mm. Expanse 40 mm. Kan. and La. west to Calif. 

Male. Colors yellow or blue, and black. Head below pale. Postclypeus 
black. Pale transverse frontal band narrow, not reaching to the basis of the 
antennae. Vertex, antennae and remainder of the frons, black. Postocular spots 
large and triangular, narrowly joined to the pale postocellar stripe, or separated 
from it, sometimes also joined with the pale color of the rear of the head. Pro- 







culiclnum praevarum anna ""^ elssnl 



thorax black with a median spot on the anterior lobe, the sides and a pair of 
large lateral spots on the median lobe, and the posterior margin of the hind lobe, 
pale. Thorax with the middorsal carina pale; a wide middorsal black stripe 
and pale antehumeral stripe, both of which are wider than the irregular dark 
humeral stripe. A short black basal spot on the third lateral suture. Abdomen 
pale, black as follows: a basal spot on 1; an apical spot and ring on 2; apical half 
to third of 3; three-fourths of 4; nearly all of 5-7, except rather wide basal bands 
on 5-6, and a very narrow one on 7; all the dorsum of 10. 8-9 entirely pale. 
Superior appendages bifid, shorter than 10, usually with a small internal tubercle. 
The female is similar to the male. Abdomen with the dorsum of 2-10 black 
as in E. anna, black of 1 not reaching the apex of the segment. 



338 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

336. Enallagma anna Williamson 

Wmsn. '00, p. 455: Mtk. Cat. p. 54: Kndy. '17, p. 616. 

Length 32 mm. Expanse 45 mm. Wyo., Ariz., Utah 

This very pretty blue and black western damselfly is one of the few species 
in which the females submerge in ovipositing, unaccompanied by the male, 
although the male is present with her as usual until submergence takes place. 
The head of the male is blue above, yellowish below, vertex and frons black 
above. The first joint of the antennae is blue, the remainder black. Postocular 
spots connected with the postocellar pale stripe. Prothorax black, blue as follows: 
a transverse stripe covering the anterior half of the first lobe, a spot on either side 
and the sides of the middle lobe, and the posterior border of the hind lobe, which 
is entire and flattened above. Thorax with the following black: a middorsal 
stripe, a humeral stripe, wider below, and a line on the basal third or fourth of 
the third lateral suture. Abdomen blue with the following black: a basal spot 
on 1; an apical spot and narrow ring on 2; apical half or third of 3; apical half 
to three-fourths of 4; apical three- fifths or two-thirds of 5, apical two-thirds or 
three-fourths of 6; nearly all of 7; none of 8-9; all of 10. Superior appendages in 
profile view, about as long as 10, bifid, inferior arm shorter than the superior, 
a small pale tubercle usually present between them. 

The female is similar to the male except the posterior border of the prothorax 
has a low median elevation with a lower one on either side. Abdomen with the 
dorsum of 2-10 black, 10 very narrowly, sides and basal rings of abdomen yellow- 
ish or greenish. The wings of the female, as in all Enallagma, are slightly longer 
than those of the male. 

337. Enallagma eiseni Calvert 

Calv. '95, p. 486: Mtk. Cat. p. 59. 

Length 32 mm. Expanse 40 mm. B. Calif. 

Colors, blue and metallic black. The black as follows: a small median dot at 
the base of the labrum; the postclypeus; the antennae, except the first and the 
front of the second joint; the vertex; a narrow transverse band behind the blue 
postocular spots, these spots being cuneiform and connected with each other. 
Dorsum of prothorax black except the anterior and posterior borders, and a 
median twin spot, and lateral spots, and the sides of the middle lobe, which are 
pale. Thorax with the middorsal stripe black, but with the middorsal carina 
blue. Black humeral stripe, and a short black stripe at the base of the third 
lateral suture sometimes prolonged into a fine line, the only other black on the 
thorax. Abdomen blue, black as follows: a dorsal spot on the base of 1; on 2 
varying from a rather narrow middorsal band reaching from the base to the 
apex, narrowed at the middle of the segment, with an angular dialiation before 
the apex, to a round apical spot connected by an apical tail with the apex of 
the segment; 3 with lanceolate middorsal spot, pointed posteriorly, on the basal 
half, and a broader spot or band on the apical fourth; 4-6 similar to 3; 7 almost 
entirely; 8-10 blue, 8 with a minute middorsal, basal point, 10 with a narrow 
median stripe, black. Superior appendages longer than 10, bifid, the upper arm 
long, the lower arm appearing as an inferior basal triangle with the point directed 
ventrally. 

The female is unknown. 



EN ALL AG MA 339 

338. Enallagma basidens Calvert 

Calv. '02, p. 114: Mtk. Cat. p. 55. 

Length 24 mm. Expanse 28 mm. Southwest into Tex. 

This blue and black damselfly has its home primarily in the state of Texas, 
but is probably to be found all along the Mexican-United States border. Mouth 
parts, genae, first joint of the antennae, and the frontal transverse band above 
the postclypeus, pale blue or buflf. Remainder of frons and vertex black. Pale 
postocular spots narrow, serrated and connected with each other by way of the 
pale postocellar stripe, separated by black from the pale color of the rear of the 
head. Prothorax black, with the following blue: anterior half of anterior lobe, 
a median round spot, two lateral crescent shaped spots, and the sides of the 
median lobe, and a narrow line on the posterior margin of the hind lobe. Mid- 
dorsal carina of the thorax blue, thus splitting the black middorsal stripe. Pale 
antehumeral stripe narrow. Black humeral stripe split longitudinally by a fine 
blue line, the upper part of the humeral being connected with the middorsal 
stripe by a black bar along the upper margin of the thorax. Sides of thorax blue. 
Vein M2 arises nearest the 4th postnodal cross vein in the fore wings, the 3rd in 
the hind. Abdomen blue with the following black: dorsum of 1-3 for their entire 
length, the black being wider at the base and before the apex on 2, on 3 having a 
hastate form which widens greatly in the apical sixth; a hastate spot on 4-6, 
occupying the apical half to three-fourths on 4, half to three-fifths on 5, and 6; 
almost all the dorsum of 7; dorsum of 10. Superior appendages about three- 
fourths as long as 10, black, bifid, upper arm heavy and broad, the lower appear- 
ing as a basal spine-like projection from the upper. No tubercle. 

The female is similar to the male, the blue of the male, however, is replaced 
by yellow or pale green in the female. In the abdomen segments 4-6 are like 3 
of the male, 7 is like the male, 8 with a middorsal black band for its entire 
length, 9 with a pair of dorsal black spots on the basal half, remainder of 9 and 
all of 10 blue. Hind margin of the prothorax entire, convex and somewhat 
flattened dorsally (as it is also in the male). 

339. Enallagma aspersum Hagen 

Hag. '61, p. 97: Mtk. Cat. p. 55: Garm. '17, p. 524 and '27, p. 84. 
Length 27-34 mm. Expanse 36-44 mm. N. E., N. Y. and N. C. to Mo. and Wis. 
This blue and black damselfly is not a common species, but is found about 
small ponds, often temporary ones. The mouth parts of the male are buff. Post- 






semlclrculare 




clypeus black with the usual pale transverse frontal band above. Remainder of 
frons, the vertex and antennae black. Pale postocular spots connected with the 
pale of the rear of the head but separated from each other. Prothorax mainly 



340 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

black except for the pale anterior lobe. Thorax with broad black middorsal and 
humeral stripes. Abdomen blue, the following black: a basal spot on one; an 
apical spot and ring on 2; at least the apical half of 3; 4-6 except an interrupted 
transverse basal ring on each; basal half to quarter of 7; all of the dorsum of 10. 
Superior appendages black, bifid, the upper arm much longer than the lower, 
without a tubercle. 

The female is like the male except that abdominal segments 7-8 have a 
black dorsal stripe reduced to a line on the basal three-fourths and suddenly- 
widened at the apex. 9-10 with the dorsum entirely black. 

340. Enallagma semicirculare Selys 

Selys 76, p. 517: Mtk. Cat. p. 61. 

Length 32 mm. Expanse 40 mm. Tropic 

This species is not as yet recorded from within the political boundaries of the 
United States, but it may be found along the United States-Mexican border or 
perhaps in tropical Florida. Color, blue and black. Abdomen blue, black as 
follows: a basal spot on the dorsum of 1; a transverse isolated anteapical streak 
or semicircular spot, connected, or not connected, by a "tail" with the apex of seg- 
ment 2; apical fifth or sixth of 3-4; usually the whole of 5-6 metallic green, except a 
narrow transverse basal ring; 7 almost entirely. 8-10 entirely blue. 

The female is unknown. 

341. Enallagma traviatum Selys 
Selys '76, p. 521: Mtk. Cat. p. 62: Garm. '17, p. 557 and '27, p. 81. 
Length 31 mm. Expanse 38 mm. Mass. to Fla. 

Color, pale blue and black. Male. Face pale. Postclypeus with the basal half 
black. Pale transverse frontal band narrow not reaching the basis of the an- 
tennae. Vertex, the antennae and the remainder of the frons, black. Pale post- 
ocular spots small, circular or triangular and entirely surrounded by the black 
of the head. Postocellar pale stripe is vestigial or more often entirely lacking. 
Dorsum of the prothorax black, with a spot on the anterior lobe, two reduced 
lateral spots and the sides of the middle lobe, and a spot or a line on the posterior 
lobe, pale. Thorax with a wide middorsal black stripe. Pale antehumeral stripe 
somewhat wider than the dark humeral, and cut off short at the caudal end, not 
reaching the wing basis. Third lateral suture with a black spot on the end 
followed for the remainder of the suture with a fine black line. A black spot on 
the upper end of the second lateral suture. Abdomen blue, black as follows: 
a basal spot and lateral apical streaks on 1; apical spot and ring on 2; apical 
third to fourth of 3-5; four-fifths of 6; all of 7; a lateral apical streak extending 
half way to the base of 8; none of 9; all the dorsum of 10. Superior appendages 
shorter than 10, bifid, the lower branch square and flap-like, the upper slender 
with the apices turned down. No tubercle present. Appendages resemble those 
of aspersum and culicinorum. 

Female. Similar to the male. The middorsal carina frequently brown. 
Abdomen with a basal dark spot on 1; 4-7 with narrow longitudinal dorsal stripes 
of black, widened suddenly near the caudal margins and narrowed to the meson 
on the cephalic margins; 8 blue with a narrow dorsal stripe on the basal half 
or more; 9-10 blue. 



ENALLAGMA 341 

342. Enallagma coecum Hagen 
Hag. '61, p. 84: Mtk. Cat. p. 56: Calv. '19, p. 350. 

Var: novae-hispaniae Calv. 
Length 34 mm. Expanse 44 mm. Tropic Calif. 

It is doubtful whether or not this species has been collected in the United 
States; certainly its nearest relative cardenium has, and probably this one has 
also. Color is "rosy-blue" and black. Male. Head black with wide blue post- 
ocular spots, measuring .45-. 49 mm. from cephalic to caudal edge. Prothorax 
black, with the anterior lobe transversely pale, middle lobe with or without pale 
lateral spots, posterior lobe with a pale spot on the caudal margin. Sides with 
the black of the middle lobe sinuately, and not deeply emarginated by the pale 
color inferiorly. Thorax rosy-blue marked with the usual black stripes. Ab- 
domen with the black on segment 2 in the form of a U, the open end directed 
forward. Segment 3 with the sides and the apex black. 8-9 with inferior longi- 
tudinal black stripes on each side. The dorsum of 9 and usually 8 entirely blue. 
Superior appendages bifid, the cleft tending to fill out in some specimens, upper 
arm longer, lower arm short and flap-like, a small single tooth on the inner 
margin of the upper arm at about two-thirds its length. 

Female similar to the male except the abdomen which is mainly brassy black; 
segments 3-7 with yellow basal rings, the sides and the 8th segment almost 
entirely blue. 






cardenium exclamationis 



343. Enallagma cardenium Selys 

Selys '76, p. 530: Mtk. Cat. p. 56: Wmsn. '22, p. 143: Calv. '19, p. 351. 
Length 34 mm. Expanse 44 mm. Fla. 

This is an Enallagma of tropical distribution and is recorded from United 
States only in the Florida region, where it frequents floating water hyacinths in 
running water, in sandy bottomed creeks. The color is dull violet gray and black, 
quite un-Enallagma-like, and this color is lost or obscured by post mortem 
changes in old museum specimens. Head pale, except for a black band between 
the eyes covering part of the frons and the vertex. Postocular spots narrow, ir- 
regular, and usually separated, measuring from .28-. 38 mm. from caudal to 
cephalic border. Prothorax mostly black, except for a transverse area on the 
anterior lobe and a fine line on the posterior lobe, and occasional spots on the 
middle lobe. The black of the sides of the middle lobe angularly and deeply 
emarginated by the pale color inferiorly. Thorax dull violet marked with the 
usual dark stripes, the middorsal stripe is metallic black, and the one on the 
third lateral suture extends to the base of the posterior legs. Abdomen with the 
pale markings dull violet, black as follows: a basal spot on 1; a lateral longi- 



342 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

tudinal stripe on each side of 2, connected with a subapical dorsal band to form 
a U-shaped mark, also an apical ring on 2; apical third or more of 3-7; sides of 
8-9; and sides and part of the dorsum of 10. The color pattern of the abdomen 
is very hard to make out in dried specimens. Superior appendages long, bifid 
and with no tubercle. 

The female is like the male, only the abdomen has broad metallic greenish- 
black stripes covering the entire dorsum of segments 2-7; 8 pale, 9 black with 
two large apical pale spots; 10 black. 

73. ZoNiAGRiON Kennedy 

These are slender dragonflies similar to the blue members of the 
preceding genus, with vein M2 arising near the sixth post nodal cross 
vein in the fore wing and the fifth in the hind wing. Wings stalked to a 
distance before the anal crossing about equal to the length of that cross 
vein. Female with a large ventral spine on 8; male with the apex of 
segment 10 cleft and slightly elevated. 

The nymph (Kennedy '17, p. 493) is similar to that of Enallagma but 
the gills are acuminately pointed and the six pigmented cross bands are 
more or less confluent toward the base and interrupted toward the apex 
of the gill plate. Lateral setae 5; mentals 3-4 each side. 

344. Zoniagrion exclamationis Selys 

Selys '76, p. 125: Mtk. Cat. p. 65: Kndy. '17, p. 488. 

Length 36 mm. Expanse 44 mm. Calif. 

Face greenish blue with blackish basal suture to the labrum. Top of head 
black with pure blue postocular spots and a wavy line of blue between them 
Front of thorax black with a pair of broad isolated stripes of blue interrupted 
in the male near the upper end (whence the specific name). Sides blue with 
blackish edgings above and below, with a line on the third lateral suture. Legs 
black. Wings hyaline, stigma black. Abdomen black with blue and brown 
markings. Segment 1 blue above; 2 black, with a large quadrangular blue basal 
spot; 3-6 mostly black; 7-10 blue above, covering 8 and portions of adjacent 
segments. Lateral inferior pale stripe extends the length of the abdomen. 
Appendages black. 

74. IscHNURA Charpentier 

Fork-tails 
By C. Francis Byers 

The genus Ischnura is world wide in its distribution, and is repre- 
sented in North America by 15 species. 

The adults are the first damselflies to appear in the spring and they 
persist until late autumn. They are to be found, sometimes in countless 
numbers, in all aquatic situations where there is an abundance of 



ISCHNURA 343 

vegetation. Sometimes in low marshy spots, in fields, where there is no 
open water at all, they occur commonly. Unlike the larger Enallagmas 
the adults seldom venture out over the open water, but seem well con- 
tented to spend their lives flitting about among the grasses, lakes, 
swamps and ponds. Copulation takes place in these situations, some- 
times on the wing, but generally while at rest on the stems and leaves of 
the aquatic vegetation. The male does not, as a general thing, accom- 
pany the female while ovipositing. The eggs are laid singly in the stems 
and leaves of the surrounding plants. The nymphs occur in the shallow 
waters of the same types of habitat that the adults frequent. 

The males of Ischnura may be characterized as follows : Mouth parts 
genae and postgenae, pale. Labrum bluish-green with a broad black 
basal band. Postclypeus black; anteclypeus pale. The top of the head 
predominantly black; the pale transverse frontal band on the vertical 
portion of the frons narrow; the postocellar stripe vestigial or generally, 
entirely wanting; and the postocular spots are extremely small, round, 
and never connected with any other pale area of the head. The pale 
antehumeral stripe of the thorax is variable, in most of the species it is 
entire, and whether wide or narrow, it is of equal width throughout its 
length; in others it is interrupted in its middle length by a fusion of the 
black middorsal and humeral stripes, resulting in an anterior and a 
posterior pale spot, or spot and abbreviated stripe, on either side of the 
mid-carina; in still other species the antehumeral pale stripe is entirely 
absent, the dorsum of the thorax being solid black. The coloration of 
abdominal segments 8-9 are of specific value, but are unfortunately 
somewhat unconstant. On the apical margin of the dorsum of abdo- 
minal segment 10 there is an elevated, bifid process, differing in size and 
shape in the various species, but never as long as segment 10, as it is 
in the genus Anomalagrion. 

In both males and females vein M2 arises between the 3rd and 4th 
postnodal cross vein in the fore wing, and the 2nd and 3rd in the hind. 
Setae of the front row on the tibia are all short. 

A ventral spine on the apical margin of abdominal segment 8 in the 
female is variable generic character. 

Those species which always possessing this spine are harheri, kelli- 
cotti, cervula and verticalis. Those which never possess it are perparva, 
posita and prognatha. Those that may or may not have it are credula, 
demorsa, denticollis, erratica, gemina, and ramburii. Unknown with 
respect to it are damula and utahensis. 

The mature females of certain species exhibit dichromatism. That is, 
in fully matured specimens there are two kinds of females, separated 



344 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

by their color and their color pattern. To one of these phases has been 
given the name Homceochromatic or black female; to the other, Hetero- 
chromatic or orange female. They may be characterized as follows: 

Homoeochrornatic female (mature) : Color blue or green, and black. 
Pale postocular spots small and not confluent with the pale color of the 
rear of the head. The predominant color of the thorax is pale bluish. 
The black humeral stripe is wider than the pale antehumeral. The dor- 
sum of abdominal segment one is dark metalHc blue or green, only the 
articular membrane between 1-2 is pale. The dorsum of segment 2 is 
dark metallic green or blue for its entire length, narrowed at its hind 
margin. Dorsum of segment 3 metallic green or blue contracted at the 
anterior end to a middorsal line, and at the hind end to a smaller 
degree. The sides of segments 1-3 are pale bluish. 

Heterochromatic female: Color yellow or orange, and black. Pale 
postocular spots more or less confluent with the pale color of the rear of 
the head. The predominant color of the thorax is yellow or pale orange. 
The black humeral stripe narrower than the pale antehumeral stripe. 
Dorsum of abdominal segment 1 orange with pale black dots; 2, yellow 
or orange with black markings varying from a narrow crescent at two- 
thirds the segments length to spot on the first — and one on the third — 
third, connected by a fine dorsal line; 3, yellow or orange the hindmost 
fourth dark metallic green prolonged forward as a tapering black line 
almost to, or to, the fore end of the segment; sides of 1-3 yellow or 
orange. 

Both of these forms have, when newly emerged, the 8th and 9th 
abdominal segments pale blue, each segment with a short basal black 
stripe on each side of the segments, connected across the dorsum by a 
black basal hne, wider on 8 than on 9. There is no constant difference 
in the size of these two females. 

It will be observed from the above descriptions that the Homceochro- 
matic female has in general the same color and color pattern as the male, 
while the Heterochromatic female has the customary blue-green color 
of the male replaced by orange or yellow, and the color pattern radi- 
cally altered. 

The nymphs of only six of our fifteen described species of Ischnura 
are known. The nymph of this genus resembles that of Enallagma very 
closely but the gills have long tapering points, while those of Enaflagma 
are more blunt, sometimes being quite rounded. The number of de- 
scribed nymphs are too few to make the writing of a key practical. The 
following table of characters has been drawn up instead : 



ISCHNURA 



346 



The Known Nymphs 







Setae 






Gills 




Species 


Length * 






£z<t 


Comb X 


Pigmentation 


Described by 










Lat. 


Ment. 










barberi 


15+5.5 


5 


4 


5-7 


Vs 


Tracheae only 


Byers '27. p. 000 


cervula 


12+6 


5 


4-5 


4-5 


Vz 


Uniform 


Kndy. '15, p. 309 


denticollis 


10+5.5 


5 


4 


(0)? 


Vs 


Uniform 


Kndy. '17, p. 505 


perparva 


11+5 


5 


3-5 


5 


H + 


Uniform 


Ndm. &Ckll. '03, p. 139 


posita 


11+5.5 


5 


4 


4 


Vs 


4 i-bands & 
apex 


Ndm. & Ckll. '03, 
p. 260 § 


verticalis 


14+6.5 


6 


4-5 


6-7 


H 


Variable 


Ndm. '03, p. 2601 



*Body+giUs. 

t Spines on outer margin of mentum of labium. 

X Spinous margin on base of dorsal edge of middle gill in terms of length of entire gill. 

§ Also by Garman '17, and Howe '21. 



KEY TO THE SPECIES 

Adults 

1. Males 

Anterior surface of the thorax. Solid black, no antehumeral 
stripes. Penis without a pair of erect spines on the penultimate 
segment, (celanura, Kennedy) 2. 

Anterior surface of the thorax not sohd black. Penis with a pair 
of erect spines on the penultimate segment 3. 

Inferior appendages viewed in profile two branched, the inferior 
branch a rounded tubercle, the superior branch short, turned 
up, and covering the inferior branch of the superior appendage 
gemina, p. 349 

Inferior appendages viewed in profile two branched, the inferior 
branch sharp and pointed, the superior branch short and not 
turned up, and not covering the inferior branch of the superior 
appendages denticollis, p. 348 

Apical fork on segment 10 elongated into a spine. The paired 

spines of the penis external, (anomalura, Kennedy) 

prognatha, p. 349 

Apical fork on segment 10 not elongated into a spine. Paired spines 
of the penis internal 4. 

Antehumeral green strip present (a superior spot and a smaller 
inferior one, appearing as an exclamation mark in posita) ... 5. 

Antehumeral green stripe indicated by a pair of widely separated 
angular spots 14. 



346 DRAGON FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

5 Abdominal segment 9 wholly black on dorsum 6. 

Abdominal segment 9 with blue on dorsum predominating 7. 

6 Abdominal segment 8 blue, antehumeral stripe complete 

ramburii, p. 350 

Abdominal segment 8 bronze-black, antehumeral stripe like an in- 
verted exclamation mark posita, p. 350 

7 Abdominal segment usually 9 entirely blue, except for apical teeth 

8. 

Abdominal segment 9 with lateral, or broad transverse black 
stripes or spots 11. 

8 Abdominal segment 10 with a dorsal bifid process 9. 

Abdominal segment 10 with cylindrical, entire process 

kellicotti, p. 351 

9 Abdominal segment 8 entirely blue except for apical teeth. . . .10. 
Abdominal segment 8 usually with lateral black markings 

demorsa, p. 352 

10 Superior appendages decurved, one-half the length of 10, with an 

acute, curved apical process; inferiors nearly the length of 10 

with an outer acute process barberi, p. 352 

Superior appendages, in profile view, appearing as a small rounded 
lobe, one-fourth the length of 10; inferiors one-half the length 

of 10, an outer acute process with tip deflected inwardly 

utahensis, p. 353 

11 Abdominal segment 8 with black markings 12. 

Abdominal segment 8 entirely blue credula, p. 353 

12 Process of inferior appendage not bifid at apex 13. 

Process of inferior appendage bifid or trifid at apex 

perparva, p. 353 

13 Inferior appendages much longer than the superior, cylindrical, 

notched at tip; superior appendages with slender, straight pro- 
longation erratica, p. 354 

Inferior appendages hardly longer than the superiors, a rectangular 
superior basal lobe, not notched at apex; superior appendages 
with decurved prolongation verticalis, p. 355 

14 Bifid process on 10 as high as 10 is wide, forked in apical half. . . . 

cervula, p. 355 

Bifid process on 10 only about one-fourth as high as 10 is wide, 
forked in less than apical half damula, p. 356 



ISCHNURA 347 

2. Females 

1 Prothorax with no teeth or tooth like processes 2. 

Prothorax with at least a tooth like process on the hind lobe ... 12. 

2 Size large, length of abdomen over 21 mm 3. 

Size smaller, length of abdomen under 20 mm 8. 

3 Hind wings under 14 mm. in length 4. 

Hind wing over 19 mm. in length 5. 

4 Abdominal segment 9 black on dorsum ramburii, p. 350 

Abdominal segment 9 with at least some blue on dorsum 

credula, p. 353 

5 With a spine on the apical margin of the sternum of abdominal 

segment 8 6. 

Without such a spine on 8 7. 

6 M2 rising nearest the 5th postnodal cross vein in the front wing. 

Species East of the Mississippi kellicotti, p. 351 

M2 rising nearest the 4th postnodal cross vein in the fore wings, 
Species west of the Mississippi barberi, p. 352 

7 M2 arising nearest the 6th postnodal. Species west of the Missis- 

sippi erratica, p. 354 

M2 rising nearest the 5th postnodal. Species east of the Mississippi. 
(Anomalura, Kennedy) prognatha, p. 349 

8 Hind margin of the prothorax convex throughout, with a small 

median notch demorsa, p. 352 

Hind margin of the prothorax high, sides straight and convergant, 
convex medially, no notch 9. 

9 Pale antehumeral stripe entire 10. 

Pale antehumeral stripe usually interrupted to appear as an in- 
verted exclamation mark. Abdominal segment 8 without a 
ventral spine. Eastern species posita, p. 350 

10 Abdominal segment 8 without a spine on the apical margin of 

sternum 11. 

Abdominal segment 8 with a ventral spine on apical margin. Dis- 
tribution east ot Texas verticalis, p. 355 

11 Species west of the Mississippi perparva, p. 353 

Species east of the Mississippi posita, p. 350 

12 Middle prothoracic lobe with a small tooth on each side. (Celae- 

nura, Kennedy) 13. 

Middle prothoracic lobe without teeth. Hind prothoracic lobe 
with a median truncate tooth-like process, with a pencil of erect 
hairs on either side cervula, p. 353 



348 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

13 Dorsum of abdominal segment 10 entirely black 

denticollis, p. 348 

Dorsum of abdominal segment 10 with blue spots, .gemina, p. 349 

14 Unknown or no material available 

utahensis, p. 353, and damula, p. 356 

345. Ischnura denticollis Burmeister 

Burm. '39, p. 819: Mtk. Cat. p. 68: Kndy. '17, p. 500: Smn. '27, p. 15. 

Syn: exstriata Calv. 
Length 28 mm. Expanse 30 mm. Calif., Ariz., Nev. and Utah 

This small feeble western damselfly has the face of the male, including the 
mouth parts, the genae, the postgenae, and the anteclypeus,- pale. Labrum pale 
with a black basal line. Postclypeus black. Pale transverse frontal band wide, 
reaching to, and including the basal segments of the antennae. The vertex, 
remainder of the frons and antennae black. Pale postocular spots very small and 
entirely surrounded by black. Prothorax entirely metallic black except for a 
transverse stripe on the anterior lobe, and the sides of the middle lobe, which 
are pale blue. Thorax greenish blue, the dorsum entirely black: this color ex- 
tends rearward along the sides to half way between the first and second lateral 
sutures. Third lateral suture narrowly black, this color widening above into a 
spot. Abdomen shining black, except as follows: sides of segments 1-3 and 
8-10 blue. The apex of 2 blue. A trifoliate pure blue spot on the apex of the 
dorsum 8-9. Sides of segments 4-7 yellow. Segments 3-7 with narrow, pale 
basal rings, interrupted middorsally. 

Female, usual adult coloration. Labrum greenish edged with black above. 
Anteclypeus, genae, vertical surface of the frons, and the base of the mandibles 
bluish-green. Postclypeus and vertex black. Postocular spots moderate, blue, 
and confluent with the pale color of the rear of the head. Prothorax bluish-green 
on the sides, the dorsum black, except the anterior lobe. Thorax blue with wide 
middorsal black stripe and antehumeral pale stripe. A very narrow humeral 
dark stripe and basal spots at the base of the second and third lateral sutures. 
The abdomen has the dorsum entirely black, or is colored as in the male. 

"The female of this species from the teneral to the senile color passes through 
several remarkable color stages, and it is dichromatic and possibly trichromatic 
in color." — Kennedy. 

The following account of its habits has been taken from Dr. Ken- 
nedy's ('17) account of this species. 

This smallest of western dragonflies occurs throughout the warmer valleys 

of Calif., Nev., Ariz, and N.W. Mex This species is found commonly on 

the high central plateau of Mexico .... at an elevation of over 6000 feet. In 
Calif, and Nev. it is found from sea-level up to 4400 feet. It is in these states 
distinctly a spring stream form, though in southern Calif, it ia found about almost 
any permanent sluggish water. 

The habits of this species are in general Ischnuran but indicate greater feeble- 
ness. Early in the morning it is found in the sedges and grasses bordering the 



ISCHNURA 



349 



water, but during the heat of the day it spends the greater part of its time over 
the surface of the water, usually seated on trash or aquatic vegetation. 

.... several nymphs ready to transform were taken from the trash around 
the edge of a warm spring and the exuviae were common on the grass stalks 
fringing the water. 

The females resorted to the little drain ditches to oviposit; there the males 
in great numbers awaited their coming. After a considerable time in copulation, 
seated on some grass stem the female, still accompanied by the male, would fly 
to the surface of the stream, preferably a quiet lateral pool, and commence 
ovipositing. 

In ovipositing the male held the female by the head. The pair would alight 
on floating vegetation, in a horizontal position, and the female would bend her 
abdomen slightly and make one or two incisions, after which she would raise 
the end of her abdomen considerably above the horizontal and wait in this 
position several seconds, when the pair would fly to another straw and repeat 
the one or two thrusts followed by the wait with the tip of the female's abdomen 
in the air. This was kept up by a pair under observation, for 20 minutes. In no 
place did they make more than one or two thrusts. Further, I was not positive 
at the time that the ovipositor was actually thrust into the plant tissue, as the 
females observed put forth none of that painstaking effort usually shown by 
ovipositing dragonflies. Later, when these grass blades were examined in the 
laboratory, eggs were found in pairs. This species is undoubtedly the feeblest of 
all the western Odonata 



^ 






ri' 


)~f 


^ 1 


[ ll. 

prognatha 




gemlna 


de 


nticollls 


ramburii 



346. Ischnura gemina Kennedy 

Kndy. '17, p. 497. 

Length 28 mm. Expanse 30 mm. Calif. 

This species is similar in coloration and probably in habits to /. denticollis. 
The structural points separating the two species are given in the keys. Like 
that species the anterior surface of the thorax is solid black, there being no pale 
antehumeral stripe present. The differences are shown in our figures. 

347. Ischnura prognatha Hagen 

Hag. '61, p. 83: Mtk. Cat. p. 69: Kndy. '20, p. 88. 

Length 36-38 mm. Expanse 45 mm. Va., Tenn. and Fla. 

This is the largest and probably the most attractive of our fork-tails. It is 

not common. Labrum greenish-yellow with a black basal band. Mouth parts, 

genae, postgenae, anteclypeus and the vertical portion of the frons green or 



350 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

yellowish. Postocular spots small, round, blue and isolated. A narrow green 
postocellar stripe present on the causo-mesal margin of the head. Remainder 
of the head black. Prothorax with the anterior lobe and the sides of the middle 
lobe pale, remainder black. Thorax with wide middorsal and humeral black 
stripes. The pale antehumeral stripe present and complete though narrow. 
A black basal spot on the second and third lateral sutures, that on the latter 
followed by a pale black line. Stigma bicolored, the outer margin white, the inner 
black, the stigma of the fore wing much larger than that of the hind. Dorsum 
of abdominal segments 1-8 and 10 black except for an apical ring on 1 and 
interrupted basal rings of yellow on segments 4-7. Segment 9 blue. The dorsal 
apical process on segment 10, very long and tubular, notched only at the extreme 
tip. The superior appendages long and delicate, consisting of two processes, 
one, black in color, directed backward, the other, yellow, directed ventrally. 
Female. Homochromatic only. Young specimens bright orange and black, 
older ones as in male. Head as in male. Thorax with the black mid-dorsal stripe 
about .5 mm. wide, a distinct spot on the meso-, inter-, and metapleural sutures 
at the base of each wing, and an indistinct short stripe on the interpleural suture 
bronze. First abdominal segment indistinctly darker apically; 2-3 with dorsal 
apical rings of bronze, and 3 with a subapical dorsal spot; 4 with a dorsal stripe 
occasionally apical six-sevenths of the segment apically abruptly dilated into an 
urn-shaped spot; from segment 4 the bronze dorsal stripe is continuous, with 
narrow basal interruptions at each segment, to one-third the length of 9; re- 
mainder of the abdomen yellow. No ventral spine on the apical margin of ab- 
dominal segment 8. 

348. Ischnura ramburii Selys 

Selys '50, p. 186: Mtk. Cat. p. 70: Garm. '27, p. 43. 

Syn: iners Hag., senegalense Ramb., tuberculatum Selys 
Length 32 mm. Expanse 33 mm. R. I., to Fla. and Tex. to Tropics 

Labrum with the base black. Postclypeus, horizontal portion of the frons, 
antennae, vertex and the occiput, black. Remainder of the head pale. Postocular 
spots, small, round, green and isolated. The sides of the middle prothoracic lobe 
and the dorsum of the anterior lobe pale, remainder of the prothorax black. 
Black mid-dorsal and humeral thoracic stripes wide. The pale antehumeral 
stripe narrow and complete. A black spot at the base of the second lateral suture; 
a black line on the third lateral suture. Abdomen with the dorsum of abdominal 
segments 1-7 and 9-10 metallic black, with narrow, interrupted, yellow basal 
rings on 3-7. Segment 8 blue with a black basal ring. 

The females of ramburii exhibit the dichromatism so common to many of 
the Ischnuran species. The Homochromatic (black) female is colored like the 
male. The Heterochromatic (orange) female has the blue or green of the male 
replaced by orange. The postocular spots large and confluent with the pale color 
of the rear of the head. Thorax orange with the customary black mid-dorsal 
stripe but no humeral stripe. Abdominal segment 1 and the base of 2 orange, 
remainder of the abdomen black on the dorsum. 

349. Ischnura posita Hagen 

Hag. '61, p. 77: Mtk. Cat. p. 69: Garm. '17, p. 570 and '27, p. 41. 

Length 24-29 mm. Expanse 26-36 mm. Me. and N. Dak. to Fla. and Mo. 



ISCHNURA 



351 



A not uncommon damselfly found in the thick vegetation of swamps and 
marshes. Labrum greenish-yellow with the base black. Pale postocular spots 
small, circular and isolated. Mouth parts, genae, postgenae, anteclypeus and 
the vertical portion of the frons, pale. Postclypeus, antennae, horizontal portion 
of the frons, vertex and the occiput, black. Dorsum of the prothorax black with 
a pale spot on the anterior lobe and the sides pale. Thoracic dorsum black, the 
pale, antehumeral stripe interrupted in its middle length by a fusion of the black 
middorsal and humeral stripes, to form a pale exclamation point mark on either 
side. Sides greenish-yellow except for a black basal spot on the second lateral 
suture and a heavy black stripe covering the third lateral suture. Dorsum of 
abdominal segments 1-10 black, except for narrow interrupted basal rings of 
yellow on segments 3-7, and apical crescent-shaped half rings of blue on the 
dorsum of 8-9. 

Female. Color pale blue and black, no heterochromatic phase known. Head 
similar to that of the male. Thorax lacking the black stripe on the metapleural 
suture, and occasionally having the pale antehumeral stripe complete, not 
interrupted to form an exclamation mark. Abdomen like the male. No ventral 
spine on the apical margin of abdominal segment 8. 



350. Ischnura kellicotti Williamson 

Wmsn. '98, p. 209: Mtk. Cat. p. 69: Garm. '17, p. 568. 

Length 29 mm. Expanse 36-38 mm. Me., R. I., N. Y., to Ind. and Mich. 
Head blue below. The labrum blue with a black basal line. Anteclypeus 
blue; postclypeus black. Vertical portion of the frons blue. Remainder of the 
frons, the vertex and the antennae black. Pale postocular spots not connected 
with any other pale area of the head. Dorsum of the prothorax black with a 
transverse line on the anterior lobe, occasionally two lateral spots on the middle 
lobe, sides of the middle lobe, and the posterior margin of the hind lobe, pale. 
Thorax blue, black as follows: a wide middorsal stripe; a humeral stripe which 




posita 



kellicotti 



demorsa 



barberl 



widens suddenly just posterior to the mesinfraepisternum which it covers; a very 
narrow interrupted line at the basal half of the second lateral suture; a narrow 
stripe on the third lateral suture, widening below to cover the metainfraepister- 
num; a line connecting these stripes posteriorly. Pale antehumeral stripe of 
equal width throughout. Abdomen with the dorsum bronze-black, blue as 
follows; a wide apical ring on 1; a large basal spot and a wide apical ring on 2, 
the extreme base and apex of the segment black; pale narrow interrupted basal 
rings on 3-7; apical ring on 7; all of 8 except a narrow basal ring; all of 9, the 
blue narrowed on either side near the middle; two small round basal spots on 
10, and the tip of the elevated process on 10 which is scarcely bifid. Sides of 1-2 



352 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

blue and black; of 3-7 and 10 brownish or yellowish; of 8-9 black bordered 
with blue. 

Homochromatic female, similar to the male. Postocular spots larger pro- 
longed to meet the pale color of the rear of the head. Middle lobe of the pro- 
thorax with an occasional additional geminate spot. Abdomen with the blue 
on 1-2 more extensive, 8-9 with the pale color more variable but usually more 
extensive also. 

Heterochromatic female like the homochromatic female but the orange color 
replaces the blue-green of the latter. 

351. Ischnura demorsa Hagen 

Hag. '61, p. 81: Mtk. Cat. p. 68. 

Length 24-27 mm. Expanse 26-34 mm. Mont, and Colo, to Ariz, and N. Mez. 

Male. Head predominantly black with the mouth parts, the anteclypeus, 
vertical portion of the frons, and two small postocular spots, pale. Dorsum of 
the thorax with well defined blue antehumeral stripe, remainder metallic black, 
sides pale. Abdomen brassy green, the sides and basal rings on segments 3-6, 
yellow. Segments 8-9 entirely blue, or with a short basal black stripe on the 
sides of each, or in still other specimens, on the sides of one and not the other. 
Segment 10 black on the dorsum with the usual narrow elevated bifid process. 
Inferior appendages bifid. 

Females. Heterochromatic (orange). Postocular spots large, orange, and 
connected with the pale color of the rear of the head. Dark humeral stripe 
reduced to a mere line, consequently widening the pale orange antehumeral 
stripe, which becomes more than half as wide as the black middorsal stripe. 
Abdomen largely orange, becoming yellowish posteriorly, the following black 
on the dorsum: a basal spot on 1; a median line on 2; a median line on 3, except 
at base, expanded into a wide spot on apical fourth; a broad middorsal stripe 
on 4-7, more or less constricted at three-fourths the length of the segment; a 
stripe on each side of 8, the two confluent in the basal third or more; a basal 
spot on each side of 9. 

Homochromatic (black): Postocular spots small, circular and blue or green, 
not connected. Black humeral more than one-half as wide as the dark middorsal 
thoracic stripe, from which it is separated by a complete pale green antehumeral 
stripe, which is sometimes less than half as wide as the humeral. Dorsum of 1-10 
black. 

Variations of the above color forms may occur. These females may or may not 
have a ventral spine on 8. 

352. Ischnura barberi Currie 

Currie '03, p. 302: Mtk. Cat. p. 68. 

Length 32-35 mm. Expanse 35-42 mm. Colo., N. Max., Utah 

Greenish-yellow, blue and black in color. Head of the male pale beneath, 
with the occipital region and a line at the base of the labrum black. Postclypeus 
entirely shining black or black with a fine pale marginal line. Pale transverse 
frontal band reaching the basis of the antennal fossae. Antennae, the remainder 
of the frons, and the vertex, except for two small ocellar spots, black. Pale post- 



ISCHNURA 363 

ocular spots usually very small and widely separated from the pale postocellar 
stripe, occasionally large and narrowly connected with it. The anterior half 
of the anterior lobe, the sides of the middle lobe, and the posterior lobe of the 
prothorax, pale. Dorsum of the middle lobe entirely black, or with a small pale 
spot on each side. Thorax with a wide pale antehumeral stripe. Sides pale except 
for a basal black line on the third lateral suture reaching as far as the basis of 
the posterior legs, and a small black spot on the base of the second lateral suture. 
Abdominal segment 1 pale with a basal black spot on the dorsum; segments 2-7 
with dorsum entirely black except pale narrow interrupted basal rings on seg- 
ments 3-6, and preapical rings on segments 3-5. Segments 8-9 entirely blue ex- 
cept for a very fine transverse black line covering the preapical teeth. Segment 
10 entirely black on the dorsum, with the forked elevation well developed. 

Female. Heterochromatic. Differs from the male as follows: Pale areas of 
the head very much larger, the transverse frontal band of yellow nearly reaching 
the median ocellus, the pale postocular spots wide and broadly joined to the 
yellow of the rear of the head. The dark middorsal and humeral thoracic stripes 
very narrow. Abdominal segments 8-9 broadly brown on the dorsum. A well 
developed ventral spine on the apical margin of segment 8 of the abdomen. Hind 
margin of the prothorax convex throughout, no teeth nor tooth like processes. 

353. Ischnura utahensis Muttkowski 
Mtk. '10, p. 9. 
Length 33 mm. Expanse 36 mm. Utah 

Coloration the same as in Ischnura barberi. The differences between the two 
species are to be found in the superior and inferior abdominal appendages as 
described in the key. Possibly, a synonym of /. barberi. 

The female is unknown. 

354. Ischnura credula Hagen 

Hag. '61, p. 80: Mtk. Cat. p. 70: Calv. '28, p. 11. 

Syn: defixa Hag. 
Length 29 mm. Expanse 32 mm. Fla. and Calif. 

This damselfly is commonly considered as a subspecies of Ischnura ramburii- 
It differs little from it except in the coloration of the 9th abdominal segment of 
the male. In ramburii this segment is entirely black on the dorsum, while in 
credula it is blue with wide irregular basal and apical transverse bands of black. 

355. Ischnura perparva Selys 

Selys '76, p. 263: Mtk. Cat. p. 69: Kndy. '15, p. 310. 

Syn: defixa 
Length 24 mm. Expanse 27 mm. B. C, Mont, to Calif, and Tex. 

Head greenish below, black above. The mouth parts, genae, postgenae, ante- 
clypeus and the vertical portion of the frons, pale. The labrum green with a 
black basal stripe. The postclypeus, the horizontal portion of the frons, the 
antennae, the vertex and the occiput, black. Pale postocular spots small and 
isolated. Prothorax black with a transverse stripe on the anterior lobe, a pair of 



354 



DRAGON FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



lateral spots and the sides of the middle lobe, pale. Thorax with a broad mid- 
dorsal and humeral black stripe; a broad pale antehumeral stripe; a short black 
basal spot on the second lateral suture; and a black line widened above on the 
third lateral suture. Abdomen with the abdominal segments 2-7 and 10 black, 
the sides pale, with a basal spot and an apical ring of black on the dorsum. 
Segments 8-9 pale blue, with a large rectangular black basal spot on either side. 
The dorsal bifid process on 10 well developed with arms enclosing an angle of 
more than 90°. Inferior appendages bifid or trifid. 

The females of perparva do not possess the two color forms in the mature 
imago; however, the teneral colors are orange and black. The following black 
markings appear on the mature female. All the dorsal surface of the head black 
except the pale transverse frontal band. Entire dorsum of the prothorax black. 
Wide middorsal and humeral stripe of black on the thorax, as well as a basal 
spot of black on the second and third lateral sutures. All the abdominal segments 
black except narrow, pale apical cross lines on segments 1, 7, 8, 9. The pale 
colors are olive green. The entire body and legs are more or less pruinose, making 
a slate gray insect. 

Kennedy ('17) reports that "Ischnura perparva occurs during the 
entire season and is frequently as abundant along the stagnant side 
pools of fresh streams as it ever is about alkaline ponds, where it occurs 
in equal abundance with cervula. In other words, it seems to be adapted 
to a wider variety of conditions than cervula. 

In habits it resembles cervula but, when at rest in copulation, or 
ovipositing, the wings are usually held tightly closed. Being a heavier 
bodied insect the abdomen is seldom bent into the U-shapes common 
with ovipositing cervula. As in cervula the males rarely accompany the 
females while the latter are ovipositing." 




utahensla 



perparva 



verticalis 



356. Ischnura erratica Calvert 

Calv. '95, p. 491 : Mtk. Cat. p. 69. 

Length 30-32 mm. Expanse 36-44 mm. B. C. to Calif. 

The following description of the male is taken from Dr. Calvert's original 
one: Black, the following blue or green: mouth parts, head below, frons an- 
teriorly, postocular spots, a complete antehumeral stripe each side, sides of the 
thorax (except a black line on the base of the second lateral and a complete line 
on the third lateral sutures), abdomen below, apical dorsal spot of 1, a wavy, 
transverse, apical band on 2, a dorsal band on the apical five-sixths of 7-9 (except 
a lateral black band on the sides of each, reaching from the base to the apex, 



ISCHNURA 355 

those of 8 united by a narrow, transverse, basal black band, and of 9 by a trans- 
verse apical band in some specimens, but not united on either 8 or 9 in others. 
A narrow, transverse, interrupted, basal yellow ring on 3-7. Forked process on 
10 about half as high as 10 itself. Superior appendages black, very short, one- 
fourth as long as 10, tubercular, with a slender, inner inferior prolongation 
reaching to the base of the inferior appendages. Inferior appendages two-thirds 
as long as 10, similar to those of denticollis, but with the apical processes a little 
more robust and curved upwards as well as inwards at the extreme tip. 

The females of this species exhibit the usual homochromatic and heterochro- 
matic phases so common to the species of this genus. The prothorax of the 
female has the hind margin distinctly bilobed. The ventral spine on the apical 
margin of abdominal segment 8 is either vestigial or entirely wanting. 

357. Ischnura verticalis Say 

Say '39, p. 37: Mtk. Cat. p. 70: Lyon '15, p. 59: Calv. '15, p. 62: Garm. '17, 
p. 572 and '27, p. 44. 

Syn: discolor Burm. 
Length 20-30 mm. Expanse 32-38 mm. Me., Ont. and N. Dak. to Ga. and Texas 
Within its range, this is the most common Zygopteran in North America, 
occurring in large numbers everywhere that there is enough water for the nymphs 
to live. The adults appear early in May and continue to emerge until September 
or later. Male. Labrum pale green with a black basal stripe. Postocular spots 
bluish-green, round, and isolated. A narrow pale postocellar stripe present. 
Anteclypeus pale; postclypeus black. Vertical portion of the frons pale; hori- 
zontal portion black. Antennae, vertex and occiput black. Mouth parts, genae 
and postgenae pale bluish-green. Dorsum of middle prothoracic lobe and pos- 
terior lobe black, remainder of the prothorax pale. Black middorsal and humeral 
stripes wide. The pale antehumeral stripe entire and narrow. A black spot on 
the base of the second lateral suture and a black spot and indefinite brown line 
on the third lateral suture. Dorsum of abdominal segments 1-7 and 10 black 
with narrow, yellow interrupted basal rings on segments 3-7. Segments 8-9 
blue, with large rectangular basal black spots on either side, those on 8 con- 
nected across the dorsum by a black basal line. 

The females exhibit the homochromatic and heterochromatic phases, and 
as this is the most common damselfly showing this phenomenon, much work 
has been done on it. For a fuller account of this interesting matter see the 
introduction to this genus and the 1915 papers of Dr. Calvert and Miss Lyon 
cited above. 

358. Ischnura cervula Selys 

Selys '76, p. 262: Mtk. Cat. p. 68: Kndy. '17, p. 295: Ndm. '23, p. 131. 
Length 29 mm. Expanse 34 mm. B. C. and Calif., Utah, Ariz., N. Mex. 

A far western all-summer species. Male. Color of the head mainly black 
with reduced pale markings as follows: Mouth parts, labrum except for a basal 
line, anteclypeus, vertical surface of the frons, and two very small postocular 
spots. The prothorax black except for a transverse pale stripe on the anterior 
lobe, and an interrupted bluish-green vertical stripe on each side which runs 
down into the coxa. Thorax with the sides blue. A black spot and line on the 



356 DRAGON FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

third lateral suture and a black basal spot on the second lateral suture. Dorsum 
of the thorax entirely black, the pale antehumeral stripe being represented by 
two widely separated blue spots on the upper and lower end of each mesinfrae- 
pisternum. Dorsum of abdominal segments 1-7 metallic black. Segments 8-9 
blue, each with a rectangular black spot at the basal end of each, joined across 
the dorsum by a fine black basal line; preapical teeth also black. Segment 10 
mainly black above, the bifid process being conspicuous. The inferior abdominal 
appendages are deeply bifid. 

Female. The coloration in the female is very variable ranging between the 
light phase, Heterochromatic, where the extent of the black on the head and 
thorax has been reduced to a minimum, i.e., the postclypeus is entirely yellow, 
the postocular spots are large and joined, the dark middorsal and humeral 
thoracic stripes are mere lines and the legs are entirely pale; to the dark phase, 
homochromatic, where head and thorax are colored as in the male. The extent 
of pale coloration of the abdomen is less variable and resembles the male, except 
that the dorsum of segment 9, to a greater or less extent, inferiorly, is always 
black. On the hind margin of the prothorax there is a medium truncate tooth- 
like process with a pencil of erect hairs on either side. The females of cervula 
do not possess the ventral spine on the apical margin of segment 8. 

Dr. Kennedy ('17) gives the following interesting account of this 
species as observed by him in Washington and Oregon. 

While occurring from early spring till heavy frosts in autumn, Ischnura cervula 
reaches its greatest abundance during the months of May and June. About 
running water it is scarce, in such places choosing the more stagnant spring 
laterals and side ponds. As with the other species of this genus, it is seldom 
found over the water or on land far from the moist banks of a pond or stream. 

It emerges in the day time usually between 9 and 11 o'clock in the morning, 
when it can sometimes be found emerging in swarms. At such times the nymphs 
can be seen swarming to the bank with a tadpole-like wriggling motion. They 
usually wait about 15 minutes after crawling from the water until they dry and 
the back splits. A half hour later they are on the wing. This species has, 
especially during imaginal life, the Lestes habit of hanging among aquatic 
vegetation and dodging among the reed stems to avoid capture. 

Copulation takes place with the couple moving about among the vegetation 
or at rest on some leaf, and lasts for many minutes. 

In oviposition, the female usually unaccompanied by the male, deposits her 
eggs in any vegetable matter under the surface of the water which is soft enough 
to be pierced by her ovipositor, usually the stems of aquatic plants, but some- 
times she will alight on the surface of a floating mass of filamentous algae and 
oviposit in the tangle of filaments. Usually the abdomen is bent U-shaped and 
the wings are loosely folded as in copulation, but occasionally she assumes the 
poses of perparva, with the wings tightly folded. 

359. Ischnura damula Calvert 

Calv. '02, p. 126: Mtk. Cat. p. 68. 

Length 27-30 mm. Expanse 32-34 mm. N. Mex. and Colo. 

This species of Ischnura is similar to cervula in coloration. It differs mainly 

in the structure of the superior and inferior abdominal appendages and the dorsal 



ANOMALAGRION 367 

process on segment 10, as follows: Superior appendages not quite half as long 
as segment 10, heavy, blunt and ending in a short, acute spine-like process, 
directed ventrally. Inferiors a little longer than the superiors, not bifid, turned 
up at the tip. The dorsal process on the 10th segment less elevated than in 
cervula, bifid in less than its apical half, and its branches enclosing an angle of 
90°. 

Female unknown. 



cervula ^^o damula hastatxim 




75. Anomalagrion Selys 

These are among the smallest and daintiest of damselflies, with short, 
weak legs, slender bodies, and very much attenuated abdomen. The 
stigma in the wings of the male is remarkable for its ovoid shape and 
its separation from the costal margin; that of the hind wing is similar 
to the more normal stigma of the female. 

The nymphs (Ndm. '03, p. 263) are very local. They are found in the 
shallow water among club rushes, to the vertical stems of which they 
habitually chng. The gills are regularly widened to about two-thirds 
of their length and then regularly narrowed to a long tapering point. 

360. Anomalagrion hastatum Say 

Say '39, p. 38: Mtk. Cat. p. 71: Davis '13, p. 18: Root '24, p. 319: Garm. '27, 
p. 39. 

Syn: anomalum Ramb., venerionotatum Haldemann 
Length 23 mm. Expanse 21 mm. Me. and N. D. southward 

This is one of the smallest and most delicate of our damselflies. Face is yellow 
cross lined with black on postclypeus and base of labrum. Head black above 
with violet reflections when mature and sometimes a pair of minute postocular 
pale spots. Front of thorax metallic blue black, including carina, with pale 
straight edged antehumeral stripes each side. Sides of thorax pale with short 
black lines in the sutures above. Legs yellow with black stripes on the top of 
the femora and short black spines. Wings hyaline with yellowish stigma. 
Abdomen orange and black in the male; wholly dark above in the female. Basal 
segments of the male abdomen with a blackish stripe that is narrowed and 
widened again on 3 and reduced to spots at ends on 4-6, and terminates in a 
broad band at three-fourths the length of 7. 8 and 9 wholly yellow, as are the 



358 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

sides of all the other segments. Venter of all, in the female, yellow. Appendages 
yellow in the male, black in the female. 

Root ('24, p. 319) says it is in Lee County, Georgia. "The commonest 
and most widely distributed damselfly of the region. Found about all 
kinds of ponds, swamps, ditches, etc., throughout the summer. 

Davis ('13, p. 18) says it is found in salt meadows as well as about 
fresh- water ponds. 

In northern Illinois we have found this species very local. Perma- 
nent wet spots rather than open pools are its home : places of constant 
seepage from springs thickly overgrown with spike rush. Down among 
the rushes, almost under ones feet, the dainty creatures flit from stem 
to stem, the red stigmas of the fore wings of the males twinkling among 
the shadows. Exquisite little creatures. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Books especially devoted to dragonflies are few. Tillyard's Biology 
of the Dragonflies is the one good general treatise. For Great Britain 
there is W. J. Lucas' British Dragonflies. Kirby's Synopsis-Catalogue 
of the Neuroptera, Odonata or Dragonflies, now out of date (1890), is 
the latest list for the world fauna. Of entirely different character is the 
book that was made out of the Lamborn Prize essays on possibilities 
of economic control, and published in 1890 under the title Dragonflies 
vs. Mosquitoes. Among the general books of natural history are a few 
that treat the dragonflies somewhat adequately: notably L. 0. 
Howard's Insect Book, V. L. Kellogg's American Insects and the senior 
author's Outdoor Studies. 

Muttkowski's Catalogue of 1910 isthesource book for North America. 
We have duplicated the bibliographic references of that work only to 
the extent of citing the original description under each species. 

All citations in the preceding pages, by author, year and page, are 
to the papers in the following list. When two or more papers by the 
same author have been published in a single year, the page references 
will enable the reader to find the one desired. 

Abbott, C. E. 1926. Death Feigning in Anax Junius and Aeschna sp. Psyche 

33:8-10. 
Bethel, E. 1915. Sympetrum Corruptum, a Dragonfly at a High Altitude. 

Ent. News 26: 119. 
Bodine, Joseph H. 1918. Experimental Results in Ischnura and Enallagma. 

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. pp. 103-113. 
Brimley, C. S. 1903. List of Dragonflies from North Carolina, especially from the 

vjcinity of Raleigh. Ent. News 29: 150-157. 

1920. Notes on North Carolina Dragonflies. Ent. News 31: 138-139. 

Bromley, S. W. 1924. New Ophiogomphus from Massachusetts. Ent. News 

35: 343-344. 

1928. A dragonfly Ovipositing on a Paved Highway. Bull. Brooklyn 

Ent. See. 23: 69. 

Broughton, Elsie. 1928. Some New Dragonfly Nymphs. Can. Ent. 60: 32-34. 
Butler, Hortense. 1904. The Labium of the Odonata. Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 
30: 111-133. 3 pi. 

1914. Three new species of Odonata. Can. Ent. 46: 346-348. 

Byers, C. Francis. 1925. Odonata collected in Cheboygan and Emmet Counties, 

Mich. Mich. Acad. Sci. 5: 389. 
1927. An Annotated List of the Odonata of Michigan. Occ. Papers 

Mus. of Zoo. U. of Mich. No. 183: 1-16. 
1927. The Nymph of Libellula incesta and a Key for the Separation 

of the Known Nymphs of the Genus Libellula. Ent. News 38: 113, 1927. 

359 



360 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

1927. Notes on Some American Dragonfly Nymphs. Jour. N. Y. Ent. 

Soc. 35: 65-74. 1 pi. 

1927. Key to the North American Species of Enallagma, with a des- 
cription of a new species. Trans. Am. Ent., >Soc, 53: 249-260. 

1927. Enallagma and Telagrion from Western Florida, with a De- 
scription of a New Species. Annals E. S. A. 20: 385-392. 

Calvert, Philip P. 1912. The North American Dragonflies of the Genus Aeschna. 
By E. M. Walker. Ent. News 23: 283-286. 

1913. The Species of Nehalennia including one from the eastern United 

States hitherto undescribed. Ent. News 24: 310-316. 

1915. The Dimorphism or Dichromatism of the Females of Ischnura 

Verticalis. Ent. News 26: 62-68. 

1917. On Hagenius Brevistylus. Proc. Acad. Natur. Sci. 69: 205. 

1919. Gundlach's Work on the Odonata of Cuba: A Critical Study, 

Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 45: 335-396, 3 pi. 

1921. Gomphus Dilatatus, Vastus and a new species, Lineatifrons, 

Amer. Entom. Soc. 47, pp. 221-232, 2 pis. 

1923. Supplementary note on Gomphus dilatatus. Leucorhinia proxima 

at a high altitude in Colorado. Ent. News XXIV: 87-88. 

1924. The supposed Males of Ophiogomphus howei. Ent. News 35: 345-7. 

1926. Relations of a late autumnal dragonfly to temperature. Ecology 

8: 185-190. 

1928. Report on Odonata Collected by the Barbados Antigua 

Expedition. Univ. Iowa Stud. Nat. Hist. 12: 1-44, 5 pi. 

Coombs, A. F. 1917. Notes on a collection of Odonata from Schoolcraft Co. 

Mich. Occ. Papers, Mus. of Zoo. U. of Mich. 41, 8 pp. 
Cullen, Anna M. 1918. Rectal Tracheation of Argia Putrida Larva. Proc, 

Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 75, 81. 
Currie, Bertha P. 1917. Gomphus parvidens, a new sp. from Maryland. Proc. 

N. S. Nat. Mus. 53: 223-226. 2 pi. 
Davis, Wm. T. 1913. Dragonflies of New York City. Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc, 

21: 12-24. 
1914. The Dragonfly Anax Longipes on Long Island, N. Y. Bull. Brook. 

Ent. Soc. 9:34-37. 
1922. A New Dragonfly from Florida. Bull. Brook. Ent. Soc. 16: 109- 

111. 

1927. A New Dragonfly from Virginia. Bull. Brook. Ent. Soc. 22: 

155-156. 

Garman, Philip. 1917. The Zygoptera, or Damselflies, of Illinois. Bull. 111. 

St. Lab. Nat. His. 12: 410-587, 16 pis. 
1927. The Odonata or Dragonflies of Connecticut. Conn. Geol. and 

Nat. Hist. Survey Bull. 39. 
Hine, J. S. 1925. Tachopteryx thoreyi, recorded from Ohio, with notes on its 

near relatives. Ohio Jour. Sc. 25: 190-192. 
Holland, W. J. 1922. Calopteryx maculata, an interesting photograph. Proc, 

Ent. Soc. Wash. 24: 117-118. 
Howe, R. H. 1916. A preliminary list of the Odonata of Concord, Mass. Rep. 

Psyche. 23: 12-15. 

1917-1923. Manual of the Odonata of New England. Memoir Thoreau 

Museum Nat. Hist. II: 1-138. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 361 

1918. Distributional Notes on New England Odonata. Part II. Psyche. 

25: 106-110. 

1919. Odonata of the Franconia Region, N. H. Can. Ent. 51, pp. 9-15. 

1921. Supplement to Manual of Odonata of New England. Mem. 

Thoreau Mus. Nat. Hist. 2: 1-14. 

1921. Distribution of New England Odonata. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. 

Hist. 36: 105-133. 

1922. A new Dragonfly from New England (Gomphus alleni). Ace. 

Papers Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 5: 19-20. 

1924. Williamsonia lintneri Hagen, its history and distribution. Psyche 

30: 222-225. 

1925. Another instance of northward migration of Odonata in the spring. 

Psyche 32. 
Kennedy, Clarence H. 1913. Notes on Odonata or Dragonflies of Bumping 

Lake, Washington. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 46: 111-126. 57 fig. 
1915. Interesting Western Odonata. Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 8: 297-303. 

1915a. Notes on the Life History and Ecology of the Dragonflies of 

Washington and Oregon. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 49: 259-345. 

1917. The Dragonflies of Kansas. The Odonata of Kansas with Refer- 
ence to Their Distribution. Bull. Kan. Univ. 18: 127-145. 7 pis. 

1917, Notes on the Life History and Ecology of the Dragonflies of 

Central California and Nevada. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 52: 483-635. 

1917. A new species of Somatochlora. Can. Ent. 49: 229-236. 

1918. Varieties of the Dragonfly Agrion aequabile. Can. Ent. 50: 

406-410. 
1918. New species of Odonata from the Southwestern United States. 

Can. Ent. 50: 256-261, 297-300. 1 pi. 
1919. The Naiad of the Odonate genus Coryphaeschna. Ent. News 30: 

105-108. 

1919. A New Species of Argia. Can. Ent. 51: 17-18. 

1920. Forty-two hitherto unrecognized genera and subgenera of Zygop- 

tera. Ohio Jour. Sci. 21 : 83-88. 

1920. The Phylogeny of the Zygopterous Dragonflies as Based on the 

Evidence of the Penes. Ohio. J. Sci. 21: 19-29. 3 pi. 

1921. Some Interesting Dragonfly Naiads from Texas. Proc. U. S. Nat. 

Mus. 59: 595-598. 1 pi. 
1922. The Phylogeny and the Geographical Distribution of the Genus 

Libellula. Ent. News 33: 65-71 and 105-111. 

1922. The Homologies of the Tracheal Branches in the Respiratory 

System of Insects. Ohio J. Sci. 22: 84-88. 

1922. The Ecological Relationships of the Dragonflies of the Bass 

Islands of Lake Erie. Ecology 3: 325-336. 
1922. The Morphology of the Penis in the Genus Libellula. Ent. News 

33: 33-40. 2 pis. 
1923. The Naiad of Pantala Hymenea. Can. Ent. 54: 36-38. 

1923. Phylogeny and Distribution of Genus Erythemis. N. Mich. 

Misc. Pub. No. 11: 19-21. 1 pi. 

1924. Notes and descriptions of Naiads belonging to the Dragonfly 

Genus Helocordulia. Proc. Nat. Mus. 64: 1-4. 1 pi. 



362 DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

Lamb, L. F. 1925. A tabular account of the differences between the earlier 
instars of Pantala flavescens. Tr. Amer. Ent. See. 1: 289-312. 

Lucus, W. J. 1922. Color Preservation in Dragonflies. The Entomologist, 
p. 209. 

Lyon, Mary B. 1915. The Ecology of Dragonfly Nymphs of Cascadilla Creek. 
Ent. News 26: 1-15. 

1915. Miscellaneous Notes on Odonata. Ent. News 26: 56-62. 

Marshall, Wm. S. 1914. On the Anatomy of the Dragonfly Libellula Quadri- 

maculata, Linne. Trans. Wise. Acad. Sci. Arts and Letters 17: 755-790. 

4 pi. 
McDunnough, J. 1922. Dragonflies of the Lake of the Bays Region and Ad- 
ditional Records of Dragonflies from the Ottawa Region. Can. Ent. 

53:6-8, 14. 
1923. Notes on Canadian Dragonflies for the season of 1922. Can. Ent. 

54: 255-257. 
1924. Distributional Notes on Canadian Dragonflies. Can. Ent. 55: 

72-73. 
Montgomery, B. E. 1924. Records of Indiana Dragonflies I. Proc. Ind. Acad. 

Sci. 34:383. 
Munz, P. A. 1919. A Venational Study of the suborder Zygoptera (Odonata), 

with keys for the identification of Genera. Amer. Ent. Soc. Mem. No. 3, 

pp. 1-78, 20 pis. 
Muttkowski, R. A. 1910. Miscellaneous Notes and Records of Dragonflies. 

Bull. Wise. Nat. Hist. Soc. 8: 170-179. 

1910. Catalogue of the Odonata of North America. Bull. Pub. Mus. 

City of Milwaukee 1: 1-207. 

1910. The Applicability of Certain Generic Names of Odonata. Bull. 

Wise. Nat. Hist. Soc. 8: 158-160. 

1910. Gomphus Cornutus Tough in Milwaukee County. Bull, of Wis. 

N. H. Soc. VIII, p. 110. 

1910-11. New Records of Wisconsin Dragonflies. Bull. Wis. Nat. Hist. 

Soc. 8: 53-59, 9: 28-41. Fig. 1-16. 

1911. A new Gomphus. Ent. News. 22: 221-223. 

1911. Studies in Tetragoneuria. Bull. Wis. Nat. Hist. Soc. 9: 91-134. 

3 pi. Fig. 1-7. 

1911. A Synonymical Note. Bull. Wis. Nat. Hist. Soc. 9: 166-169. 

1913. New Species of Dragonflies. Bull. Wis. Nat. Hist. Soc. 10: 164- 

170. 1 pi. 1 fig. 
and Whedon, A. D. 1915. On Gomphus Cornutus Tough. Bull. Wis. 

Nat. Hist. Soc. 13: 88-101 

1915. Studies in Tetragoneuria II. Bull. Wis. Nat. Hist. Soc. 13: 49-61. 

Needham, J. G. 1911. Notes on a few Nymphs of Agrioninae of the Hagen 

Collection. Ent. News 22: 342-345. 1 pi. 
1911. Notes on Nymphs of Gomphinae of the Hagen Collection. Ent. 

News XXII: 392-396. 1 pi. 
1911. Descriptions of Dragonfly Nymphs of the Subfamily Caloptery- 

genae. Ent. News 22: 145-154. 2 pis. 

1917. Notes on some recent studies of Dragonfly Wing Tracheation. 

Ent. News 28: 169-173. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 363 

1918. Aquatic Insects. Ward and Whipple's Fresh Water Biology, 

pp. 867-946. 

1923. Observations of the Life of the Ponds at the Head of Laguna 

Canyon. Pomona Jour. Ent. & Zoo. 16: 123-134. 
1925. Some Aquatic Neuropteroid Insects of Lake George. Ent. News 

36: 110-116. 
1927. Some Economic Insects in the Streams of Northern Utah. Utah 

Agri.Sta. Bull. 201. 
Needham, J. G. and Broughton, Elsie. 1927. The Venation of the Libellulinae. 

Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 53: 157-190. 
Osburn, R. C. 1916. A Migratory Flight of Dragonflies. J. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 

24: 90-92. 
Pierson, E. L. 1923. A list of Odonata collected at Concord, Mass. Proc. 

Thoreau Mus. Nat. Hist. 1: 41. 
Rich, Stephen G. 1918. The Gill Chamber of Dragonfly Nymphs. J. of Morph. 

31: 317-349. 
Riley, Curtis C. F. 1912. Observations on the Ecology of Dragonfly Nymphs: 

Reactions to light and contact. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 5: 273-292. 
Ris, F. 1909-1916. Collections Zoologiques de Selys — Longchamps: Libel- 
lulinae. Brussels, pp. 1-1245. 
Root, Francis M. 1923. Notes on Zygop. from Maryland — Enallagma pallidum 

Ent. News 34: 200-204. 
1924. Notes on Dragonflies from Lee Co., Ga. Enallagma dubium. 

Ent. News 35: 317-323. 
Schmieder, Rudolf G. 1922. Tracheation of Wings of Early Larval Instars of 

Anisoptera with special reference to development of Radius. Ent. News 

33:257-262,299-303. 2 pi. 
Seemann, Theresa Marian. 1927. Dragonflies, Mayflies and Stoneflies of S. 

California. Jour. Ent. & Zoo., Pomona College, 19: 1-68. 4 pis. 
Shafer, G. D. 1924. The Growth of Dragonfly Nymphs at Moult and Between 

Moults. Stanford Univ. Pub. 3: 307-337. 
Stout, Alice L. 1918. Variation in Labial Characters in the Nymphs of Gomphus 

spicatus. Ent. News 29: 68-70. p. 1. 
Walker, E. M. 1912. N. A. Dragonflies of Genus Aeschna. Univ. of Toronto 

Studies, Biol. Series. 1 pi. 
1912. Odonata of Prairie Provinces of Canada. Can. Ent. 44: 253-268. 

Ipl. 

1913. Mutual Adaptation of the Sexes in Argia Moesta Putrida. Can. 

Ent. 45: 277-279. 1 pi. 

1913. New Nymphs of Canadian Odonata. Can. Ent. 45-6: 161-170. 

2 pi. 
1914. The Known Nymphs of the Canadian Species of Lestes. Can. 

Ent. 46: 189-200. 2 pi. 

1914. New and Little Known Nymphs of Canadian Odonata. Can. 

Ent. 46: 349-356, 369-377. 

1915. The Re-Discovery of Agrion Interrogatum, Selys. Can. Ent. 47: 

174-176. 

1916. A few Days in Newfoundland. Can. Ent. 48: 257-261. 

1916. A Curious Trap for Dragonflies. Can. Ent. 48: 314-315. 



364 DRAGON FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

1916. The Nymphs of the North American Species of Leucorrhinia. 

Can. Ent. 48: 414-422. 
1916. The Nymphs of Enallagma cyathigerum and E. calverti. Can. 

Ent. 47: 192-196. 
1917. The Known Nymphs of the North American species of Sym- 

petrum. Can. Ent. 49: 409-418. 2 pi. 
1917. Seasonal Irregularities in the Occurrence of Dragonflies. Can. 

Ent. 49: 171-178. 

1917. Some Dragonflies from Prince Edward Island. Can. Ent. 49: 

117-119. 

1918. Notes on Agrion aequabile hudsonicum Hagen. Can. Ent. 50: 

406-410. 

1918. On the American Representatives of Somatochlora Arctica with 

Descriptions of two new species. Can. Ent. 50: 365-376. 1 pi. 

1921. Nymph and Breeding Place of Aeschna sitchensis. Can. Ent. 53: 

221-226. 

1923. Notes on the Odonata of Godbout, Que. Can. Ent. 55: 5-12. 

• 1924. Odonata of the Thunder Bay District, Ontario. Can. Ent. 56 

170-176. 
1925. The N. A. Dragonflies of the Genus Somatochlora. U. of Toronto 

Studies, Biol. Series, 1-202. 
1927. Odonata of the Canadian Cordillera. Brit. Col. Special Pub. 

Victoria, B. C. pp. 3-15. 
1928. The Nymphs of the Stylurus Group of the Genus Gomphus with 

Notes on the Distribution of this Group in Canada. Can. Ent. 60, 

pp. 79-88. 
Warren, Alfred. 1915. A Study of the Food Habits of Hawaiian Dragonflies. 

College of Hawaii Pub. Bui. 3: 1-36. 4 pi. 
Weber, L. 1918. Odonata of Iowa. Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci. 24: 327-333. 
Whedon, A. D. 1914. Preliminary Notes on the Odonata of Southern Minnesota. 

Rep. of State Ent. Minn. 13 and 14, 78-103. 4 pi. 3 fig. 
1919. The Comparative Morphology and Possible Adaptations of the 

Abdomen in the Odonata. Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 44: 373-437. 
Whitehouse, F. C. 1917. The Odonata of the Red Deer District, Alberta. Can. 

Ent. 49: 96-103. 

1918. Dragonflies of Alberta. Pub. Alta. Nat. Hist. Soc. 16 pp. 

Williamson, E. B. 1910. A new species of Celithemis. Reprinted from Ohio 

Naturalist May '10, 153-160. 3 pi. 

1912. The Known Indiana Somatochloras. Ent. News 23: 152-155. 

1912. The Dragonfly Argia moesta and a New Species. Ent. News 

23: 196-203. 

1912. Hetaerina titia and tricolor. Ent. News 23: 98-101. 

1913. The Medio-anal Link in Agrioninae. Ent. News 24: 258-261. 

1913. Some Colorado Dragonfly Records. Ent. News 24: 372. 

1914. September Dragonflies about Mesa Arizona. Ent. News 25: 

225-226. 

1914. Sympetrum obtrusum and costiferum in Maine. Ent. News 

25: 456. 

1914. Gomphus pallidus and Two New Related Species. Ent. News 

25: 49-58. 2 pi. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 365 

1914. Dragonflies collected in Texas and Oklahoma. Ent. News 25: 

411-415, 444-455. 

1915. Notes on Neotropical Dragonflies. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 48: 

601-638. 7 pi. 

— 1916. Directions for Collecting and Preserving Specimens of Dragon- 
flies for Museum Purposes. Univ. Mich. Zoo. Misc. Pub. 1: 5-15. 

1917. The Genus Neoneura. Amer. Ent. Soc. 43: 211-246. 11 pi. 

1917. An Annotated List of the Odonata of Indiana. Univ. Mich. 

Mus. Zoo. Miscel. Pub. 2: 5-13. 1 map. 

1919. Variation in Color Pattern of Dragonfly Gomphus Crassus 

Ent. News 30: 294-296. 

1920. Notes on Indiana Dragonflies. Ind. Acad. Sci., pp. 99-104. 

1921. Two Days with Indiana Odonata. Ent. News 32: 19-23. 

1922. Libellulas collected in Florida by Jesse H. Williamson, with 

Description of a new species. Ent. News 33: 13-19. 

1922. Notes on Celithemis with Descriptions of two new species. Occas. 

pap. Mus. Zoo. Univ. Mich. 108: 1-22. 2 pi. 

1922. Enallagmas Collected in Florida and South Carolina by Jesse 

H. Williamson with Descriptions of Two New Species. Ent. News 33: 
114-118. 

1923. Odonatological Results of an Auto Trip Across Indiana, Kentucky 

and Tennessee. Ent. News 34:6-9. 

1923. Notes on American species of Triacanthagyna and Gynacantha. 

Univ. of Mich. Misc. Pub. No. 9. 
1923. Notes on genus Erythemis — with a description of a new species. 

Univ. of Mich. Misc. Pub. No. 11. 

1923. A New Species of Williamsonia. Can. Ent. 55: 96-98. 

Wilson, Chas. B. 1909. Dragonflies of the Mississippi Valley collected during 

the Pearl Mussel Investigation on the Mississippi R., July and Aug., 1907. 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 36: 653-671. 
1912. Dragonflies of the Cumberland Valley in Kentucky and Tennessee. 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 43: 189-200. 
1920. Dragonflies and Damselflies in relation to Pond-fish culture, with 

a list of those found near Fairport, Iowa. Bull. Bureau Fisheries 36: 

182-264. 1 pi. 
Woodruff, Lewis B. 1914a. Some Dragonflies of a Connecticut Brook. Jour. 

N. Y. Ent. Soc. 22: 155-159. 
1914. The Nymph of Ophiogomphus Johannus Needham. Jour, of 

N. Y. Ent. Soc. 22: 61-63. 



#■ 



CHECKING LIST 



1. Tan 


40. Bcu 


17. Ana 


123. tae 


165. Sep 


203. com 


240. bal 


281. hin 


321. sig 


1. bag 


41. amn 


83. Ion 


124. wab 


33. Crd 


204. inc 


56. Tra 


282. imm 


322. ves 


2. Tac 


42. vas 


84. ama 


125. pac 


166. shu 


205. vib 


241. vir 


283. int 


323. dub 


2. tho 


43. ven 


85. jun 


126. ann 


34. Dor 


206. a.xi 


242. lac 


284. moe 


324. pic 


3. Pro 


44. dil 


86 wal 


127. mag 


167. lib 


44. Pla 


243. onu 


285. rit 


325. con 


3. obs 


45. lin 


18.0pl 


128. geo 


168. lep 


207. 1yd 


244. car 


286. sed 


326. ebr 


4. Omd 


46. int 


87. arm 


129. aus 


35. WU 


208. aub 


245. abd 


287. sol 


327 exs 


4. sti 


47. oli 


19. Crp 


26. Did 


169. lin 


45. Can 


57. A^r 


288. tib 


328. wee 


5. Aph 


48. not 


88. ing 


130. tra 


170. fle 


209. gra 


246. ang 


289. ton 


329. pal 


6. pro 


49. pla 


. 89. vir 


131. flo 


36. Nan 


46. Sym 


247. ama 


290. tra 


330. ant 


6.Cyc 


50. spn 


20.Nas 


27. Pla 


171. bel 


210. cor 


248. aeq 


291. vio 


331. car 


6. pro 


51. liv 


90. pen 


132. xan 


37. Per 


211. ill 


249. dim 


292. viv 


332. dou 


7. Haii 


52. mil 


21. Epi 


28. Neu 


172. dom 


212. mad 


250. api 


64. Ari 


333. civ 


7. bre 


53. cav 


91. her 


133. obs 


38. Ccl 


213. fur 


251. mac 


293. min 


334. clc 


8. Oph 


54. bri 


22. Aes 


134. yam 


173. epo 


214. amb 


58. Het 


65. Hes 


335. pra 


8. col 


55. gra 


92. cae 


135. vir 


174. eli 


215. pal 


252. sem 


294. het 


336. ann 


9. ano 


56. wil 


93. sit 


29. Epi 


175. mon 


216. obt 


253. vul 


66. Amp 


337. els 


10. pha 


57. min 


94. cal 


136. pri 


176. fas. 


217. rub 


254. ame 


295. sau 


338. bas 


11. occ 


58. exi 


95. mul 


137. reg 


177. mar 


218. ass 


255. tri 


67. Tib 


339. asp 


12. asp 


59. spi 


96. mut 


30. Tet 


178. ama 


219. sem 


256. tit 


296. sal 


340. sem 


13. crl 


60. aus 


97. umb 


138. cyn 


179. orn 


220. vie 


59. Arc 


68. Neh 


341. tra 


14. rup 


61. des 


98. wal 


139. ste 


180. ber 


221. cos 


257. gra 


257. pal 


342. coe 


15. ari 


62. bor 


99. ari 


140. spg 


39. Pse 


222. dan 


258. cal 


298. gra 


343. crd 


16. sev 


63.abd 


100. pal 


141. can 


181. sup 


223. atr 


60. Les 


299. int 


73. Zon 


17. mon 


64. qua 


101. con 


142. spn 


40. Ery 


47. Leu 


259. ine 


300. ire 


344. exe 


18. mor 


65. len 


102. int 


31. Hel 


182. fun 


224. hud 


260. eur 


69. Chr 


74. lac 


19. how 


66. sbm 


103. cle 


143. uhl 


183. umb 


225. int 


261. con 


301. con 


345. den 


20. car 


67. aba 


104. ere 


144. sel 


184. min 


226. gla 


262. ung 


70.Tlrf 


346. gem 


21. bis 


68. pal 


105. jun 


32.Som 


185. ber 


227. fri 


263. sig 


302. dae 


347. pro 


22. mai 


69. cor 


106. sub 


145. geo 


41. Ort 


228. pro 


264. vid 


71. Coe 


348. ram 


9. Erp 


70. whe 


107. tub 


146. lin 


186. fer 


229. bor 


265. frc 


303. int 


349. pes 


23. dia 


71. fur 


108. can 


147. ens 


42. Lad 


48. Pac 


266. dis 


304. ang 


350. kel 


24. lam 


72. vil 


109. ver 


148. ten 


187. dep 


230. Ion 


267. rec 


305. res 


351. dem 


25. des 


11. Dro 


23. Gyn 


149. pro 


188. exu 


49. Mes 


268. unc 


72.Ena 


352. bar 


26. com 


73. arm 


110. tri 


150. fil 


189. Jul 


231. sim 


269. atu 


306. div 


353. uta 


10. Gom 


74. spo 


111. ner 


151. alb 


43. Lib 


232. pie 


270. vig 


307. hag 


354. ere 


27. bre 


75. spi 


112. bif 


152. hud 


190. luc 


50. Lep 


271. ala 


308. bor 


355. per 


28. par 


12. Lan 


24.Crft 


153. cin 


191 sat 


233. ves 


272. frf 


309. cla 


356. err 


29. all 


76. alb 


113. dia 


154. min 


192. cro 


51. Dyt 


61. Neo 


310. cya 


357. ver 


30. abb 


77. par 


114. say 


155. wal 


193. aur 


224. vel 


273. aar 


311. pis 


358. cer 


31. vir 


13. Oct 


115. err 


156. for 


194. jes 


235. fug 


62. Hyp 


312. dur 


359. dam 


32. hyb 


78. spe 


116. dor 


157. elo 


195. com 


52. Bre 


274. lug 


313, min 


75. Ano 


33.fra 


14. Gsh 


117. obi 


158. sem 


196. cya 


236. men 


63. Ar^ 


314. gem 


360. has 


34. ext 


79. fur 


118. fas 


159. wil 


197. fla 


53. Pal 


275. agr 


315. rec 




35. era 


15. Bas 


119. dis 


160. inc 


198. sem 


237. lin 


276. alb 


316. lat 




36. cnf 


80. jan 


120. mac 


161. sal 


199. pul 


54. Pan 


277. api 


317. cul 




37. don 


16. Boy 


25. Mac 


162. fra 


200. for 


238. hym 


278. bip 


318. lau 




38. une 


81. vin 


121. ill 


163. whi 


201. qua 


239. fla 


279. emm 


319. pol 




39. ade 


82. gra 


122. ail 


164. ken 


202. nod. 


55. Mac 


280. fum 


320. sul 





INDEX 



Italics indicate illustrations 



Aaroni, 283 
abbotti, 131 
abbreviations, 47 
abbreviatum, 304 
abbreviatus, 88, 89 
abditus, 110 
abdominalis, 253, 255 
adelphus, 94 
aduncum, 302 
aequabile, 260 
Aeschna, 134, 1S6 

arida, 144 

caerulea, 136, 139 

californica, 140, I4I 

canadensis, I48 

clepsydra, I46, 148 

constricta, 144^ 145 

eremita, 136, I46 

interrupta, 134, 145, I46 

juncea, 136, 147, 148 

multicolor, 24, 135, I4I 

mutata, I4I, 142 

palmata, I44 

sitchensis. 186, 139 

subarctica, 147, 148 

tuberculifera, I48 

umbrosa. 134, 142, I44 

verticalis, I48, 149 

walkeri, 143, 144 
Aeschnidae, 53 
Aeschninae, 123 
agrioides, 291 
Agrion, 259 

aequabile, 260 

amatum, 260 

angustipenne, 260 

apicale, 261 

dimidiatum, 261 

maculatum, 97, 259, 260, 261, 262 
Agrionidae, 258 
alacer, 279 
alberta, 291, 292 
albicincta 189 
albifrons, 235 
albistylus, 120 
alleghanensis, 167 
alleni, 89 
amanda, 209, 212 
amatum, 260 
amazilli, 129 
amber wings, 205 
ambiguum, 235 
americana, 118, 262, 264 
amnicola, 81, 93 95 
Amphiagrion, 282, 304 

saucium, SO4 



amphion, 304 
anal crossmg, 58, 201 
anal loop, 58 
anal vein, 15, 16 
Anax, 128 

amazilli, 129 

Junius, 7, 129 

longipes, 129 

walsinghami, 130 
angulatum, 310, 311 
angustipenne, 260 
Anisoptera, 51 
anna, 337, 338 
annexum, 324 
annulata, 168 
Anomalagrion, 280, 313, 352 

hastatum, 357 
anomalum, 357 
anomalus, 70 
antennatum, 334, 335 
antehumeral stripe, 69 
antenna, 13 
anterior lamina, 19 
antenodal cross veins, 201 
antilope, 125 
Aphylla, 64 

producta, 64, 65 
apicale, 261 
apicalis, 27, 292, 293 
apical planate, 201 
apical sector, 201 
appetite, 9 

arculus, 15, 16, 17, 201 
Archilestes, 268 

californica, 27, 269, 270 

grandis, 269 
Argia, 27, 280, 284 

agrioides, 291 

alberta, 291, 292 

apicalis, 27, 292, 293 

bipunctulata, 285, 289, 293 

emma, 294 

fumipennis, 285, 294, 295 

hinei, 295 

immunda. 295, 296 

intruda, 296 

moesta, 289, 297 

putrida, 118. 289, 297 

rita, 297, 298 

sedula, 289, 292, 297, 29S 

solita, 297, 299 

tibialis, 297, 299 

tonto. 299, 300 

translata, 300 

violacea, 27, 289, 300, 301 

vivida, 289, 301 



369 



370 



DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



Argiallagma, 302 

minutum, 302, 303 
arida, 144 
Arigomphus, 111 
arizonicus, 73, 74 
armata, 130 
armatum, 260 
armatus, 117 
aspersum, 339 
aspersus, 71, 72 
assimilatum, 236, 237 
Atkinson, D. A., 56 
atripes, 340 
auripennis, 222 
australis, 103, 109 
australensis, 169 
axillena, 220, 228 

Babiy, Mrs. P., 119 
balteata, 252 
barberi, 351, 352 
basalis, 221 
Basiaeschna, 126 

Janata, 126 
basidens, 327, 339 
bee butcher, 23, 131 
berenice, 215 
bella, 161, 204 
bertha, 209, 213 
bifasciata, 224 
bifida, 151 

big red skimmer, 222 
binotatum, 297 
binomials, 47 

bipunctulata. 285. 289, 293 
bipustulata, 293 
bisector anal loop, 201, 202 
bison, 77, 78 
bistigma, 223 
black wings, 259 
blue bells, 204 
blue darners, 134 
blue-nosed darner, 132 
blue pirate, 25, 245 
bluets, 311 

basal subcostal cross vein, 58 
boreale, 323 

borealis, 62, 109, 110, 244 
boucardi, 305 
Boyeria, 126 

grafiana, 128 

vinosa, 30, 127 
Brachymesia, 230, 231 
Brechmorhoga, 250 

mendax, 250 
brevis, 81, S2, 88 
brevistylus, 36, 37, 38, 43, 66 
bridge, 15, 17, 201 
Brimley, C. S., 187, 223, 228 
brimleyi, 105, 106 
Broughton, Elsie, 134, 183 
Byers, C. Francis, 271, 284, 306, 31 1, 342 



burro wers, 31 

Cabot, Louis, 253 
caerulea, 136, 139 
caUfornica, 27, 135, 140, I4I, 260, 269, 

270 
Calopteryx, 259 

Calvert, P. P., 5, 9, 188, 204, 239. 253 
calverti, 323 
canadense, 336 
canadensis, I48, 136 
canis, 178, 180, 181 
Cannacria, 230 

gravida, 230 
cannibalism, 9 
cardenium, S4I 
carina, 20, 69 
caroUna, 253, 255 
caroUnuR, 72, 73 
carolus, 4O, 76, 77 
carunculatum, 335 
casualties, 24 
caucasica, 147 
caudal appendages, 33, 18 
cavillaris, 13, 105 
Celithemis, 25, 202, 207 

amanda, 209, 212 

bertha, 209, 213 

elisa, 209, 210 

eponina, 26, 43, 209 

fasciata, 209, 211 

martha, 209, 212 

monomelaena, 209, 211 

ornata, 209, 212 
cerci, 19 

cervula, 355, 357 
chewing stomach, 33 
chlora, 206 
Chromagrion, 309 

conditum, 308, 309 
chrysoptera, 234 
cingulata, 190 
cinnamonea, 170 
civile, 335, 336 
clara, 174 
clausum, 323, 324 
clepsydra, 146, 148 
climbers, 31 
club-tails, 58 
clypeus, 12, 13 
Cockerell, T. D. A., 45 
coecum, 341 
Coenagrion, 310 

angulatum, 310, 311 

interrogatum, 310 

resolutum, 310, 311 

COENAGRIONIDAE, 267 
COENAGRIONINAE, 280 

cognata, 261 
collar, 12, 20, 69 
coloradicum, 260 
color patterns, 69, 81 



INDEX 



371 



colubnnus, 70 
comanche, 320, 223 
common club-tail, 81 
composita, 227 
compositus, 80 
concisum, 331, 332 
conditum, 308, 309 
confraternus, 92, 93 
confusa, 224 
congener, 275, 276 
consanguis, 94 
consobrinus, 90 
constricta, i44> 145 
copulation, 18, 27, 255 
copulatory organs, 18 
Cordulegaster, 121, 152 

diadema, 155 

diastatops, 32, 158 

darsalis, 45, 156 

erroneus, 155 

fasciatus, 158 

maculatus, 159 

obliquus, 158 

sayi, 15, 155 

CORDULEGASTERINAE, 152 

Cordulia, 197 

shurtleffi, 43, 197, 199 

CORDULINAE, 171 

cornutus, 115 
corruptum, 232, 233 
Coryphaeschna, 131 

ingens, 23, 131 

virens, 132 
costa, 15 
costalis, 222 
costiferum, 239, 2Jfi 
coxa, 14 
crassus, 91, 92 
credula, 353 
crepuscular habits, 151 
crest, 12, 20, 69 
croceipennis, 222 
cross veins, 17 
cubitus, 15, 16 
culicinorum, 336, 337 
cultellatum, 327 
cyanea, 220, 223 
cyathigerum, 324, 325 
Cyclophylla, 65 

protracta, 65 
cynosura, 178. 180 

daeckii, 310 

damula, 356, 357 

danae, 239, 240 

Darners, 123 

Davis, W. T., 55, 63, 66, 159, 178, 238, 

255, 262, 358 
defixa, 353 
demorsa, 351, 352 
denticollis, 348, 3J^9 
dentiferum, 329 



deplanata, 217 
depth of insertion, 43 
descriptus, 43, 109 
designatus, 80 
devil's darning needles, 4 
diadema, 155 
diadophis, 79, 80 
diastatops, 32, 158 
Didymops, 169 

floridensis, 170 

transversa, 170 
dilatatus, 96, 97 
dimidiatum, 261 
Diplax, 231 
discolor, 216, 304, 355 
disjunctus, 278 
divagans, 322, 323 
Dog-tails, 178 
domitia, 205 
donneri, 93, 94 
Dorocordulia, 198 

lepida, 199 

libera 198, 199 
dorsalis, 45, 156 
doubledayi, 335 
dragon, black, 66 
drift, 24 
Dromogomphus, 58, 117 

armatus, 117 

spinosus, 118 

spoliatus, 117. 118 

dubium, 330, 331 

durum, 325 

dusk flying, 151 
Dythemis, 202, 248 

fugax, 249 

velox, 249 

ebrium, 332, 333 
egg parasites, 28 
eggs, 8, 25, A3 
eiseni, 337, 338 
elegans, 260 
elisa, 209, 210 
elongata, 192, 193 
emma. 294 
Enallagma, 311 

anna, 337, 338 

antennatum, 334, 335 

aspersum, 339 

basidens, 339 

boreale, 323 

cardenium, 341 

carunculatum, 335 

civile, 335, 336 

clausum, 323, 324 

coecum, 341 

concisum, 331, 332 

culicinorum, 336, 337 

cultellatum, 327 

cyatherigerum, 324, 325 

divagans, 322, 323 



372 



DRAGON FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



doubledayi, 335 
dubium, 330, 331 
durum, 325 
ebrium, 332, 333 
eiseni, 337, 338 
exsulans, 332, 333, 334 
geminatum, 326 
hageni, 322, 323 
laterale, 327 
laurenti, 327, 328 
minusculum, 325 
pallidum, 333, 334 
pictum, SS^ 
piscinarium, 325 
poUutum, 328 
praevarum, 337 
recurvatum, 326 
semicirculare, 339, 340 
signatum, 328, 329 
sulcatum, 328, 329 
traviatum, 339, 340 
vesperum, 330, 331 
weewa, 333 

ensigera, 186, 187 

Epiaeschna, 133 
heros, 134 

Epicordulia, 31, 175, 176 
princeps, 176, 177 
regina, 177 

epimeron, 13 

episternum, 13 

eponina, 2fi, 43, 209 

Eponina skimmer, 26 

eremita, 136, 146 

Erpetogomphus, 78 
compositus, 80 
designatus, 80 
diadophis, 79, 80 
lampropeltis, 79, 80 

erratica, 354 

erroneus, 155 

Erythemis, 246 

Erythrodiplax, 214 
berenice, 215 
funerea, 215 
minuscula, 215 
umbrata, 215 

eurina, 243 

eurinus, 275, 276 

exclamationis, 341, 342 

exilis, 107, 108 

extriata, 348 

exsulans, 332, 333, 334 

externus, 90, 91 

exusta, 218, 226 

exuvia, 39 

fallax, 215 
fantum, 297 
fasciata, 209, 211 
fasciatus, 158 
ferruginea, 201, 21& 



femur, 14 

filosa, 188, 189 

fischeri, 334 

flapper, 305 

flavescens, 252, 303 

flavicans, 215 

flavicostum, 234 

flavida, 220, 224 

flavidensis, 170 

fletcheri, 200 

Fleur-de-lis, 3 

flight levels, 21 

floridensis, 170 

food of man, 22 

Forbes, W. T. M., 151, 248 

forcipata, 192 

forcipatus, 277, 278 

forensis, 220, 226 

forficula, 279, 280 

fork-tails, 342 

franklini, 189, 195 

fraternus, 90, 91 

frigida, 243 

frogs, 23 

frons, 12, 13 

fugax, 249 

fumipennis, 285, 294, 295 

funerea, 215 

furcatum, 234, 235 

furcifer, 115, 116, 141 

furcillata, 125 

Garman, P., 6, 293 
gemina, 349 
geminatum, 326 
genital apparatus, 18 
genitalia, 18 
georgiana, 186 
georgina, 169 
giant green darner, 130 
gill chamber, 33 
gills, 33 
gilvum, 234 
glacilais, 43, 243 
globe skimmer, 252 
golden wings, 222 
Gomphaeschna, 125 
furcillata, 125 

GOMPHINAE, 58 

Gomphoides, 58, 63 

stigmata, 63, 64 
Gomphurus, 85 
Gomphus, 17, 81, 102 

abbreviatus, 88, 89 

abditus, 110 

adelphus, 94 

alleni, 89 

amnicola, 81, 93, 95 

australis, 108, 109 

borealis, 62, 109, 110 

brevis, 81, 82, 88 

brimleyi, 105, 106 



INDEX 



373 



cavillaris, 13, 105 

confraternus, 92, 93 

consanguis, 94 

cornutus, 115 

crassus, ^/, 92 

descriptus, 43, 109 

dilatatus, 96, 97 

donneri, 93, 94 

exilis, 107, 108 

externus, 90, 91 

fraternus, 90, 91 

furcifer, 115. 116 

graslinellus, 12, 35, 69, 106, 107 

hybridus, 90, 91 

intricatus, 29, 99 

lentulus, 113 

lineatifrons, 96, 98 

lividus, 10 J^ 

militaris, 10J^ 

minutus, 107 

notatus, 38, 99, 100 

olivaceous, 99, 100 

pallidus, 113, 114 

parvidens, 88, 89 

plagiatus, 81, 100, 101 

quadricolor, 110, 111 

scudderi, 81, 93, 95 

spicatus, 108 

spiniceps, 100, 101 

subapicaUs, 113, 114 

submedianus, 113 

vastus, 95, 96 

ventricosus, 96, 97 

villosipes, 81, 116 

viridifrons, 88, 89 

whedoni, 115 

willJamsoni, 107 
gracilis, 307, 308 
Graf, J. L., 56, 128 
grafiana, 128 
grandis, 269 

graslinellus, 12, 35, 69, 106, 107 
gravida, 230 
gray-back, eastern, 55 
gray back, western, 54 
green darner, 7, 128 
green jacket, 36, 246 
Grinslade, H. D., 23 
groupings, 53 
Gyncantha, 149 

bifida, 151 

nervosa, 150 

trifida, 150 

Haber, V. R., 23 

Hagen, H. A., 5 

hageni, 54, 55, 322, 323, 326 

Hagenius, 65 

brevistylus, 36, 37, 38, 43, 66 
hamata, 278 
hamatus, 277 
hamules, 18, 19 



hastatum, 357 
hawking, 22 
head, 11 

Hearn, Lafcadio, 4 
Helocordulia, 181 

selysi, 178 182, 183 

uhleri, 182 
heros, 134 
Herrick, G. W., 119 
Hesperagnon, 303 

heterodoxum, 303 
Hetaerina, 262 

americana, 118, 262, 264 

sempronia, 263 

titia, 265 

tricolor, 265 

vulnerata, 262, 263 
heterochromatic, 344 
hetrodoxum, 303 
Heyse, Paul, 4 
hinei, 295 
holosericea, 261 
homeochromatic, 344 
Howard, L. O., 3, 359 
Howe, H. H., 6, 200, 273 
howei, 76 

hudsonica, 146, 190, 241 
hudsonicum, 260 
humeral stripe, 69 
humeral suture, 13 
hybridus, 90, 91 
Hyponeura, 284 

lugens, 284 
hymenea, 252 

illinoiensis, 166 
illotum, 233 
immunda, 295, 296 
inaequalis, 275, 276 
incesta, 220, 227 
incurvata, 19^, 195 
iners, 350 
ingens, 23, 131 
insect net, 29 
instars, 36, 37, 38 
intacta, 242 
integricoUis, 308 
interna, 145 
interrogatum, 310 
interrupta, 134, 145, US 
intricatus, 29, 99 
intruda, 296 
irene, 308 
Ischnura, 313, 342 

barberi, 351, 352 

cervula, 355, 357 

credula, 353 

damula, 356, 357 

demorsa, 351, 352 

denticoUis, 348, 3^9 

erratica, 354 

gemina, 349 



374 



DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



kellicotti, S51 
perparva, 353, 354 
posita, 350, 351 
prognatha, 349 
ramburii, 349, 350 
utahensis, 353, 354 
verticalis, 322, 354, 355 

Janata, 126 

jesseana, 223 

Johnny white face, 242 

Julia, 218 

juncea. 136, 147, 148 

Junius, 7, 129 

Kellicott, D. S., 264 

kellicotti, 351 

Kellogg, V. L., 14, 359 

Kennedy, C. H., 6, 27, 28, 29, 36, 37, 
38, 62, 67, 74, 76, 77, 92, 94, 122, 
141, 143, 145, 156, 168, 183, 227, 
239, 242, 250, 261, 269, 275, 348, 
356 

kennedyi, 196 

Kirby, W. F., 46 

krugii, 314 

labium, 8, 11, IS, 32, 35 
labrum, 11, 12, 13, 45 
lacerata, 263, 254 
Ladona, 217 

deplanata, 217 

exusta, 218 

juUa, 218 
Lamb, Laura, 36 
Lamborn, R. H., 22 
lampropeltis, 79, 80 
Lanthus, 68, 119 

albistylus, 120 

parvulus, 120 
lateral lobes, 32 
laterale, 327 
lateralis, 158 
lateral setae, 37 
lateral stripes, 69 
laurenti, 327, 328 
leda, 228 
leg basket, 14 
lentulus, 113 
lepida, 199 
Lepthemis, 248 

vesiculosa, 248 
Lestes, 170 

alacer, 279 

congener, 275, 276 

disjunctus, 278 

eurina, 243 

eurinus, 275, 276 

forcipatus, 277, 278 

forficula, 279, 280 

inaequalis, 275, 276 

rectangularis, 278 



sigma, 276, 277 

stultus, 278, 279 

uncatus, 278 

unguiculatus, 276 

vidua, 277, 278 

vigilax, 279 
Lestinae, 268 
Leucorrhinia, 240, 117 

borealis, 244 

frigida, 243 

glacialis, 43, 243 

hudsonica, 241 

intacta, 242 

proxima, 244 
Libellula, 219 

auripennis, 222 

axillena, 220, 228 

Comanche, 220, 223 

composita, 227 

croceipennis, 222 

cyanea, 220, 223 

flavida, 220, 224 

forensis, 220, 226 

incesta, 220, 227 

jesseana, 223 

luctuosa, 220, 221 

nodisticta, 220, 226 

pulchella, 24, 160. 212, 
226, 229 

quadrimaculata, 220, 226 

saturata, 222 

semifasciata, 220, 224 

vibrans, 220, 228 

LiBELLULIDAB, 161 
LiBELLULINAE, 201 

libera, 198, 199 
linearis, 186, 189 
lineata, 145 
lineatifrons, 96, 98 
lintneri, 200 
lividus, 104 
Local lists, 5 
longipennis, 23, 25, 245 
longipes, 129 
Longschamps, de Selys, 5 
Lowell, Amy, 4 
Lucas, W. J., 359 
luctuosa, 220, 221 
lugens, 284 
lustria, 215 

lydia, 43, 159, 162, 229 
Lyon, Mary, 23 

Macrodiplax, 252 

balteata, 252 
Macromia, 164 

alleghaniensis, 167 

annulata, 168 

australensis, 169 

georgina, 169 

illinoiensis, 166 

magnifica, 168 



224, 



INDEX 



375 



pacifica, 164, 168 

taeniolata, 167 

wabashensis, 167 
Mackomiinae, 163 
macrostigma, 216 
maculata, 226, 224 
maculatum, 97, 259, 260, 261, 262 
maculatus, 159 
madidum, 234, 235 
magnifica, 168 
mainensis, 78 
mandibles, 11, ^ 5, 33 
mask, see labium 
martha, 209, 212 
materna, 261 
maxilla, 11, 13, 33 
may-fly nymphs, 9 
media, 15 

median planate, 201 
median sector, 15 
mendax, 250 
mentum, 32 
mental setae, 37 
mesinfraepisternum, 13 
mesostigmal plates, 20 
Mesothemis, 246 

plebeja, 247 

simplicicoUis, 35 246 
metella, 246 
methods, 30 
militaris, 10 J^ 
minor, 191 
minutum, 302, 303 
minutus, 107 
minuscula, 215 
minusculum. 325 
moesta, 289, 297 
monomelaena, 209, 211 
montanus, 74, 75 
Montgomery, D. E., 276 
mooma, 206 
morrisom, 75, 76 
mosquito hawk, 4 
moults, 35 

multicolor, 24, 135, I41 
munda, 301 
mutata, 141, 142 

Muttkowski, R. A., 146, 218, 225, 226, 
227, 228, 242, 277 

naeva, 215 
naevius, 120 
nahuana, 291 
names, 4 
Nannothemis, 204 

bella, 161, 204 
nasahs, 193 
Nasiaeschna, 132 

petacantha, 132 
needhami, 150 
Neogomphoides, 64 
Nehalennia, 280, 306 



gracilis, 307, 808 

integricollis, 505 

irene, 308 

pallidula, 307, 308 
Neonura, 280, 283 

aaroni, 283 
nervosa, 150 
NeurocorduUa, 173 

obsoleta, 174 

virginiensis, 174, 175 

yamaskanensis, 174, 175 
nevadensis, 99, 145 
Nevin, F. R., 239 
nodisticta, 220, 226 
nodus, 15, 16 
notatus, 38, 99, 100 
novae-hispanie, 341 
numerals, 47 

Oblique vein, 16, 17, 201 
obliquus, 15S 
obscura, 42, 63, 295 
obsoleta, 174 
obtrusum, 236 
occidentalis, 142 
occidentis, 71, 72 
occiput, 12, 13 
ocellata, 147 
ocelli, 12 
Octogomphus, 58, 78, 121 

specularis, 121, 122 
odiosa, 221 
olivaceous, 99, 100 
onusta, 26, 253, 254 
opaca, 261 
Ophiogomphus, 58, 60, 67 

anomalus, 70 

arizonicus, 73, 74 

aspersus, 71, 7^ 

bison, 77, 78 

carolinus, 72, 73 

carolus, 40, 76, 77 

colubrinus, 70 

howei, 76 

mainensis, 78 

montanus, 74, 75 

morrisoni, 75, 76 

occidentis, 71, 72, 78 

phaleratus, 70, 71 

rupinsulensis, 73 

severus, 74 
Oplonaeschna, 130 

armata, 130 
ornata, 209, 212 
Orthemis, 216 

ferruginea, 201, 216 
oviposition, 25. 27 
ovipositor, 20 
Oxyagrion, 280 

Pachydiplax, 244 

longipennis, 23, 25, 245 



376 



DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



pacifica, 164, 168 
pallens, 300, 301 
pallidula, 307, 308 
pallidum, SS3, 334 
pallidus, 113, 114 
pallipes, 235, 236 
palmata, 114 
Paltothemis, 250 

lineatipes, 251 
Pantala, 251 

flavescens, 252 

hymenea, 252 
papilionacea, 261 
parasites, 28 
parvidens, 88, 89 
parvulus, 120 
patella, 201 
penis, 18 
penis sheath, 20 
pentacantha, 132 
Perithemis, 43, 205 

domitia, 205 
perparva, 353, 354 

PETALURINAE, 53 

phaleratus, 70, 71 
picta, 147 
pictum, 331 
pilipes, 114 
pillow cage, 40 
piscinarium, 325 
plagiatus, 81, 100, 101 
plana, 301 
Plathemis, 228 

lydia, 43, 159, 162, 229 

subornata, 230 
PlatycorduUa, 172 

xanthosoma, 173 
plebeja, 247 
plumbea, 224 
pollutum, 328, 330 
polysticta, 174 
posita, 350, 351 
post anal cells, 58 
post nodal cross veins, 201 
posture, 11 
powers of flight, 21 
praenubila, 226 
praevarum, 357 
princeps, 176, 177 
principal veins, 14, 16 
priority, 46 
producta, 64, 65 
prognatha, 349 
Progomphus, 58, 60, 62 

obscura, 62, 63 
propinqua, 145, 147, 149 
protective coloration, 8 
prothorax, 12 
protracta, 65 
provocans, 188, 189 
proxima, 244 
pruinose, 10 



Pseudoleon, 213 
superbus, 213 
pulchella, 24, 160, 212, 220, 224, 225, 229 
putrida, 118, 289, 297 

quadrangle, 18 
quadricolor, 110, 111 
quadrifida, 125 
quadriguttata, 127 
quadrimaculata, 220, 226 
quadripunctata, 226 
quadrupla, 223 

radial planate, 201 
radial sector, 15, 17 
radius, 15 

raggedy skimmers, 253 
ramburii, 349, 350 
rearing cages, 41 
rectangularis, 278 
recurvatum, 326 
regina, 177 
resolutum, 310, 311 
reverse vein, 201 
ring tails, 183 
Ris, Fr., 254 
rita, 297, 298 
robustum, 324 
Root, F. M., 358 
rubicundulum, 231, 236 
ruby spot, 262, 264 
rupinsulensis, 73 
ruralis, 215 
rustica, 147 

sahlbergi, 195 

salva, 304, 305 

saturata, 222 

saucium, 304 

Say, Thomas, 5 

sayi, 15, 155 

Schaupp, F. G., 64, 206, 223, 247, 249 

scoticum, 240 

scudderi, 81, 93, 95 

sedula, 289, 292, 297, 298 

Seemann, Mrs. M. R., 6 

Selys, E. de, 5 

selysi, 178, 182, 183 

semicinctum, 237, 238 

semicirculare, 339, 340 

semicircularis, 193 

semifasciata, 220, 224 

Seminole, 206 

sempronia, 263 

senegalense, 350 

septentrionaUs, 139, 196, 197 

seqoiarum, 77 

servillei, 170 

severus, 74 

shurtleflEi, 43, 197 

sieve net, 40 

sigma, 276, 277 



INDEX 



377 



signatum, 328, 329 

simile, 314 

simplicicollis, 246 

sitchensis, 136, 139 

skewness of thorax, 12 

skimmers, 161, 219 

smithii, 234 

smoky winged Argia, 295 

snake feeders, 4 

solita, 297, 299 

Somatochlora, 183 
albicincta, 189 
cingulata, 190 
elongata, 192, 193 
ensigera, 186, 187 
filosa, 188, 189 
forcipata, 192 
franklini, 189, 195 
georgiana, 186 
hudsonica, 190 
incurvata, 194, 195 
kennedyi, 196 
linearis, 186, 189 
minor, 191 
provocans, 188, 189 
sahlbergi, 195 
semicircularis, 193 
septentrionalis, 196, 197 
tenebrosa, 187, 188 
walshi, 191, 192 
whitehousi, 195, 196 
williamsoni, 193, 194 

sordidus, 104 

specularis, 121, 122 

spicatus, 108 

spiders, 24 

spiniceps, 100, 101 

spiniferus, 129 

spinigera, 180, 181 

spinosa, 181 

spinosus, 118 

spiracle, 13, 69 

spoliatus 117. 118 

sprawlers, 31 

Springer, Frank, 45 

stealth, 9 

Stella, 181 

stigma, 16 

stigmata, 63, 64 

stomach, 33 

storms, 24 

stultus, 278, 279 

stylurus, 98 

subapicalis, 113, 114 

subarctica, 1^7, 148 

suVjcosta, 15 

subfasciata, 215 

submedianus, 113 

subnodus, 15, 16 

subornata, 230 

subquadrangle, 18 

subtriangle, 58 



sulcatum, 328, 329 
superbus, 213 
supratriangle, 58 
Sympetrum, 117, 202, 231 

ambiguum, 235 

assimilatum, 236, 237 

atripes, 2^0 

corruptum, 232, 233 

costiferum, 239, 2^0 

danae, 239, 2W 

furcatum, 234, 235 

illotum, 233 

madidum, 234, 235 

obtrusum, 236 

pallipes, 235, 236 

rubicundulum, 231, 236 

semicinctum, 237, 238 

vicinum, 238 
synthorax, 12 
syriaca, 261 



Tachopteryx, 54 
thoreyi, 55 

taeniolata, 167 

Tanypteryx, 54 
hageni, 54. 55 

tarsus, 14 

Telagrion, 309, 334 

Teleallagma, 309 
daeckii, 310 

Telebasis, 305 
salva, 304, 305 

tenebrosa, 187, 188 

tenera, 206 

teneral, 10 

Ten spot, 224 

tenuicincta, 206 

ternaria, 224, 226 

Tetragoneuria, 178 
canis, 180, 181 
cynosura, 178, 180 
spinigera, 180, 181 
spinosa, ISl 
Stella, 181 

thoracic carina, 12 

Thoreau, H. D., 22 

thoreyi, 55 

tibia, 14 

tibialis, 297, 299 

Tillyard, R. .)., 359 

time keeper, 146 

titia, 265 

tonto, 299, 300 

trachea, 17 

tracheal gills, 33 

Tramea, 25, 253 

abdominaUs, 253 255 
carohna, 253, 255 
lacerata, 253, 254 
onusta, 26, 253, 254 
Virginia, 254 



378 



DRAGONFLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



transformation, 9, 10 
translata, 300 
transversa, 170 
trap, 42 

traviatum, 339, 340 
triangle, 58, 16, 17 
tricolor, 265 
tnfida, 150 
trigonal planate, 58 
tripartita, 215 
trimaculata 229 
trochanter, 14 
tuberculatum, 350 
tuberculifera, 148 
tyleri, 215 

uhleri, 182 
umbrata, 215 
umbratus, 164 
umbrosa, 134, 142, lU 
uncatus, 278 
unguiculatus, 276 
unifasciata, 215 
utahensis, 353, 354 

vastus, 95, 96 

velox, 249 

venation, 14 

venerionotatum, 357 

ventricosus, 96, 97 

versicolor, 224 

vprtpx 1 ^ 

verticalis. I48, 149, 322, 354, 355 

vesicle, 19 

vesiculosa, 248 

vesperum, 330, 331 

vibrans, 220, 228 

vicinum, 238 

vidua, 277, 278 

vigilax, 279 

villosipes, 81, 116 

vinosa, 30, 127 

violacea, 27, 289, 300, 301 

Virginia, 254 

virginiana, 260 

virginica, 261 



virginiensis, 174, 175 
virens, 132 
viridifrons, 88, 89 
vivida, 289, 301 
vulnerata, 262, 263 

wabashensis, 167 

wags, 178 

Walker, E. M., 6, 88, 140, 141, 147, 

148, 149, 166, 178, 184, 187, 189, 

190, 191, 192, 194, 196, 197, 261, 
walkeri, 143, 144 
Walsh, B. D., 5 
walshi, 191,1^2 
walsinghami, 130 
weewa, 333 
Weith, R. G., 205 
Wells, Carveth, 22 
Whedon, A. D., 90, 115, 145, 178, 210, 

229, 233, 238, 242, 247, 261, 276, 

308 
whedoni, 115 
white face skimmers, 240 
Whitehouse, F. C, 74, 140, 226, 311 
whitehousi, 195, 196 
white tail, 228 
widow, 221 
Williamson, E. B. 6, 30, 55, 56, 66, 92, 

118, 141, 142, 150, 159, 166, 168. 

178, 211, 245, 247, 283, 325 
williamsoni 107, 193, 194 
Williamsonia, 119 
fietcheri, 200 
lintneri, 200 
Wilson, C. B., 101, 114, 117, 178, 187, 

218, 225, 226 242, 247 
wing bases, 69 

xanthosoma, 173 

yakima, 260 
yamaskanensis, 175 
yamaskarensis (in error), 174 

Zoniagrion, 342 

exclamationis, 341, 342 
Zygoptera, 257 



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